L-R: Geranium californicum (California geranium), Viguiera laciniata (San Diego County goldeneye), Allium monticola (San Bernardino mountain onion), Lepechinia cardiophylla (Heartleaf pitcher sage), Centaurea melitensis (Tocalote)


BL-BY
In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear. Where no credit is given for photos, they are in public domain mostly from Wikipedia.
  • bithy'nica: from Bithynia, a region of northwest Asia Minor. (ref. Vicia bithynica)
  • blair'ii: after Erwin (or Erve) Grant Blair (1865-1965), sheep rancher in Park County, Montana, before moving
      to southern California about 1913. He raised sheep on San Clemente Island. "Philip A. Munz, then of Pomona College, made a notable visit to the island from April 8-12, 1923, accompanied by F. W. Peirson, D. D. Keck (at that time a student at Pomona), Dr. J.G. Needham (Munz's professor at Cornell, then on a visit to California), and five others. Dr. Munz obtained Nos. 6600-6789 on the island (including cryptogams), Peirson Nos. 3416-3487; the others apparently did not collect. Nearly all of Munz's (POM) and Peirson's (RSA) collections are cited here. The party landed at
    Wilson Cove, circled the north end dunes, and the next day set out by wagon for the south, camping near Lemon Tank and then working the canyons on both sides of the island to the vicinity of Middle Ranch and Thirst. They were materially aided in their efforts by Mr. E. G. Blair, in charge of the sheep company operations at the time; he even gathered flowering material of Munzothamnus for them the following autumn."... (from Peter Raven, A Flora of San Clemente Island, 1963). (ref. Munzothamnus [formerly Stephanomeria] blairii) (Photo credit: Santa Cruz Island Foundation)
  • blais'dellii: named for named for Frank Ellsworth Blaisdell, Sr. (1862-1946), American entomologistand anatomy expert who was an influential authority on beetles. He was born at Pittsfield, New Hampshire and moved with his family to San Francisco in 1870 and then to San Diego three years later. His father had been a saddler and harness maker, and from 1874 to 1886 engaged in farming in the Poway Valley. During this time young Blaisdell collected instects and maintained an apiary. In 1887 he entered Cooper Medical College and he graduated with a medical degree in 1889, returning to San Diego to practice medicine for the next three years. In 1892 he relocated to San Francisco where he practiced medicine and collected insects at Mokelumne Hill, Calaveras County until 1900.  After going to Alaska on vacation where he collected beetles, he was appointed to a teaching position at Cooper Medical College, a position he held for ten years. In 1909 he spent a year at John Hopkins in Baltimore studying medicine. In 1910 Cooper College became affiliated with Stanford University and Blaisdell was at that time Professor of Anatomy and head of department. After the affiliation he was made professor of surgery and he held that title until his retirement in 1927. He became a life member of the California Academy of Sciences in 1904. When the earthquake and fire of 1906 destroyed the Academy building, he helped to save what he could of his collection as well as other collections that were in the building. He was the author of a hundred papers on the Coleoptera, publishing from 1892 to 1945. He died in Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, California. (ref. Lupinus blaisdellii)
  • blak'ei: after American botanist Sidney Fay Blake (1892-1959), a taxonomist who was recognized as one of
      the world's experts on botanical nomenclature. He was born in Stoughton, Massachusetts, south of Boston. His father was a grocer and his grandfather was a dentist. His interest in natural history began early with a study of birds. A neighbor of theirs happened to be a professor of botany at Harvard. By the time he entered Harvard, he was determined to be a botanist, and he received a Bachelor’s degree in 1912, a Master’s in 1913 and a Ph.D. in botany in 1917. He studied with Benjamin Lincoln Robinson and Merritt Lyndon Fernald. That same year he began his career
