L-R: Erigeron divergens (Spreading fleabane), Hulsea vestita ssp. parryi (Parry's hulsea), Calochortus striatus (Alkali mariposa lily), Sidalcea malviflora ssp. sparsifolia (Few-leaved checkerbloom), Cneoridium dumosum (Bushrue).

  
    BA-BI


       In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear.

  • babylon'ica: Babylonian, or having something to do with Babylon. Apparently, Linnaeus thought the weeping willow (S. babylonica) came from south-west Asia, rather than the Far East, where it is native to. The 'willows' of the waters of Babylon are now considered to have been Populus euphratica (ref. Salix babylonica)
  • bacca'ta: having pulpy, berry-like fruits, from the Latin bacca for a small, round fruit such as a berry (ref. Yucca baccata)
  • Bac'charis: the etymology here is very uncertain, possibly after Bacchus, Greek god of fertility, wine, revelry and sacred drama. This was an ancient name used by Dioscorides. In Latin, bacca is a fruit or berry, which is probably where the name Bacchus came from. Umberto Quattrocchi says “Greek bakkaris, bakkaridos 'unguent made from asaron'; bakcharis, an ancient Greek name used by Dioscorides for sowbread." Asaron at least in modern terms is "a crystalline phenolic ether C 12H 16O 3 found in the oils of a number of plants esp. of the genus Asarum," and in early times asaron was the Greek and/or Latin name of wild ginger (genus Asarum). Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus did not explain the derivation of this name which was published in his Species Plantarum in 1753 so it must remain for the time being unclear. (ref. genus Baccharis)
  • baccif'era: bearing or producing berries
  • bacigalu'pi: named after Rimo Charles Bacigalupi (1901-1996), a California botanist who in 1950 became the first curator of the Jepson Herbarium at the University of California, Berkeley, retiring in 1968. Before that he had worked for the California Forest Range and Experiment Station collecting seeds throughout California for experimental plantings. He was considered an expert on the family Scrophulariaceae. The following is from a Memoriam essay by Lincoln Constance and Paul Silva at the University of California: "Rimo was born in San Francisco on March 24, 1901, the first of three sons of Gisella and Prospero Bacigalupi, who were of Genovese origin. At Lowell High School, he showed a keen interest in natural history, collecting and identifying plants from different sites close to home. Among the teachers who encouraged this interest was Howard McMinn, who shortly thereafter became professor of botany at Mills College. Rimo entered Stanford University with the intention of becoming a lawyer, but took general botany as a freshman and soon changed his major from English to botany, receiving the A.B. degree in 1923. He remained at Stanford, where he studied Garrya (silk tassel bush) under the supervision of Professor Le Roy Abrams and was awarded the A.M. degree in 1925. He then taught botany and Italian at Mills College before continuing his academic training at Harvard, where he did his doctoral research under the tutelage of Professor B. L. Robinson. His thesis was a monograph on the North American species of Perezia, a genus of asters. Simultaneously, he produced a major contribution to our knowledge of Cuphea, a genus in the loosestrife family. The Ph.D. degree was awarded in 1931. Facing a jobless market during the Great Depression, Bacigalupi returned to Stanford, where he lived with Professor Gordon Ferris, an eminent entomologist, and Roxana Stinchfield Ferris, who had a prodigious knowledge of the California flora and assisted Abrams in producing his Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. During this two-year period, Bacigalupi prepared the treatment of the saxifrage family. In 1933 Bacigalupi was employed as botanist for the California Forest Experimental Station, U.S. Forest Service, a position which he held until 1938. His duties included the collection of seeds for use in erosion control and for the development of the Tilden Park Botanical Garden. In 1939 he obtained a teaching credential at Berkeley, enabling him to act as a substitute teacher in San Francisco schools. Following a five-year stint with the U.S. Army during World War II, he returned to Stanford as an instructor in biology. When Willis Linn Jepson, a distinguished Berkeley professor, died in 1946, he bequeathed his estate to the University of California for the purpose of establishing a self-contained and self-perpetuating instrument for continuing his studies of the California flora. In fulfillment of this bequest, the Jepson Herbarium and Library was established and a search was made for a curator. Bacigalupi quickly came to mind as an excellent prospect and he was appointed curator in 1950. He retired in 1968, being succeeded by the late Lawrence R. Heckard (In Memoriam 1992), but continued his botanical studies until suffering a stroke in 1983. In many ways Bacigalupi was uniquely suited for the Jepson position. His knowledge of the California flora was impressive while he had developed a valuable network of botanical friends through his work with the Forest Experiment Station and various teaching and research assignments involving Stanford, Berkeley, and Mills College. Equally important were his maturit, tact, sensitivity, warmth, and complete lack of personal aggressiveness. He had several enduring collateral interests that he developed to a remarkable degree, including graphic and ceramic arts, linguistics, opera, railroads, and philately. He had nearly a complete set of Victor Red Seal records, which, together with his Victrola, he gave to the Department of Music at Berkeley. Bacigalupi was the twentieth century counterpart of the uomo universale of the Renaissance. He was truly a walking encyclopedia, able to converse intelligently on a vast array of topics and in several languages. His astounding knowledge of operatic scores had to be tested to be believed. He approached all aspects of his life as a gentleman, with grace and consideration for others. Under Bacigalupi's direction, the Jepson Herbarium and Library gradually but firmly took shape. Although officially designated a research unit, its staff became heavily involved in public service, thus laying the groundwork for extramural support now embodied in the organization, Friends of the Jepson Herbarium. Although he did not have a formal teaching schedule, Bacigalupi was an immensely influential teacher of graduate students, who felt welcome to seek his advice and draw on his vast field experience, which had included negotiating nearly every negotiable road in California. He was a staunch conservationist and was a member of the Sierra Club for 71 years. Bacigalupi bequeathed half of his estate to the Jepson Herbarium and Library to further the study of his beloved California flora. His surviving family, all in the San Francisco area, include sisters-in-law Mary and Matilde Bacigalupi, nephews George and Larry Bacigalupi, and nieces Marilyn Adkins and Janice Underwood. All who knew him are the poorer for the loss of his civilizing influence." (ref. Deinandra bacigalupii, Downingia bacigalupii, Perideridia bacigalupii)
  • Baco'pa: from an Indian aboriginal name in French Guiana, referred to by Jean Baptiste Christophore Fuséé Aublet in his 1775 Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Francoise (ref. genus Bacopa)
  • bae'ticus: after the Baetis River in Spain (ref. Carthamus baeticus)
  • Ba'hia: after Juan Francisco de Bahí y Fonseca (1775-1841), Barcelona botany professor and physician, author of the Formulae medicae (ref. genus Bahia)
  • bahiifo'lia: with leaves like genus Bahia
  • bahiifor'me: having the form of or a resemblance to genus Bahia (ref. Eriogonum umbellatum var. bahiiforme)
  • Bai'leya: after Jacob Whitman Bailey (1811-1857), early American microscopist and pioneer of this means of investigation.  He graduated from West Point Military Academy and from 1834 until his death he taught and eventually became full professor of chemistry, minerology and geology at that institute.  He made numerous improvements in the design of the microscope and amassed large collections of slides of microscopic objects.  He was elected President of the American Association of the Advancement of Science in 1856 and was the author of more than 50 scientific papers.  One of his sons became a chemist and geologist, and another, William Whitman, became a botanist (see Baileya above) (ref. genus Baileya)