    under Frederick Coville at the Bureau of Plant Industry for the United States Department of Agriculture, and worked there till he died in 1959. Blake published only one work in 2 volumes, Flora of the World, the second volume of which was published after his death. In 1956 he was named one of the 50 greatest living botanists in America by the Botanical Society of America. In 1943 he was elected President of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. His other areas of interest were paleontology and researching Sherlock Holmes for the Baker Street Journal. (ref. Haplopappus ericoides ssp. blakei, Grindelia stricta ssp. blakei)
  • blak'leyi: after Elwood Robert "Jim" Blakley (1924-2008), botanist and retired historian, and member of the
      Santa Cruz Foundation's "All Eight Club" of people who have spent time on all eight Channel Islands. Amazingly there are over 200 people in the All 8 ClubJim collected plants on all eight between 1958 and 1964. As a naturalist and historian of the Santa Barbara backcountry, he was the co-author with Karen Barnette in 1985 of "Historical Overview of the Los Padres National Forest." He was born in Colorado and was the Grounds Superintendent at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. (ref. Chorizanthe blakleyi) (Photo credit Santa Cruz Island Foundation)
  • blanch'eae: after Luella Blanche Engle Trask (Mrs. Walter Jones Trask) (1865-1916), see traskiae. (ref. Cercocarpus betuloides var. blancheae)
  • blan'dowii: named for Otto Christian Blandow (1778-1810), German apothecary and botanist, specializing in the field of bryology. He trained in Malchin, Germany, and then worked as an apothecary in Rostock, Neubrandenburg, Anklam, Woldegk and Waren. Since 1875, a collection of his mosses (250 specimens) has been kept at the British Museum of Natural History. He was also honored with the genus name Blandowia, published in 1809 by Carl Ludwig Willdenow. (ref. Helodium blandowii)
  • blan'dus: charming, mild, not bitter.
  • blankinship'ii: named for American botanist Joseph William Blankenship (Blankinship) (1862-1938) who studied plant pathology, weeds and the flora of Montana. He was born in Glasgow, Illinois and grew up in rural Missouri where his father was a postmaster. He entered Drury Preparatory School in Springfield in 1881 and then was accepted at Harvard where he earned a B.A., M.A. and Ph.D. In 1892 he collected on the Farallon Islands. He spent 1907-1908 in post-graduate studies in Berlin. He went on to become a botany professor at the Montana Agricultural College in Bozeman and first curator of the Montana State College herbarium. He left the College in 1905 and worked as a consulting plant pathologist. He later moved to California and worked as a plant pathologist for smelter companies across the Western United States. Subsequently he  taught botany at U.C. Berkeley for many years, until about 1922. After divorcing his wife, ill health forced him to move to the Masonic Home in Union City in 1934. He published Weeds of Montana in 1901 and Native Economic Plants of Montana in 1905. He died of a stroke in Union City, California. (ref. Carex blankinshipii, Ranunculus blankinshipii)
  • blaschkea'na: named for Eduard Leonidovich Blashke (Eduard Leontevich Blaschke) (1810-1878). The following is quoted from an article by Richard Bland in the Journal of Northwest Anthropology 49(1):71-86, 2015: “Eduard Leonidovich Blashke (1810–1878) was a Baltic German who, after completing medical school, went into the service of the Russian-American Company. In 1834 he was sent across Siberia, vaccinating the population as he went. In Okhotsk he boarded the sloop Sitkha and arrived in Novo-Arkhangel’sk in 1835. In that year smallpox, which seemed to have come from the south, broke out in the Alexander Archipelago. Many Tlingit, who viewed vaccination as an attempt by Europeans to annihilate them, refused to be vaccinated. As a result, about 400 Tlingit in a settlement near Novo-Arkhangel’sk died, as did about half the Native village at Novo-Arkhangel’sk. The Russians by contrast suffered only one death at Sitka. Dr. Blashke believed that diseases arose from local factors, that is, the geography, weather, plants, soil, and so on. Therefore, he made a study of the area around Novo-Arkhangel’sk