  • baileya'na: after Frederick Manson Bailey (1827-1915), an Australian botanist and horticulturalist. "Born Hackney, London, 8 March 1827.  Died Brisbane, 25 June 1915. Arrived Adelaide 1839. Partner with his father and brother in a nursery at Hackney, near Adelaide; short visit to the Bendigo goldfields; land holder, Hutt valley, New Zealand 1858-61, seed store owner and collector of plants to send to overseas institutions, Brisbane 1861-75; botanist on Queensland Government board to inquire into the causes of diseases affecting livestock and plants 1875-79, acting curator, Queensland museum 1880-82; colonial botanist, 1881-1915.  Clarke Medal, Royal Society of New South Wales 1902. President, Royal Society of Queensland 1890, president, biology section, Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science 1911.  His name was given to more than 50 species of plants." (From Bright Sparcs) He was the author of Handbook to the Ferns of Queensland, published in 1874, Illustrated Monograph of the Grasses of Queensland (1878), and the 7-volume The Queensland Flora (1899–1902, 1905), still the only state-wide flora ever produced (ref. Acacia baileyana)
  • bai'leyi: after William Whitman Bailey (1845-1914), son of Jacob Whitman Bailey, who graduated from Brown University and then studied at Harvard under Professor Asa Gray, becoming botanist to the United States geological survey of the 40th parallel, and later Professor of botany at Brown (ref. Eriogonum baileyi)
  • ba'keri: after Milo Samuel Baker (1868-1961), "a botanist who listed thousands of North Coast plants, among them the endangered wildflower Blennosperma bakeri, which has had a major impact on the development of Sonoma County's seasonal wetlands.  He is revered by those who love the wildflowers carpeting the Sonoma County landscape in spring.  During decades of ground-combing research, he carefully collected and identified some 15,000 specimens that now are mounted at Sonoma State University.  A Santa Rosa Junior College teacher, he cataloged the flora of Sonoma County and was one of the most respected botanists in the state.  But he may be remembered chiefly as the man who identified a small yellow flower with the might to stop bull-dozers.  The little Sonoma Sunshine, partial to the hog wallows of spring, is one of three native Sonoma wildflowers listed as rare and endangered.  The fragile flower has altered the course of development in the 55,000-acre Santa Rosa plain stretching from Cotati to Windsor.  In the 1980s and 1990s, the words Blennosperma bakeri were almost blasphemy to developers and farmers who discovered the daisy-like flower on their land, and ran up against stiff state and federal laws aimed at protecting them and the dwindling number of vernal pools where they thrived.  Milo Baker died a quarter-century before the flower that bore his name -- like the spotted owl in North Coast forests -- became the axis in a battle between environmentalists and developers.  Endangered species weren't discussed in his lifetime.  Yet, he fought his own uphill battles at the junior college to gain support for his growing herbarium and a life's work seen as esoteric.  After he died, a science wing was named for Baker, but it wasn't big enough to house his collection, which eventually went to Sonoma State.  ''He was pretty much alone, caring for those wildflowers,'' former student and longtime assistant Vanette Bunyan once lamented.  ''He had a show every year, and more people came from out of town than from in town.''  With a digging tool, a field press and newspaper, he embarked on weekend botanical treks to list North Coast plants.  It was a massive project, he said, ''undertaken for the sheer pleasure of finding out what seed plants grow in this vast and varied region.''  Although in death he would be most closely associated with Baker's Blennosperma, violets were his first love.  The wildflower garden at his Kenwood ranch flourished with violets grown from seeds sent by correspondents all over the world.  Baker, an Iowa native, came to California as a child.  It was on a 100-mile walk to his first teaching job in Modoc County that he began to collect his first specimens.  Much of the flora of eastern Shasta, Modoc and Lassen counties was made known through his work, including the Modoc Cypress, named Cupressus bakeri in his honor.  He moved to Sonoma County in 1901, beginning a 20-year period he called ''my Rip Van Winkle sleep.  '' During that time, he developed his wildflower garden, earned a master's degree from Stanford, and was a trustee of the new Santa Rosa Junior College until he was recruited for the faculty.  Still, he never let up on his field studies, leading students on scouting trips in his black Model-A Ford for several weeks every April, then sending them out the day before his annual wildflower show to gather specimens he then spent all night meticulously identifying.  It was a single-minded pursuit that blurred the lines between work and leisure.  That didn't matter to Baker. After retiring in 1945 he remained curator of the North Coast Herbarium, served as president of the California Botanic Society and occasionally taught.  His scientific ambitions exceeded his declining physical abilities, a fact he defied.  He taught his last class in field botany at 90.  Weeks before his death, he was planning a trip to the Trinity Alps and still hoping to collect violets on Alaska's Mount Whitney.  Curious to the end, he urged an assistant just before he died,  ''Come again, and tell me all of your secrets.''  Baker was enamored of the mysteries of the natural plant world in the way his contemporary Luther Burbank was beguiled by how man could improve on nature.  His was an irrepressible drive to understand the intricate life under his feet.  He once wrote in one of his plant lists that "the names may change from time to time but the plants remain unchanged and unmindful of attempts to classify them.''  Baker did not foresee the development that would one day threaten those fields of wildflowers. But his meticulous documentation was a key step in saving them so many years later." [This entry was quoted from a website entitled 50 Who Shaped Our Century put online by the Santa Rosa, California, Press Democrat] (ref. Arctostaphylos bakeri, Blennosperma bakeri, Callitropsis [formerly Cupressus] bakeri, Delphinium bakeri)
  • baldschuan'ica: of or from Baljuan, Turkistan, Central Asia (ref. Fallopia [formerly Polygonum] baldschuanica)
  • balfouria'na: after John Hutton Balfour (1808-1884), who attended the University of Edinburgh where he obtained his medical doctorate in 1831 and that year became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, a fellow in 1833. He subsequently commenced medical practice, but in 1840 began giving lectures in botany and in 1841 was appointed professor of botany at the University of Glasgow. In 1845 he moved to the same tenure at Edinburgh, also becoming head of the Royal Botanical Garden and Queen’s botanist for Scotland. For 30 years John Hutton Balfour was dean of the medical faculty in Edinburgh, where he first introduced teaching in microscopy. He retired from his tenure in 1879, receiving the honorary L.L.D. from the three universities to which he had been affiliated. Balfour’s numerous publications during the years 1862 to 1875 exclusively concern botany. Medical works include the paper describing the disease named after him, which was a disturbance characterized by multiple tumorous masses formed by the bony infiltrates in myelogenous leukemia and which may be present in any portion of the skeleton, but is found most frequently in the skull. His son, Isaac Bayley Balfour (1853-1922) also studied botany and went on to transform the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh into one of the world's great gardens (ref. Pinus balfouriana)
  • bal'fourii/balfour'ii: after Isaac Bailey Balfour (1853-1922), son of John Hutton Balfour, see above entry (ref. Impatiens balfourii)
  • balsam'ea: aromatic
  • balsamif'era: yielding a fragrant gum or resin
  • Balsamorhi'za: from the Greek balsamos, "balsam," and rhiza, "root," alluding to the plants having roots with a balsamic or resinous smell or exudation (ref. genus Balsamorhiza)
  • bal'ticus: of the area of the Baltic Sea (ref. Juncus balticus)
  • bambuso'ides: resembling genus Bambusa, the bamboo (ref. Phyllostachys bambusoides)
  • bara'tum: I had originally thought that the many listings of Eriogonum barbatum as a synonym for this taxon was a clue that what is referred to is the quality of being bearded. Also the original description of the taxon contains mention of ciliate bristles among the pedicels which would seem to qualify as 'bearded.' However, I received the following from Dr. Jim Reveal: "There is no "Eriogonum barbatum." Elmer proposed 'E. baratum' in Botanical Gazette (39: 52. 1905) and distributed specimens with this name. The name was seemingly taking from the Greek baris, "a small boat," and the Latin -atus, having the nature of, but I am uncertain of this. It would be unusual for Elmer to mix Greek and Latin. This word ('baratum') is unique to this one entity in systematic botany." (ref. Eriogonum deflexum var. baratum)
  • bar'barae: since the common name of this species is Santa Barbara jewelflower, I infer that this epithet relates to Santa Barbara, California (ref. Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae)
  • Barbar'ea: named after St. Barbara and once generally known as her herb, or the Herba Sanctae Barbarae. According to legend, St. Barbara was beheaded by her own father, a wealthy heathen named Dioscorus, for expressing a belief in Christ (ref. genus Barbarea)
  • bar'barum/barbar'um: foreign (ref. Lycium barbarum)
  • barba'ta/barba'tus: from the Latin barba, "beard," barbed, bearded, furnished with long, weak hairs (ref. Avena barbata, Schismus barbatus)
  • barbellula'tus: with very tiny short, stiff hairs or barbs (ref. Erigeron barbellulatus)
  • barbig'er/barbig'era/barbig'erum: bearded (ref. Streptanthus barbiger, Cryptantha barbigera, Trifolium barbigerum)
  • barbino'dis: with beards at the nodes or joints (ref. Bothriochloa barbinodis)
  • barnebya'na: after Rupert Charles Barneby (1911-2000), who was born in England and educated at Cambridge University, then came to the United States first in 1937. Dr. Barneby began his long association with the New York Botanical Garden as a visiting scholar in the 1950's and then was appointed Honorary Curator of Western Botany. He received almost every award the botanical field can give out, and the President of the NYBG described him as "one of the most productive botanists of the twentieth century, a giant in the field of botanical research." Over the course of his career, he published more than 6,500 pages of papers, monographs and journals, describing over 1,100 species new to science, being honored with 25 species being named after him and three genera! He was a self-taught botanist who became a world authority on the Fabaceae and one of America's leading taxonomists. He was exceptionally well liked and loved to mentor his students and indeed anyone who wished to learn (ref. Phacelia barnebyana)
  • bar'nebyi: see previous entry (ref. Penstemon barnebyi)
  • barrelier'i: after French botanist Jacques Barrelier (1606-1673), author of Plantae per Galliam, Hispaniam et Italiam Observatae, Iconobus Aeneis Exhibitae (Paris, 1714). His name is sometimes given as Jacobo Barreliero. Antoine d Jussieu, brother of Bernard de Jussieu, edited, his chief botanical work, a large and not unimportant treatise. Barrelier had left numerous drawings of plants and the text for a large work; the text was destroyed in a fire after Barrelier's death, but the drawings were saved. The work edited by de Jussieu contains 334 botanical plates, in folio, with 1392 figures (ref. Eragrostis barrelieri)
  • bartsiifo'lia: with leaves like genus Bartsia (ref. Collinsia bartsiifolia var. davidsonii)
  • basal'tica: of or from basaltic regions or soils. David Hollombe contributes the following: "Potentilla basaltica occurs near the head of the west arm of the Black Rock Desert, named for the dark pinnacle at the south end of the Black Rock Range known as Black Rock Point. The point owes its color to a cap of basalt rock. Our specific epithet is intended to honor this seemingly desolate area of Nevada." (ref. Potentilla basaltica)
  • basilar'is: basal, stretching from the base (ref. Opuntia basilaris)
  • Bas'sia: named for Ferdinando Bassi (1710-1774), an Italian botanist and Prefect of the Bologna Botanical Garden (ref. genus Bassia)
  • Bat'is: from the Greek for the name of some seashore plant (ref. genus Batis)
  • batracho'pus: the name of a crocodilian dinosaur, but probably from a botanical perspective related to the genus Batrachium, from the Greek batrachos, "a frog," because of the resemblance of the leaves to a frog's foot (ref. Streptanthus batrachopus)
  • Bauhin'ia: after Swiss herbalist and botanist brothers Caspar (Gaspard) (1560-1624) Bauhin and Johann (Jean) (1541-1613) Bauhin. The former was a botanist and physician, author of an index of plant names and synonyms called Pinax Theatri botanici, and professor of anatomy and botany at Basel University who distinguished between genus and species, and was the first to establish a scientific system of nomenclature, while the latter was co-author of the great work Historia Plantarum universalis, published forty years after his death (ref. genus Bauhinia)
  • beat'leyae: after Janice Carson Beatley (1919-1987), member of the Nevada Native Plant Society, botanist and ecologist who did extensive work in the Mojave Desert, and author in 1965 of Ecology of the Nevada Test Site and in 1973 of Checklist of Vascular Plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada. The following is quoted from an article by Ronald Stuckey in the May 1990 issue of Taxon, the journal of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: "Janice Carson Beatley, native Ohio botanist of the United States, will be remembered for her contributions toward the understanding of the wintergreen herbaceous flora of the deciduous forest region, the primeval forests of the unglaciated plateau in southeastern Ohio, and the ecological relationships of the vascular-plant flora of the Atomic Test Site in south-central Nevada. Throughout her professional life, Dr. Beatley was an outspoken advocate for ecological and environmental concerns while employed in seven different academic and research institutions and through active memberships in seven societies, whose mission is to save habitats and environments of natural areas. In her last academic appointment as a professor of biological sciences at the University of Cincinnati (1973-1987), Dr. Beatley taught courses in plant ecology and field botany and continued her research on the flora of the Nevada Test Site. In that capacity she fulfilled a long dream of returning to Ohio and teaching in the same department where Dr. E. Lucy Braun, the eminent plant ecologist, taught for 34 years and maintained her lifetime affiliation. Miss Beatley was educated in the Columbus public school system, graduating from North High School (1935). All other college degrees were from The Ohio State University: B.A. (cum laude, 1940) with a major in zoology; M.S. (1948) and Ph.D. (1953), both in botany with research in plant ecology. While a graduate student, she assisted in the general botany program and held appointments as an assistant, assistant instructor, and instructor, in addition to a pre-doctoral university scholarship (1953), a postdoctoral Mary S. Muelhaupt Scholarship (1957-1958), and instructorships in general botany (1955-1956). Other professional positions included science teacher, McArthur High School in Ohio (1943-1945), instructor in botany, University of Tennessee (spring-summer 1952; summers 1953-1955) and later acting assistant professor (summers 1957, 1959-1960); assistant professor, East Carolina College, Greenville (1954-1955); acting assistant professor, North Carolina State University, Raleigh (1956-1957); research associate, New Mexico Highlands University (1959); assistant (1960-1967) and associate (1967-1973) research ecologist, Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, and the Nevada Test Site at Mercury, Nevada; associate professor (1973-1977) and professor (1977-1987) of biological sciences, University of Cincinnati; and research associate in the Herbarium of The Ohio State University (1983-1987). Janice Beatley's research efforts were ambitious, being stimulated and directed by Professor John N. Wolfe, under whom she complete both degrees. Her master's thesis "The Wintergreen Herbaceous Angiosperms of Ohio" (1948) was published in the Ohio Journal of Science (56: 349-377, 1956), and her doctoral dissertation, "The Primary Forests of Vinton and Jackson Counties, Ohio" (1953) was prepared as a Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey. Miss Beatley's study of the wintergreen herbaceous flora is believed to be the first comprehensive study of its kind for any geographical area of North America. Initially, more than 1000 species of plants from various habitats in central and southern Ohio were studied over a 3-year period in their winter condition in the field and in the greenhouse. She provided an ecological classification, descriptions of the plants, and a taxonomic key for 287 species, about 16% of Ohio's herbaceous flowering plant species. Miss Beatley's study of the forests of Vinton and Jackson counties was conducted to recognize and describe the major primeval or primary forests which occurred there immediately prior to European settlement. She also correlated these forest communities and their distribution patterns with factors of their physical environment. During 40 years previous, a major program in the then Department of Botany and Plant Pathology at The Ohio State University, was aimed at mapping the natural vegetation types of Ohio. This long-range study was fostered and guided by Drs. Edgar N. Transeau and Homer C. Sampson. Janice's study was an important contribution to that effort, because it was conducted in one of the most heavily forested regions remaining in Ohio. It also was located on the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau near the peripheries of the Illinoian and Wisconsinan glacial boundaries and near former valley and tributaries of the ancient preglacial Teays River. This two-county region had for 20 years previous been recognized as one of unusual botanical interest, because of the extensive numbers of species known to be in Liberty Township, Jackson County, based on the field