in an attempt to determine the cause of diseases of that area. For example, in his book he provides the first ethnographic use of devil’s club, the ash of which the Tlingit used to treat sores. Despite Blashke’s beliefs regarding the origin of diseases, he was well aware that vaccines could prevent them. With this knowledge, between 1835 and 1838 he tried to vaccinate as many of the Tlingit as he could. By comparing the number of deaths, which would have been available to the Tlingit, between those who had been vaccinated and those who had not, one might wonder why the Tlingit generally remained so set against vaccination. However, we have only to look at our present-day American society. Dr. Blashke published two works during his lifetime. His major contribution was Topographia Medica Portus Novi-Archangelscensis [The Topography of Medicine at the Port of Novo-Arkhangel’sk] in 1842. In 1848, he published his article about his Aleutian travels in the Russian journal Morskoi sbornik (Maritime Journal).” (ref. Potentilla blaschkeana)
  • blas'dalei/blasdal'ei: after Walter Charles Blasdale (1871-1960). The following is quoted from a 1961 University of California Memorium essay: "Walter Charles Blasdale was born on January 10, 1871, in Jericho, Queens County, New York, the son of Charles Blasdale, M.D., and Julia Smith Blasdale. His scientific education was obtained at the University of California. He matriculated in 1888 and received a B.S. degree in chemistry in 1892, an M.S. degree in 1896, and a Ph.D. degree in 1900. His was the first doctorate in chemistry awarded by the University of California. He started teaching in the College of Chemistry during his graduate studies. He was Assistant in Chemistry from 1892 until 1895, Instructor from 1895 until 1903, Assistant Professor from 1903 until 1911, Associate Professor from 1911 until 1919, and Professor from 1919 until 1941. He became Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, in 1941 at the age of seventy. The bibliography of his published writings contains contributions to botany as well as chemistry. His first paper, "Studies in the Life History of a Puccinia found on the leaves of Oenothera ovata," was prepared while he was still an undergraduate. It was published in the Report of the Agricultural Experiment Station (California) for 1891-92. Another paper, "On Certain Leaf Hair Structures" appeared in Erythea in December, 1893. Professor Blasdale's first chemical publication, "On the Physical and Chemical Properties of Some California Oils," was printed in the Journal of the American Chemical Society in December, 1895. The bulletins of the Department of Geology, in which Louderback described the new mineral Benitoite and associated minerals (Vol. V, No. 9, 1896; Vol. V, No. 23, 1909), included chemical analyses of these minerals by Professor Blasdale. In July, 1899 he published a bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Some Chinese Vegetable Food Materials, Their Nutritive and Economic Value. For many years he taught quantitative analysis, and his experience in teaching this subject resulted in the publication, in 1914, of Principles of Quantitative Analysis. The fourth edition of this book was published in 1936 under the title Fundamentals of Quantitative Analysis. During a year's leave from the University in 1904-05, Professor Blasdale developed his knowledge of physical chemistry by studying with the famous Van't Hoff in Berlin. The Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften contains three joint papers by Van't Hoff and Blasdale. Subsequently, he published research papers on "Equilibria in Solutions Containing Mixtures of Salts." This work culminated in publication of a book, Equilibria in Saturated Salt Solutions in 1927, as one of the Chemical Monograph Series of the American Chemical Society. A contribution to the International Critical Tables in 1928, was "Freezing-point Solubility; Data for Three (or more) Component Aqueous Solutions of Salts and Inorganic Compounds." His researches in this field were of value for the utilization of salt deposits found in dried lakes in California and elsewhere. For many years he taught a course in the Phase Rule.