collections of Floyd Bartley and Leslie L. Pontius. It was believed that here occurred the greatest number of vascular-plant species of any comparable size in the state, and upon completion of the study, 1100 species (about half of Ohio's vascular-plant species) were recorded from the 42-square-mile area of Liberty Township. Miss Beatley's comprehensive study was based on field work of approximately 140 days during three years (1950-1953) driving over 20,000 miles in the two-county area of 837 square miles. Published by The Ohio Biological Survey, and long since out-of-print because of its thoroughness and usefulness. Dr. Beatley dedicated the Bulletin to Drs. Transeau and Sampson, "whose understanding of the landscape and its problems are the foundations upon which rest this and future studies of Ohio Vegetation." Dr. Beatley's career research was conducted at the Nevada Atomic Test Site in south-central Nevada, where, for 13 years (1960-1973), she studied the region's ecological-floristic relationships. At least 36 published papers and 11 abstracts are cited in her bibliography. Among the major topics published are: annotated check-lists of the vascular plants, geographical distribution, effects of radioactive and non-radioactive dust, status of introduced species, survival of winter annuals, relationships of plants to precipitation, discovery of new species, endangered and threatened species. Her most comprehensive study resulted in a 316-page book, Vascular Plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-southern Nevada: Ecological and Geographic Distributions (1976), published by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia. The entire region studied, containing some 25 mountain ranges, lies within the Basin and Range Province, between the Colorado Plateau to the east, the Sierra-Cascade Province to the west, and the Death Valley region to the south. The region essentially was unknown biologically at the outset of Dr. Beatley's study. The major plant associations are described on the basis of floristic composition and in relation to physiographic, geologic, edaphic, and climatic features. Emphasis is on the drainage basins of the Nevada Test Site, where Dr. Beatley studied the vegetation, flora, and physical environments for more than a decade. Janice Beatley had definite opinions about certain ecological concepts and processes. For example, she did not believe in the concept of competition, as revealed in a letter of 15 January 1978, to Charles C. King, Director of the Ohio Biological Survey: "... the existence of 'competition' has rarely been proved under field conditions; . . . the theories relating to it are just that-theories-and are based on laboratory studies almost exclusively." To support her own viewpoint having "lived on the desert for 13 years," she cited her study of the "Effects of rainfall and temperature on the distribution and behavior of Larrea tridentata (creosote-bush) in the Mojave Desert of Nevada" (Ecology 55: 260, 1974) where populations of tall, large diameter plants were correlated with higher rainfall and lower temperatures; whereas, plants in populations with low or reduced densities "were more difficult to explain." "In view of the low percentage of germinable seed produced probably in most years by these [low density] populations,. . . [it] seem[s] most likely to be the result of failure of the reproductive process through time to maintain the populations at high densities. There is no evidence to suggest that "competition' with other shrub species plays any significant role in main­taining these low densities of Larrea." The anonymous author of a short notice about Janice Beatley's life (Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 69(2): 114. 1988) evaluated her 13 years of botanical research at the Nevada Atomic Test Site as follows: "Janice's long-term measurements and observations of germination and growth of desert plants led to an improved understanding of the importance of winter rainfall in setting the stage for events during the ensuing growing season. She showed that, contrary to prevailing views, survival and germination of annuals varied from year to year depending on soil moisture and temperatures in the critical months following germination. These insights have proven important in subsequent interpretations of variation in above-ground net production by plants in the northern Mohave Desert." With Dr. James L. Reveal of the University of Maryland, Dr. Beatley published names and descriptions of new species of vascular plants discovered on the Nevada Test Site. Dr. Reveal also published new taxa from her specimens. Three species commemorate her name: Astragalus beatleyae Barneby, Eriogonum beatleyae Reveal, and Phacelia beatleyae Reveal and Constance. Dr. Beatley's other research interests included a publication on "The sunflowers (Helianthus) in Tennessee" (J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 38: 135-154, 1963), and on the "Distribution of buckeyes (Aesculus) in Ohio" (Castanea 44: 150-163, 1979). The latter study, begun while a graduate student in the early 1950's, was followed with extensive field studies in 1958 and completed in 1976-1978. The buckeyes were one of her favorite botanical endeavors, and Dr. Clara G. Weishaupt, her good friend and then curator of The Ohio State University Herbarium, was a frequent companion on these "buckeye" field trips of the 1950's. Another field botanical friend was Mr. Floyd Bartley who accompanied her while on field work in Jackson and Vinton counties. Dr. Beatley was member of a number of professional scientific organizations, including the Ecological Society of America, American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee academies of science, California Botanical Society, Association of Southeastern Biologists, Southern Appalachian Botanical Club, and the Northern Nevada Native Plant Society." (ref. Eriogonum beatleyae, Trifolium andersonii var. beatleyae)
  • Beb'bia: after Michael Schuck Bebb (1833-1895), a distinguished American specialist on willows (ref. genus Bebbia)
  • bebbia'na: see previous entry (ref. Salix bebbiana)
  • beccabun'ga: the Dave's Garden Botanary website gives two possibilities for this odd name: (1) "apparently derived from the German bachbunge (brook + bunch)"; (2) "another possible derivation is from the Flemish bechpunge (mouth smart), referring to the pungent leaves" (ref. Veronica beccabunga)
  • Beckman'nia: after German botanist Johann Beckmann (1739-1811). The following is quoted from Wikipedia: "[Beckmann] was a German scientific author and coiner of the word 'technology,' to mean the science of trades. He was the first man to teach technology and write about it as an academic subject. He was born on June 4, 1739 at Hoya in Hanover, where his father was postmaster and receiver of taxes. He was educated at Stade and the university of Göttingen, where he studied theology, mathematics, physics, natural history and public finance and administration. After completing his studies, in 1762 he made a study tour through Brunswick and the Netherlands examining mines, factories and natural history museums. The death of his mother in 1762 having deprived him of his means of support, he went in 1763 on the invitation of the pastor of the Lutheran community, Anton Friedrich Büsching, the founder of the modern historic statistical method of geography, to teach natural history in the Lutheran academy, St Petersburg, Russia. This office he relinquished in 1765, and travelled in Denmark and Sweden during 1765-1766, where he studied the methods of working the mines, factories and foundries as well as collections of art and natural history. He made the acquaintance of Linnaeus at Upsala. (His travel diary of these journeys Schwedische Reise in den Jahren 1765-1766 was published in Uppsala in 1911.) In 1766 he was appointed extraordinary professor of philosophy at Göttingen. There he lectured on political and domestic economy, and in 1768 he founded a botanic garden on the princples of Linneaus. Such was his success that in 1770 he was appointed ordinary professor. He was in the habit of taking his students into the workshops, that they might acquire a practical as well as a theoretical knowledge of different processes and handicrafts. While thus engaged he determined to trace the history and describe the existing condition of each of the arts and sciences on which he was lecturing. But even Beckmann's industry and ardour were unable to overtake the amount of study necessary for this task. He therefore confined his attention to several practical arts and trades; and to these labors we owe his Beiträge zur Geschichte der Erfindungen (1780-1805), translated into English as the History of Inventions, Discoveries and Origins (1797, 4th ed., 1846) a work in which he relates the origin, history and recent condition of the various machines, utensils, etc., employed in trade and for domestic purposes. This work entitles Beckmann to be regarded as the founder of scientific technology, a term which he was the first to use in 1772. Beckmann's approach was that of a scholar working in the Enlightenment, and his analytical writings on technology mirrored the work of Diderot and his Encyclopedie, and the Descriptions des Arts et Metiers. He must have been inspired by the taxonomic work of Linnaeus and the Bibliothtecae of Albrecht von Haller. Nothing similar was being produced in English at that time. He was the first to write historical and critical accounts of the techniques of craft and manufacture and publish classifications of techniques. His goal was to produce a survey which would inspire others to make useful improvements. In 1772 Beckmann was elected a member of the Royal Society of Göttingen, and he contributed valuable scientific dissertations to its proceedings until 1783, when he withdrew from all further share in its work. He was also member of scientific societies in Celle, Halle, Munich, Erfurt, Amsterdam, Stockholm and St. Petersburg. In 1784 he was appointed a Councillor to the Hanoverian Court. He died on the 3rd of February 1811." He was the author of numerous other works (ref. genus Beckmannia)
  • beck'withii/beckwith'ii: after Edward Griffin Beckwith (1818-1881), "...soldier, born in Cazenovia, New York, 25 June 1818; died in Clifton, New York, 22 June 1881. He was graduated at West Point in 1842, served in the war with Mexico at Tampico and Vera Cruz, and was employed in Pacific railroad reconnoissances in 1853-1854, the records of which survey were published by congress. In the civil war he served as Chief of Commissariat of the 5th Army Corps, and of the Army of Virginia, and in fitting out General Banks' Louisiana expedition. He was Provost-marshal-general of the Department of the Gulf in 1863, in command of the defenses of New Orleans from 25 August 1863 until 12 January 1864, also for a time Chief Commissary of the Department, was made Major on 8 February 1864, and received the brevet rank of Brigadier-General, United States Army, on 13 March 1865, for faithful and meritorious services during the war. After the war he was employed in the Subsistence Department" (Quoted from Virtual American Biographies) (ref. Trifolium beckwithii, Viola beckwithii)
  • beeringia'num: of or from the Bering region, this being a species called Bering chickweed and often found in Greenland, the Yukon, Northwest Territories, Arctic islands and other northern areas as well as in the High Sierras and the White & Inyo Mts (ref. Cerastium beeringianum)
  • belenid'ium: this is not clear to me, but Brown's Composition of Scientific Words has a listing for belenium, from the Greek belenion, as a name for a kind of plant, and the suffix -idium is used as a diminutive, so perhaps this means something like "a small plant" (ref. Thymophylla pentachaeta var. belenidium)
  • bel'la/bel'lum/bel'lus: handsome (ref. Downingia bella, Sisyrinchium bellum, Linanthus bellus)
  • bellado'na: from Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names: "Italian word meaning beautiful lady. Specific epithet of Atropa and Amaryllis. Ladies used it to give brilliancy to the eyes - a property of the juice being to dilate the pupil. That vision was affected was probably not considered important." Although the species Atropa belladona is the deadly poisonous member of the nightshade family known to the world as belladona, the bulbs of Amaryllis belladona also contain some alkaloid compounds similar to those in Atropa and are also toxic if ingested (ref. Amaryllis belladona)
  • Bellar'dia: after Carlo Antonio Lodovico Bellardi (1741-1826), professor of botany at Turin, Italy (ref. genus Bellardia)
  • bellar'dii: see previous entry (ref. Kobresia bellardii)
  • bellidiflor'a: with flowers like the daisy, genus Bellis (ref. Pentachaeta bellidiflora)
  • bellidifo'lia: with leaves like genus Bellis (ref. Cardamine bellidifolia)
  • bellidifor'me: daisy-like (ref. Monoptilon bellidiforme)
  • bellio'ides: resembling genus Bellis (ref. Monoptilon bellioides)
  • Bel'lis: from the Latin for "pretty" (ref. genus Bellis)
  • Belopero'ne: from the Greek belos, "an arrow," and perone, "something pointed" (ref. genus Beloperone)
  • benedic'tus: well-spoken of, blessed (ref. Cnicus benedictus)
  • beneo'lens: good-smelling (compare graveolens, suaveolens) (ref. Gnaphalium beneolens)
  • benghalen'sis: of Bengal, India, of uncertain application, though an undoubted reference to the region where such named plants originated (ref. Commelina benghalensis, Vicia benghalensis)
  • beniten'sis: same as next entry (ref. Camissonia benitensis)
  • Benito'a: named for San Benito County (this county and surrounding areas are the range for this genus) (ref. genus Benitoa)
  • Bensoniel'la: after Gilbert Thereon Benson (1896-1928), librarian of the Dudley Herbarium at Stanford University and co-author with Roxana Ferris of The Trees and Shrubs of Western Oregon (1930) (ref. genus Bensoniella)
  • ben'thamii/bentham'ii: named after George Bentham (1800-1884), English botanist, taxonomist, author, President of the Royal Society, and a Fellow of the Linnaean Society of London. He was born in Devon and became interested in botany while living with his parents in France. From 1826 to 1832 he managed his father's estate and worked as secretary to his uncle, the famous jurist and philospher Jeremy Bentham, at the same time studying law. His passion for botany and taxonomy however displaced his interest in legal matters, and the deaths of his uncle and father with the inheritance he received allowed him to give up the law in 1833, having already published Catalog of the Indigenous Plants of the Pyrenees and Lower Langedoc in 1826 in Paris and Outlines of a New System of Logic in England in 1827. From 1832 until 1836 he specialized in the mint family and published Labiatarum Genera et Species in eight volumes. Then he turned his attention to the Scrophulariaceae and the Fabaceae, producing equally extensive materials on those two huge families. For years he worked on describing specimens that had been collected by others, Eriogonums procured by David Douglas, many of Karl Hartweg's specimens from Mexico and California, and also many of the plants collected on the voyage of the HMS Sulpher. In 1854 he donated his botanical collection of more than 100,000 specimens to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, at which time he was pursuaded to establish permanent quarters there by the Director, William Hooker, and he worked there for the remainder of his life, producing among other things his Flora Hongkongensis (1861) and the seven-volume Flora Australiensis. His major work was a collaboration between himself and Hooker's son, Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, the Genera Plantarum (1862-1883), which is still considered one of the standards of plant classification. He also published the Handbook of British Flora in 1858, and this too remains a standard work. George Bentham made a massive contribution to the fields of botany and taxonomy, was a prolific author and was the preeminent describer of species of his time (ref. Lupinus benthamii)
  • berberidifo'lia: with leaves like those of Berberis, the barberry (ref. Quercus berberidifolia)
  • Ber'beris: the Latinized form of the Arabic name for the fruit (ref. genus Berberis)
  • Bergerocac'tus: named after Alwin Berger (1871-1931), German botanist and succulent specialist (ref. genus Bergerocactus)
  • Ber'gia: named for Peter Jonas Bergius (1730-1790), Swedish botanist and student of Linnaeus (ref. genus Bergia)
  • berlandier'i: named after Jean Louis Berlandier (1805-1851), a Belgian botanist who conducted botanical explorations in Texas and New Mexico (ref. Chenopodium berlandieri)
  • Bernar'dia: named after Bernard de Jussieu (1699-1776), a French taxonomist. Brother of Antoine and Joseph de Jussieu, "Bernard was born at Lyons, 17 August, 1699 and died at Paris, 6 November, 1777; the date of death is sometimes given as 1776. He was educated at the large Jesuit college at Lyons until he had finished the study of rhetoric. In 1716 he accompanied his brother Antoine on the latter's journies to Spain, and developed into an enthusiastic botanist. He studied medicine at Montpellier, obtaining his degree in 1720, but practised medicine only for a short time. He was called to Paris by his brother Antoine, at the request of the botanist Vaillant, and after Vaillant's death in 1722 was appointed the latter's successor as professor and assistant demonstrator at the Jardin du Roi. He devoted all his energies to the royal garden, which his brother Antoine left almost entirely to him. He also made botanical excursions in the country surrounding Paris, and was able in 1725 to issue a revised and enlarged edition of Tournefort's work, "Histoire des plantes des environs de Paris"; this publication gained his admission into the Academy of Sciences. Many persons studied botany under his guidance, as the chemist Lavoisier. Owing to de Jussieu's unusual modesty and unselfishness he published very little, notwithstanding the wide range of his learning. He wrote an