    Professor Blasdale's researches in chemistry were paralleled by his contributions to botany. Many of his publications appeared in the Journal of the California Horticultural Society, the National Horticultural Magazine, and the Quarterly of the American Primrose Society. The botany of the primrose especially received his attention; he studied it through plantings in his garden and greenhouse. His work on the primrose culminated in a major work, The Cultivated Species of Primula, University of California Press, 1948. He also published a work, Cyclamen Persicum; Its Natural and Cultivated Forms, Stanford University Press, 1952. Professor Blasdale's broad interests also included the history of science. He taught a course in the history of chemistry and for many years was an active member of the History of Science Dinner Club of the University of California. Professor Blasdale was a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Horticultural Society, the California Horticultural Society, and the Royal Horticultural Society of Great Britain. He was a member of the Faculty Club, Phi Beta Kappa, and Sigma Xi. He was active in the First Congregational Church of Berkeley and in the Boy Scouts. In view of his interest in young people, it was fitting that he should serve on the Academic Senate Committee on Undergraduate Scholarships. He was chairman of that committee from 1930 until 1934. He was active in the California Horticultural Society until about a month before his death; he often attended its meetings in San Francisco. Professor Blasdale was married on June 28, 1905, to Elizabeth Rogers. He died on May 23, 1960, after a seventy-two-year association with the University of California, perhaps the longest on record." (ref. Agrostis blasdalei)
  • blattar'ia: from the Latin name blatta for "moth." (ref. Verbascum blattaria)
  • Blech'num: from the classical Greek blechnon, a name used by Pliny for a fern or ferns. (ref. genus Blechnum)
  • Blennosper'ma: means "slimy seed" from the Greek blenna, "mucus, slime, phlegm" and sperma, "seed." (ref. genus Blennosperma)
  • Blepharidach'ne: from the Greek blepharon, "eyelid or eyelash," and achne, "chaff, glume," referring to the ciliate lemmas. (ref. genus Blepharidachne)
  • Blepharipap'pus: from the Greek words meaning "eyelash pappus." (ref. genus Blepharipappus)
  • Blepharizonia: from the Greek blepharis, "eyelash," and zone, "a belt, armor or girdle," referring to the fruits which are weakly held by the phyllaries. (ref. genus Blepharizonia)
  • blepharophyl'la: with leaves like genus Blepharis, from the Greek blepharon, "eyelash." (ref. Arabis blepharophylla)
  • Blind'ia/blind'ii: named after Alsatian pastor and bryologist Jean-Jacques Blind (1806-1867). He was born and died in Strasbourg. (ref. genus Blindia, Bryum blindii)
  • blissia'num: after Anna Dorinda Blaksley (Mrs. Demas Barnes, Mrs. William Henry Bliss) (1851-1935) and her
      daughter Mildred Barnes (Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss) (1879-1969). Anna Dorinda Blaksley was born in Missouri, married first Demas Barnes with whom she had a daughter Mildred and who died in 1888, moved to New York City, then married former U.S. District Attorney and railroad executive William Henry Bliss. She was a noted philanthropist, donating money to the Aero Club of America, the League of Political Education, the American Museum of Natural History, Harvard University and the Cottage Hospital of Santa Barbara. In 1918 she built an eighty-room winter home in Santa Barbara and created the Blaksley Botanical Garden in Mission Canyon, which was renamed in 1939 the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. According to the biography on the website of the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library: “She built a monument in the Woodlawn Cemetery, New York, dedicated to those who lost their lives in the sinking of the ocean liner Titanic in 1912; she is buried at the back of this monument. Anna Barnes Bliss belonged to the National Society of The Colonial Dames of America, the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Colony Club, and the
    Cosmopolitan Club. She died at Casa Dorinda on February 22, 1935.” The following is quoted from a website of Harvard University Library: "Robert Woods Bliss [1875-1962] was a graduate of Harvard College, Class of 1900. He began work as the Secretary to the Governor of Puerto Rico and entered the U.S. Foreign Service in 1903 with a post in Venice. For the next thirty years he served the diplomatic corps in St. Petersburg, Brussels, Buenos Aires, Paris, Washington, D.C., and Stockholm. He retired in 1933, but returned to the State Department for occasional special service. Robert Woods Bliss married his stepsister, Mildred Barnes, in 1908. They had no children. She was a well-educated and well-travelled heir to the Castoria patent medicine fortune. Mildred Bliss was an active participant and leader in social and cultural circles