important paper on zoophytes, sea-organisms whose classification as plants or animals was then a matter of dispute. To study them he went three times to the coast of Normandy, proved in the "Mémoires" of 1742 that they belonged to the animal kingdom (before Peyssonel), and sought to classify them at this early date into genera. He also separated the whale from the fish and placed it among the mammals. The few botanical papers which he published (1739-42) treat of three water-plants. In 1758 Louis XV made de Jussieu superintendent of the royal garden at Trianon near Paris, in which all plants cultivated in France were to be reared. His greatest achievement is the system according to which he arranged and catalogued the plants in the garden at Trianon; it is called "the older Jussieu natural system of plants of 1759", or the Trianon system. Jussieu himself never published anything about his system, nor did he offer any explanation of his arrangement, or give it a theoretical foundation. The genera are not arranged systematically in groups according to a single characteristic, but after consideration of all the characteristics, which, however, are not regarded as of equal value. De Jussieu proposed three main groups, to which he gave no name; these contained altogether fourteen classes, with sixty-five orders or families. Beginning with the cryptogams, the system proceeds from the monocotyledon to the dicotyledon, and closes with the coniferæ. Before this Linnæus had pointed out that only the natural system should be the aim of botanical classification, and published, outside of his artificial system, fragments of a natural system as early as 1738. Compared to the present development of the natural system, both Linnæus and de Jussieu offer scarcely more than a weak attempt at a natural classification of plants, but their attempt is the first upon which the further development rests. De Jussieu was a thoughtful observer of nature, who behind things saw the laws and the Mind which gave the laws. Notwithstanding the great range of his knowledge he was exceedingly modest and unselfish. He was always animated by an intense love of truth, and his influence in the Academy and over French scholars was very great. He was besides deeply religious, preserving his religious principles and acting upon them to the end of his life. An old biography says of him: "No one has proved better than he how religious feeling can be combined with many sciences and true knowledge." He was a member of numerous academies and learned societies, e.g. the academies of Berlin, St. Petersburg, Upsala, London, and Bologna. In 1737 Linnæus named after him the genus Jussieua, which belongs to the family of the Onagraceæ, and at the present day includes some thirty-six tropical species, chiefly South American." (Quoted from the online Catholic Encyclopedia (ref. genus Bernardia)
  • bernardia'nus: incorrect spelling of bernardinus, see Jepson web page here
  • bernardi'na/bernardi'nus: of or from the San Bernardino Mts region (ref. Ericameria nauseosa var. bernardina, Packera bernardina, Physaria kingii ssp. bernardina, Silene bernardina, Astragalus bernardinus, Cordylanthus bernardinus, Streptanthus bernardinus)
  • ber'ryi: after Lucien Seneca Berry (1869-1939). The following is from Cantelow and Cantelow, "Biographical Notes on Persons in Whose Honor Alice Eastwood Named Native Plants" in Leaflets of Western Botany (1957): "Berry, Seneca Lucien. Engineer; born in Mt. Vernon, Indiana, 1 June 1869, died in Sunnyvale, California, 16 Mar. 1923. Mr. Berry, Pierson Durbrow, and Benjamin Brooks were Alice Eastwood's companions in 1899 when they explored the South Fork of the Kings River and Bubbs Creek, proceeding as far as Harrison and Kearsarge passes. In 1901 with Dr. Kasper Pischel and Carlos Hittell, he assisted her on a pioneer-botanical exploration of the Trinity Alps region which the party entered by Canyon Creek. Miss Eastwood records the fact that "without his assistance the trip to this inaccessible region would have been unsuccessful." (ref. Penstemon newberryi var. berryi)
  • berteroanus: see following entry (ref. Bromus berteroanus)
  • ber'teroi: after Carlo Giuseppe Bertero (1789-1831), an Italian physician (ref. Echinodorus berteroi, Osmorhiza berteroi)
  • Ber'ula: a Latin name of some aquatic plant like water-cress (ref. genus Berula)
  • Be'ta: perhaps from the Celtic bett, "red," because of the red roots, in any case this was the ancient Latin name for the beet (ref. genus Beta)
  • bet'tinae: after Bettina (Betty) Louise Brown Hoover (1912-1992), wife of American botanist Robert Francis Hoover (ref. Dudleya abramsii ssp. bettinae)
  • betulo'ides: like Betula, the genus of the birch, and refers to the leaves (ref. Cercocarpus betuloides var. betuloides, Cercocarpus betuloides var. blancheae, also genus Betula)
  • bi-: Latin prefix for "two, twice, twofold, double"
  • biannula're: from the Latin prefix bi- for "two, twice, double" and annulare for "ring-shaped" (ref. Rytidosperma biannulare)
  • bicarpella'tum: with two carpels (ref. Hesperolinon bicarpellatum)
  • bicknel'lii: after Eugene Pintard Bicknell, international banker, ornithologist and youngest founder of the American Ornithological Union, prolific writer on natural history subjects and amateur botanist (1859-1925) (ref. Geranium bicknellii)
  • bi'color: two-colored (ref. Gnaphalium bicolor, Krameria bicolor, Linanthus bicolor, Lupinus bicolor, Phacelia bicolor, Sorghum bicolor, Xylococcus bicolor)
  • bicor'nis/bicornuta: two-horned
  • bicrista'tus: divided into a pair of crested or comb-like structures (ref. Astragalus bicristatus)
  • Bi'dens: derived from the Latin bis, "twice", and dens, "tooth," hence meaning "2-toothed" and referring to the bristles on the achenes (ref. genus Bidens)
  • bidenta'tus: with two teeth
  • bidwel'liae/bid'welliae: after Annie Ellicott Kennedy (Mrs. John Bidwell) (1839-1918). The following is quoted from Wikipedia: "Annie Kennedy Bidwell, with her husband John Bidwell, was a pioneer and founder of society in the Sacramento Valley area of California in the 19th Century. She is also known for her contributions to social causes, such as women's suffrage, the temperance movement, and education. Annie Bidwell was a friend and correspondent of Susan B. Anthony, Frances Willard, and John Muir. Born Annie Ellicott Kennedy, she was the daughter of Joseph Kennedy, a politician in the Whig party, who served as Director of the United States Census for 1850 and 1860. The Kennedy family lived in Washington, D.C. from Annie's 10th year until after her marriage to John Bidwell in 1868. Her strong religious beliefs motivated her to dedicate herself to social and moral causes. From her teenage years, she was associated with the Presbyterian Church. She was later to commission the building of a Presbyterian Church in Chico, California. She married John Bidwell on April 16, 1868 in Washington, D.C. Their wedding guests included then President Andrew Johnson and future President Ulysses S. Grant. After their marriage, Annie returned with her new husband to his home in Chico, California. The Bidwell mansion in Chico is now preserved as a state historic park. While Annie and John Bidwell resided in the mansion, they were hosts to many prominent figures of their era, including: President Rutherford B. Hayes, General William T. Sherman, Susan B. Anthony, Frances Willard, Governor Leland Stanford, John Muir and Asa Gray. Annie was concerned for the future of the local Mechoopda Native Americans, and was active in state and national Indian associations. She also worked to provide education to the Mechoopda. After her husband's death Ann remained a beloved citizen of Chico, the town her husband founded. Her final act of benevolence was to donate to the city of Chico on July 10, 1905, some 2,238 acres (almost ten square miles) of land, along with a Children's Park in downtown Chico. Since then the land has remained in the public trust and is now known as Bidwell Park.(ref. Polygonum bidwelliae)
  • bieberstein'ii: after German-born botanist and explorer Friedrich August Marschall von Bieberstein (1768-1827), author of Flora Taurico-caucasica in three volumes (1808-1819), the first extensive flora of the Crimean/Caucasus region including 2,322 species. His collection is stored in the herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg. Marschall von Bieberstein collected materials for a major work on the entire flora of Russia, including Siberia, but I am not aware that it was ever published. He was also the co-author with Jacob Reineggs of A General, Historical, and Topographical Description of Mount Caucasus. With a Catalogue of Plants Indigenous to the Country in two volumes (ref. Centaurea biebersteinii)
  • bien'ne/bien'nis: biennial, completing the life cycle in two growing seasons, usually blooming and fruiting in the second (ref. Linum bienne, Artemisia biennis, Lactuca biennis, Potentilla biennis)
  • bi'fidum: bifid, split or divided into two (ref. Trifolium bifidum)
  • biflor'a: two-flowered (ref. Fritillaria biflora, Triodanis biflora)
  • bifo'lium: two-leaved (ref. Galium bifolium)
  • bifor'mis: of two forms
  • bi'frons: two-faced
  • bifurca'tum: twice-forked (ref. Eriogonum bifurcatum)
  • bigelo'vii: named for Dr. John Milton Bigelow (1804-1878), a professor of botany at Detroit Medical College, who collected in the West under Whipple (see whipplei) in the Pacific Railroad Survey of 1853-1854. This was a survey of western lands to determine the best route for a transcontinental railroad, and was provided with equipment by the Smithsonian Institute for collecting purposes. Whipple's route followed the 35th parallel from Ft. Smith, Arkansas, to the Mojave Desert in southwestern California and finally to Los Angeles. "John Milton Bigelow was a surgeon and botanist from Ohio. In 1849, after publishing a treatise on grasses and a book entitled A list of the medicinal plants of Ohio, he joined the Army expedition led by Lt. Amiel Weeks Whipple to survey the U.S-Mexican border. In 1853 he again joined Whipple on one of the exploration parties sent out by the War Department to "ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean." It was following this expedition that Bigelow made botanical collecting trips to northern California. In his 1949 Marin Flora, John Thomas Howell says: "John M. Bigelow...came to the San Francisco Bay region in the spring of 1854, and from April 16 to 20 he made a botanical collecting trip through the redwoods north of Mount Tamalpais to the ocean on Point Reyes Peninsula. Never before had these parts been visited by a botanist, and his collection with respect to the novelties in it, is the richest ever made in the region. Scoliopus and Whipplea, two genera of frequent occurrence in the woods of Marin County, were based on Bigelow's collection, and no fewer than twenty species and varieties were described by Torrey and others in the botanical reports of the expedition and elsewhere. From Marin County, Bigelow went on to other rich fields in Sonoma and Napa counties, and thence to the foothills and middle slopes of the Sierra Nevada, but it is not likely that anywhere in all his travels, in or out of California, did he ever enjoy an excursion so rich as the one from Corte de Madera and Rancho San Geronimo to Punta de los Reyes." (Extracted from a website of the Marin Chapter California Native Plant Society. An article too lengthy to reproduce here may be found in Ohio History, the Scholarly Journal of the Ohio Historical Society) (ref. Brandegea bigelovii, Crossosoma bigelovii, Cylindropuntia bigelovii, Helenium bigelovii, Leptosyne bigelovii, Linanthus bigelovii, Microseris bigelovii, Mimulus bigelovii var. bigelovii, Mimulus bigelovii var. cuspidatus, Mirabilis bigelovii, Nicotiana bigelovii, Nolina bigelovii, Plantago bigelovii, Poa bigelovii, Selaginella bigelovii)
  • bigelo'vii: after botanist and physician Jacob Bigelow (1787-1879), author of the first textbook on botany. The following is quoted from the Appleton's Encyclopedia website on Famous Americans: "...born in Sudbury, Massachusetts, 27 February 1787; died in Boston, 10 January 1879. He was graduated at Harvard in 1806, studied medicine, opened his office in Boston in 1810, and displayed unusual skill. In 1811 he delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa society a poem on "Professional Life," afterward published at Boston. He early made a reputation as a botanist, had an extensive European correspondence, and different plants were named for him by Sir J. E. Smith, in the supplement to "Rees's Cyclopaedia," by Schrader in Germany, and De Candolle in France. He was one of the committee of five selected in 1820 to form the "American Pharmacopoeia," and is to be credited with the principle of the nomenclature of materia medica afterward adopted by the British Colleges, substituting a single for a double word whenever practicable. He founded Mount Auburn, the first garden cemetery established in the United States, and the model after which all others in the country have been made. The much-admired stone tower, chapel, gate, and fence were all built after his designs. During a term of twenty years Dr. Bigelow was a physician of the Massachusetts general hospital, and in 1856 the trustees of that institution ordered a marble bust of him to be placed in the hall. He was professor of materia medica in Harvard University from 1815 to 1855, and from 1816 to 1827 held the Rumford professorship in the same institution, delivering lectures on the application of science to the useful arts. These lectures were published in a volume entitled "Elements of Technology," republished with the title "Useful Arts considered in Connection with the Applications of Science" (2 vols., New York, 1840). Notable among his papers was one entitled "A Discourse on Self-Limited Disease," which was delivered as an address before the Massachusetts medical society in 1835, and had a marked effect in modifying the practice of physicians. He was during many years the president of that society, and was also president of the American academy of arts and sciences. Retiring from the active practice of his profession some years before his death, Dr. Bigelow gave much attention to the subject of education, and especially to the matter of establishing and developing technological schools. In an address "On the Limits of Education," delivered in 1865 before the Massachusetts institute of technology, he emphasized the necessity of students devoting themselves to special technical branches of knowledge. He published, besides works already mentioned, "Florula Bostoniensis" (1814; enlarged eds., 1824 and 1840); an edition, with notes, of Sir J. E. Smith's work on botany (1814); "American Medical Botany" (3 vols., Boston, 1817-'20) ; "Nature in Disease," a volume of essays (1854) ; "A Brief Exposition of Rational Medicine," to which was prefixed "The Paradise of Doctors, a Fable " (Philadelphia, 1858); "History of Mount Auburn" (1860); and "Modern Inquiries" and "Remarks on Classical Studies" (Boston, 1867). Dr. Bigelow was also known as a writer on other than medical subjects. He was a frequent contributor to the reviews and periodicals, and was the reputed author of a volume of poems entitled "Eolopoesis" (New York, 1855), containing imitations of American poets." (ref. Salicornia bigelovii)
  • Bignonia'ceae: after the Abbe Jean Paul Bignon (1662-1743). "The Abbe Jean-Paul Bignon was Royal Librarian at the Bibliotheque Nationale de France from 1718 to 1741, and brought the institution to its glorious zenith. The Bibliotheque had been set up in 1368 by Charles V, 'the Wise', who had moved his personal library of some 917 manuscripts into the Louvre to be cared for by the then Guardian Gilles Malet. The Bibliotheque was moved several times around France, growing in size and diversity under the auspices of several key librarians including the statesman Colbert, who moved the collection to the Paris quarter where it still resides. By the time Bignon arrived in 1719 the library, now the Bibliotheque du Roi, had become the leading library in Europe. The number of volumes it carried had outgrown the most immediate database system of the time, in that the librarians could no longer rely on their memories to find titles. Bignon expanded on the classification system of his predecessor Nicolas Clement - who had divided printed material into 23 categories - by organising the library into five departments, covering Manuscripts, Printed Books, Titles and Genealogy, Engraved Plates and Prints, Medals and Stone Engravings. Bignon made great efforts to add to the library by attempting to procure the major works of European scholars. He also took the unprecedented step of opening the library to the public, but only for three hours one day of the week. Not least by imitating the opening times of some modern libraries, the Abbe established himself as truly being a man ahead of his time." (Quoted from the Digital Handbook of Library Science)
    "Among the accomplishments of Abbe Jean Paul Bignon was the care of the collections housed in the Bibliotheque Nationale during the reign of Louis XIV. The Bibliotheque Nationale of France is one of the finest libraries in the world. It dates back to the reign of King John who bequeathed his royal library to his successor, Charles V in 1364. It was expanded by several monarchs, including Charles VI, Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I, Henry II, and Louis XIII, and was moved at various times over this period. However, a new era dawned during the reign of Louis XIV, when it was greatly expanded, necessitating another move to larger quarters. The departments of engraving and medals were added around 1666 and soon became important components of the collection. Under the guidance of the Abbe Bignon, the collection was moved to its present home in the Rue Richelieu. Toward the end of Louis XIV's reign the library contained more than 70,000 volumes. Since then the library has expanded further, particularly during the reigns of Louis XVI and Napoleon, although much of the latter's acquisitions had to be returned, as many manuscripts were plundered by him from conquered capitals. In 1696, the Abbe Bignon was put in charge of La Petite Academie by his uncle Pontchartrain. The Academie was established by Colbert in 1663 and was charged with the task of ensuring that all the arts were used in harmony to glorify King Louis XIV. Part of its duties was to supervise the engraving of a revised and extended series of medals devoted to the Sun King. This series was eventually published as "Medailles sur les Principaux Evenements du Regne de Louis le Grand". (From website of the Ben Weiss Collection of Historical and Commemorative Medals) (ref. family Bignoniaceae)