at every diplomatic post to which Robert Bliss was assigned. She was an avid art collector as well as patron of musicians and visual artists in Europe, South America and the United States. She organized the American Distributing Service to transfer medical supplies to French hospitals and funded several vehicles for the Ambulance Corps. She was honored with numerous decorations for her war relief efforts in France during World War I. In addition to extensive philanthropic work, the Blisses were recognized as important art collectors. In 1920 they purchased an estate in Georgetown called "The Oaks." They renamed it "Dumbarton Oaks" and spent the next several decades involved with the development of both the exterior landscape and the art and book collections within. In 1940 Mildred and Robert Woods Bliss conveyed Dumbarton Oaks to Harvard University as the Center for Byzantine Studies. The Blisses resided nearby and maintained an active interest in the formation and funding of its garden, library, art collection and musical program. Plans to build a gallery at Dumbarton Oaks to house Robert Bliss's collection of pre-Columbian art were underway when he died of lung cancer on April 19, 1962. The Robert Woods Bliss Collection of Pre-Columbian Art was opened to the public in 1963. Mildred Bliss continued to travel and take part in Washington's cultural life and philanthropy life until her death on January 17, 1969." (ref. Eriogonum X blissianum) (Photo credit: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library)
  • blito'ides: resembling blitum, an old name for strawberry blite, a course weed with a red fruit. (ref. Alternanthera blitoides, Amaranthus blitoides, Aphanisma blitoides)
  • blochman'iae: after Ida May Twitchell Blochman (1854-1931), born in Maine, and lived lived in Iowa from
      1857-1880, graduating from the State College at Ames in 1878. She came to La Graciosa, California (an old community now within the city limits of Orcutt, south of Santa Maria), and bceame a schoolteacher. She married Lazar Blochman in 1888. Twitchell maintained a lifelong interest in botany and collected plants in the Santa Maria Valley of the Santa Barbara region, mainly in the 1890's. She published a number of papers on the subject of Californian plants and gathered a herbarium of 600 plants from northern Santa Barbara County. In 1893 she sent a large
    collection of plants to the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and corresponded with Alice Eastwood and Edward Lee Greene. Several endemics bear her name, although most are Central Coast plants. Senecio blochmanae and Erigeron blochmaniae was both named for her by Green. (ref. Dudleya blochmaniae, Erigeron blochmaniae, Senecio blochmaniae) (Photo credit WikiName/Islapedia)
  • bloom'eri/Bloomer'ia: named for Hiram Green Bloomer (1819-1874), an early San Francisco botanist and one of the founders of the California Academy of Sciences. He came from New York in 1852 and from that time until his death he was involved with botany. He was the Director of the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Some sources have identified him incorrectly as Dr. Bloomer. The genus Bloomeria was named in his honor in 1863 by Albert Kellogg and his name also forms part of the taxonomic names of a number of other species. (ref. genus Bloomeria, also Ericameria bloomeri)
  • blu'meri: named for Jacob Corwin Blumer (1872-1948), Swiss born American plant collector and farmer. He was born in Engi, Switzerland with his family to a farm in Davis County, Iowa. He received a Bachelor’s degree from Iowa State College in 1902 and then studied at the Uinviersity of Michigan from 1904 to 1906, gaining a Master’s degree. He spent his summers as a seasonal worker for the US Forestry Service, working and collecting in Idaho, Colorado and Arizona. JSTOR says: “In 1907-1908 he undertook his first major botanical expedition to Arizona, collecting in the Chiricahua Mountains, and over the following year or so gathered specimens in the Rincon Mountains and other ranges of southern Arizona. At this time Blumer was selling many of his specimens to fund his travels. One institution which purchased his material was the Carnegie Desert Laboratory in Tucson and Blumer worked there during 1907-1908, mapping the distribution of certain plant species and sampling soil. It seems that he struggled to see projects through and left several paid botanical positions for various reasons, including this one. During the early 1910s Blumer continued to collect in Arizona, taking a particular interest in the Sonoran desert, and later worked as an assistant forester for the Commission of Conservation in Canada (1913-1916). In 1917 he made the decision to farm for a living and during the 1930s and 40s lived alone on a farm outside Clinton in Minnesota. Blumer was responsible for 23 scientific papers, the most important of which focused on ecology, topography and plant communities in the south-west. His herbarium, at the time of his death from a heart attack in 1948, contained over 10,000 specimens.” (ref. Arceuthobium campylopodum f. blumeri)
  • blyt'tii:named for Norwegian botanist Mathias Numsen Blytt (1789-1862), naturalist, traveller, professor of botany and Director of the University Botanical Garden in Christiana.  He was born at Overhalla in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. He attended the University of Christiania (now University of Oslo) and the University of Copenhagen. Blytt was first lecturer and then professor of botany at the University of Oslo. He was an important cryptogamic collector and during botanical collecting excursions to the Dovrefjell area in 1835 he was accompanied by his student Daniel Cornelius Danielssen whose later work would mark the beginning of the modern medical history of leprosy. The scientific journal of botany named Blyttia was named for him and his son Axel Gudbrand Blytt (1843–1898) who was also a botanist, and the hepatic genus Hypoblyttia  was named in his honour. (ref. Andreaea blyttii, Kiaeria blyttii, Mnium blyttii)
  • boar'ia: the Dave's Garden Botanary site gives "of cattle" as the meaning of this name. The author of the species Maytenus boaria in his 1809 work The Geographical, Natural and Civil History of Chili [Chile] in his reference to the species states that "The cattle are very fond of the leaves and will forsake any herbage for them; and were it not for the hedges and ditches with which the inhabitants surround the young trees, the species would probably before this time have been destroyed." (ref. Maytenus boaria)
  • bo'asii: named for Canadian botanist Frank M. Boas. (ref. Trematodon boasii)
  • Bo'bera: named for Johann von Böber (Boeber) (1746-1820), a little-known plant collector from St. Petersburg. He was a German botanist, teacher, and entomologist. He was director of schools in Yekaterinoslav Governorate, then was a professor at St. Peter’s College Jelgava and in 1796 became an advisor to the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. He died at St. Petersburg. (ref. genus Boebera)
  • boccon'i: after Paolo Boccone (1633-1703), a Sicilian Cistercian monk, botanist and physician. His botanical interest evolved during a visit to the botanical garden in Messina, founded by the Roman physician Pietro Castelli there in 1635. He also studied with him. He was a court botanist with the Tuscan Grand Duke Ferdinand II and his son Cosimo III. Boccone toured Sicily, Malta, Italy, Corsica, the Netherlands, England and Poland. He was a professor at the University of Padua. In 1696 he became a member of the Leopoldina. In the 1697 published work Museo di piante rare ... he describes rare plants from Sicily, Malta, Corsica, Piedmont and Germany. At his entrance to the monastery he took the name Silvio. Boccone was highly regarded by his contemporaries and was in contact with many European scientists. The French botanist Charles Plumier studied with him (German Wikipedia). (ref. Spergularia bocconi)
  • bodien'sis: from the Bodie Hills in the eastern Sierra Nevadas. (ref. Arabis bodiensis)
  • bodinier'i: named for French Catholic priest/missionary and botanist Émile Marie Bodinier (1842-1901). He was born at Vaiges (Mayenne) and entered the Seminary of Le Mans in 1862, being ordained as a priest two years later. He went to Kouy-Tcheou (Kuy-chou) the following year, where he worked for thirty-five years. He collected more that 3000 herbarium samples during his lifetime of which about 200 are named. He sent consignments of flowers and other plants to the Paris Museum, various learned societies and to known naturalists. He died in China. (ref. Photinia bodinieri)
  • Boech'era: after Tyge Wittrock Böcher (Boecher) (1909-1983), Danish botanist, evolutionary biologist,
      plant ecologist and phytogeographer, born in Copenhagen, an authority on Arctic vegetation and the flora of Greenland based on field work he did in Greenland, Denmark, and various European mountain regions. He also worked in Argentina. Thanks to Boechera authority Dr. Ihsan Al-Shehbaz at the Missouri Botanical Garden for the following information: "Tyge Boecher worked (1951-1969) on a group of species then referred to as members of the genus Arabis. He did a splendid job. Askel and Doris Love recognized his contribution and named the genus Boechera
    after Tyge. It turned out that Arabis and Boechera are [not closely related] genera that belong to different tribes." He also added that the pronunciation of the generic name should be boo'-ker-a.  He was a co-founder of Flora Europaea and he authored the Flora of Greenland (1968). Wikipedia says: “He was a professor of botany at the University of Copenhagen from 1954 to 1979. He was a prolific scientific writer, leaving some 250 scholarly books and articles. His scientific research covered as diverse phylogenetic lineages as vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and algae and a broad set of disciplines from anatomy, ecology and evolution of plant species to the ecology of plant populations and plant communities. He was particularly interested in chromosomal and ecological races of plant species.” (ref. genus Boechera)