  • bignonio'ides: like genus Bignonia which is not a genus represented in Southern California (ref. Catalpa bignonioides)
  • bilbaoa'na: for Francisco de Sales Bilbao Barquin (1823-1865), Chilean politician of liberal ideas who studied astronomy, the sciences and music (ref. Conyza bilbaoana)
  • -bilis: a Latin adjectival suffix indicating a capacity or ability to do something, which takes the form -abilis when the root infinitive ends in -are, and -ibilis when the root infinitive ends in -ere
  • bilo'ba/bilo'bus: two-lobed (ref. Clarkia biloba)
  • bing'hamiae: after Caroline Priscilla Lord Bingham (Mrs. Richard Fitch Bingham), born in Pennsylvania, moved to Ohio with her family when she was five and married her husband Richard Bingham there. In 1873 they moved to Montecito, California where she became an enthusiastic student of botany. An obituary in the New Bedford, Massachusetts, Standard-Times claimed that she discovered "30 new specimens of flora and a new genus, as well," although only one taxon bears her name at the present time. Her husband died in 1895 and she moved back east. When she died in 1932 at 101 , she was said to be the oldest woman in New Bedford (1831-1932) (ref. Calystegia sepium ssp. binghamiae)
  • binomina'tum: twice-named? David Hollombe says "I think this refers to the species having been previously given two invalid names, both names having been previously applied to other species." (ref. Ribes binominatum)
  • biolet'tii: after Frederic Theodore Bioletti (1865-1939). "Frederic Theodore Bioletti was of Italian, Welsh, and English ancestry. He was born in Liverpool, England, on July 21, 1865, and lived in Scotland and England until he came to America in 1878. For the ensuing ten years he lived in Sonoma County, California. During this period he attended a private school and Heald's Business College in San Francisco. In 1885 and 1888 he served on the Vina Ranch of Senator Stanford, where he held a responsible position in the Senator's commercial cellar. He had learned the arts of grape growing and wine making from his future stepfather. In 1897 he married Eugenie H. Carlton. She and their two children, Carlton Bioletti and Dorothea B. Kauffman, survive him. From 1889 to 1900 Bioletti was in Berkeley, being engaged as a student and as assistant to Professor E.W. Hilgard. He received the bachelor's degree in 1894 and the degree of Master of Arts in 1898 at this University. In 1901 he was appointed Instructor in Viticulture, Enology and Horticulture at Elsenburg College, Cape Colony, South Africa. He served in that position until 1904, when he resumed his position at the University of California in Viticulture and Enology. In 1908 he became a partner in managing a vineyard at Hollister, California, but returned to University work in 1910. Except for an absence of ten months in 1930, when he was on leave in the employ of the United States Department of Agriculture as agricultural explorer, collecting varieties of apricots and grapes in French North Africa, he served continuously as Assistant Professor, Associate Professor and Professor of Viticulture until his retirement as Professor Emeritus in 1935. He died September 12, 1939. From the beginning of his career Professor Bioletti was primarily interested in improvement, not only in agricultural practices, but also in the conditions of rural life. In his earlier years, when the experimental method was rarely employed by agriculturists, he attacked the problems of wine grape production in California. Despite many difficulties a rather definite relation between certain varieties, the soils, and also the climatic conditions of the principal grape growing districts were obtained prior to 1900. During the same period he made various plant collections in the pursuit of his avocation, systematic botany. His interest in this subject was aroused through his contacts with Professor E.L. Greene, and it continued throughout his life. His last published contribution dealt with the classification of the vinifera grapes grown in California. While an assistant and later an associate of Professor Hilgard from 1889 to 1900 he conducted experiments on the fermentation of wines under various conditions. The results of these studies and the assistance rendered by him to the vintners of that era were of much importance in improving the practices and the products of the wineries in this State. He devoted much effort to the improvement of viticultural practices in California, bringing information directly to the growers through farmers' institutes and publications. He was active in the introduction of varieties of grapes new to California and was the recognized leader in this field. However, he was interested not only in finding new varieties but also in their production through breeding, and he started the important grape breeding program now under way in University's Experiment Station. Just prior to the period of prohibition in California, his wide experience was put to the task of finding new uses for wine grapes. About that time he also gave much attention to olive products, particularly olive pickling, and was instrumental in establishing the canning of olives as an industry. Professor Bioletti possessed to a high degree the rare faculty of influencing the research of others by suggestion and discussion rather than by direct order. He was accustomed to permit the young worker to proceed under his own power after preliminary suggestions had been offered; but he was always cheerfully willing to discuss problems with his associates and to offer helpful advice. He was a keen student of English and rendered valuable service to the University in the editing of manuscripts. He served as Chairman of the Editorial Committe of the Agricultural Experiment Station from 1926 to 1932. His comments and especially his insistence on conciseness and clarity of expression in writing for publication were very helpful to his colleagues. He was the author or coauthor of approximately four hundred publications, dealing with viticulture, wine making, olive culture, olive pickling, vinegar making, grape juice production, systematic botany and plant diseases. A modest and retiring man, Professor Bioletti was nevertheless persistent, and even aggressive when the occasion demanded it, in working toward his high ideals in scientific research, in the application of the results of research in industry, and in the broad field of agriculture and rural life (Quoted from a Memorium essay from the University of California) (ref. Erigeron biolettii, Pseudo-
    gnaphalium biolettii
    , Lotus junceus var. biolettii)
  • bipar'tita/bipar'titus: twice-parted, having two parts (ref. Linaria bipartita, Cyperus bipartitus)
  • bipet'alus: two-petalled
  • bipinna'ta/bipinna'tus: having leaves doubly pinnate or feathered (ref. Sanicula bipinnata, Cosmos bipinnatus)
  • bipinnati'fida: twice pinnately cut, like a pinnate leaf whose sections are again pinnate (ref. Sanicula bipinnatifida)
  • bisanc'tus: from bi, "two, twice, twofold, double," and sanctus, "sacred, saintly"
  • biscep'trum: having two structures similar to a scepter, which is a staff or baton carried by a sovereign as a symbol of authority, of uncertain application to this species (ref. Allium bisceptrum)
  • bisec'tus: cut into two parts
  • bistor'ta/Bistor'ta: from bis, "twice," and tortus, "twisted," thus twice-twisted, in reference to the double turn of the fruit (ref. Camissoniopsis bistorta, also genus Bistorta)
  • bistorto'ides: having the shape or form of the plant bistort (ref. Bistorta bistortoides)
  • bithyn'ica: from the region of northwest Asia Minor called Bithynia (ref. Vicia bithynica)
  • Bituminar'ia: from the Latin and Greek bitumen, see bituminosa below (ref. genus Bituminaria)
  • bitumino'sa: tarry, in some way resembling bitumen, which in ancient times was an asphaltic product used in Asia Minor as a mortar or cement, but in modern times refers to a mixture of hydrocarbons occurring either naturally or after a process of refinement (ref. Bituminaria bituminosa)
  • bizona'ta: from the roots bi-, "twice or two," and zonata, "banded or with a girdle usually of a distinct color" from the Greek zone, "a girdle or belt" (ref. Gilia ochroleuca ssp. bizonata)


Fish Creek Trail toward Mt. San Gorgonio, San Bernardino Mountains.

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