  • Boehmer'ia: after Georg(e) Rudolf Boehmer (1723-1803) of Saxony, professor of botany and anatomy at the University of Wittenberg succeeding Abraham Vater. He studied botany at the University of Leipzig under Christian Gottlieb Ludwig (1709–1773) and was interested as well in entomology. On September 10, 1746, he obtained the degree of Medical Baccalaureate and on March 20, 1750, the degree of a medical licentiate. He later became professor of therapy and had part-time duties as Stadtphysikus in Wittenberg and then in Kemberg, responsible for governmental measures that concerned the health care of the population and the hygienic conditions in the city. He was also responsible for supervising the pharmacies and people involved in medical tasks, such as midwives and bath physicians, and had forensic tasks such as the assessment of injury to living persons, the external examination of corpses and the performance of burials in non-natural and unexplained death. Among his publications was a five volume work on natural history called Bibliotheca scriptorum historiae naturalis. The plant genus Boehmeria from the family Urticaceae was named in his honor in 1760 by Nicolaus Joseph von Jacquin. (ref. genus Boehmeria)
  • Boerhav'ia: sometimes spelled Boerhaavia, after Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738), Dutch botanist, chemist,
      Christian humanist, and physician, sometimes referred to as ‘the father of physiology’ and often hailed as the Dutch Hippocrates. His father was a Protestant pastor and as a youth studied for a divinity degree, however he got a scholarship and took a degree in philosophy and then turned to the study of medicine, graduating in 1693. In 1701 he was appointed a lecturer at the University of Leiden and eight years later a professor of botany and medicine, making improvements and additions to the botanic garden of Leiden and publishing numerous works containing descriptions
    of new plant species. He married in 1710 and had four children, only one of whom survived to adulthood. Appointed Rector of the University in 1714, he succeeded to the chair of practical medicine and then in 1718 to the chair of chemistry as well. He was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London. One of his great accomplishments was increasing the fame of the University of Leiden, making it a center of practical medical education for students from all over Europe. He was visited by Peter the Great, Voltaire and Carl Linnaeus, who became a close friend. British medical schools credit Boerhaave for developing the system of medical education upon which their current institutions are based and every founding member of the Edinburch Medical School attended Boerhaave’s lectures at Leiden. He was a great admirer of both René Descartes and Isaac Newton. Among his publications were Het Nut der Mechanistische Methode in de Geneeskunde (The Utility of the Mechanistic Method in Medicine, 1703), Institutiones medicae (Medical Institutions, 1708), Aphorismi de cognoscendis et curandis morbis (Aphorisms of Knowledge and Curing Diseases, 1709), and Elementa chemiae (Elemental Chemistry, 1732). The genus Boerhavia was published in his honor in 1754 by British botanist Philip Miller. (ref. genus Boerhavia)
  • Bogenhard'ia: named for Carl Friedrich Adolph Bogenhard (1811-1863), German pharmacist and botanist. He first worked as a pharmacist and lived in Jena and Rudolfstadt, and in 1852 travelled to North America. When he first arrived in the U.S. from Germany, he wrote to Asa Gray with a letter of recommendation from Dr. Reichenbach, and entered into several communications with John Torrey, expressing the difficulty he was having and the fact that he had apparently been swindled out of most of his finances such as they were. He entered into an apothecary business in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. He was the co-author of Taschenbuch der Flora von Jena (Pocket Book of the Flora of Jena). The genus Bogenhardia was published in 1841 by Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach. (ref. genus Bogenhardia)
  • Boisduval'ia: after Jean Baptiste Alphonse Dechauffour de Boisduval (1801-1879), a French naturalist,
      botanist, lepidopterist, entomologist and physician. He was one of the most respected lepidopterists of France and the co-founder of the Société entomologique de France. He began his career in the field of botany and collected a great number of plant specimens in France. He was the author of the textbook Flore francaise (1828), Faune entomologique de l'Océan Pacifique, Histoire naturelle des insectes and a number of other works. His brother was Adolphe-Armand Dechauffour de Boisduval, a doctor, naturalist, and health officer in their native Ticheville.
    Wikipedia says: “Early in his career, he was interested in Coleoptera and allied himself with both Jean Théodore Lacordaire and Pierre André Latreille. He was the curator of the Pierre Françoise Marie Auguste Dejean collection in Paris and described many species of beetles, as well as butterflies and moths, resulting from the voyages of the Astrolabe, the expedition ship of Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse and the Coquille, that of Louis Isidore Duperrey. Boisduvalia. a genus now placed in Epilobium, was originally published in 1835 by French botanist Édouard Spach. (ref. former genus Boisduvalia)
  • bo'landeri: named after Henry Nicholas Bolander (1831-1897), a collector of plants in Yosemite National
      Park and California State Botanist in 1864. The following is quoted from a website of the Harvard University Herbaria: "Henry Nicholas Bolander was born in Schleuchtern, Germany and emigrated to the United States in 1846, at the age of 15. At the encouragement of his uncle, he entered the Lutheran Seminary in Columbus, Ohio. Bolander completed this course of study and was ordained but never became a minister. In 1851 he began teaching in the German-English schools. During this time he was introduced to the study of plants by his neighbor, Leo Lesquereux, a paleobotanist
    and bryologist. Bolander suffered ill health for a number of years, prompting his physician recommended a change of climate. Based on this advice, Bolander decided in 1861 to move to California, where he became acquainted with many members of the California Academy of Sciences and the State Geological Survey. In 1864 he succeeded W. H. Brewer as the State Botanist of California and began making collections for the Survey. Bolander collected cryptogams and flowering plants, and became a specialist on grasses. He would continue this connection with the State Geological Survey until it was discontinued. His published works include A Catalogue of Plants Growing in the Vicinity of San Francisco (1870), as well as papers on California grasses that were published in the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. In 1871, Bolander's career took a turn away from botany and back towards his previous vocation, education. He was elected as of State Superintendent of Schools, an office which he held until December 1875. He was also the editor of a monthly magazine, California Teacher. In 1878 Bolander left California and traveled for several years. It is known that he went Guatemala, Chile and Peru; it is likely that he was also in South Africa, Madagascar and Europe. Bolander returned to the Pacific Coast in 1883 and settled in Portland, Oregon. He once again returned to education, teaching modern languages and botany in St. Helen's Hall and Bishop Scott Academy until his death in 1897." (ref. Astragalus bolanderi, Calamagrostis bolanderi, Carex bolanderi, Cinna bolanderi, Galium bolanderi, Horkelia bolanderi, Isoetes bolanderi, Lithophragma bolanderi, Madia bolanderi, Mimulus bolanderi, Poa bolanderi, Scribneria bolanderi, Scutellaria bolanderi)
  • Bolan'dra: see previous entry. (ref. genus Bolandra)
  • Bolboschoen'us: from the Greek bolbos, "a bulb, onion," and the related genus Schoenus. (ref. genus Bolboschoenus)
  • bollea'num: after Carl August Bolle (1821-1909), German naturalist and collector who studied medicine
      and natural science at Berlin and Bonn, visited the Cape Verde and Canary Islands, and was a founding member of the German Ornithological Society. In addition to a number of plant species named after him, and the genus Bollea published in 1852 by Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach,  he had two birds named after him, Columba bollii or Bolle’s laurel pigeon, and Phoeniculus bollei, the white-headed wood-hoopoe. The herbarium that he left to the Berlin-Dahlen Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum was largely destroyed in the Second World War. He corresponded with George
    Engelmann and was the author of Meiner Zweiter Beitrage zur Vogelkunde der Canarischen Inseln (My Second Contribution to the Ornithology of the Canary Islands, 1857) and Die Palmen (The Palms, 1857) and co-author of Die Wirbeltiere der Provinz Brandenburg (The Vertebrates of the Province Brandenburg, 1886). In 1855 he was elected a member of the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina which is now the German National Academy of Sciences. (ref. Phoradendron bolleanum)
  • Bommeria: named for (Joseph) Jean-Édouard Bommer (1828-1895), Belgian botanist specializing in the field of
      pteridology. He was born and died in Brussels. He worked from an early age, after the death of his father, as a typesetter in a printing house, but at the same time despite having no formal training developed a great interest in botany during his many visits to the nearby Établissement Géographique de Bruxelles. In 1856 he acquired a position as an assistant at the Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, and later served as curator and as a provisional director. In 1862 Bommer was co-founder of the Société royale de botanique de Belgique. He was also co-founder of the
    Société Belge de Microscopie. In 1870 he was appointed as a botany teacher at the Rijkstuinbouwschool van Vilvoorde, and in 1872 exchanged this post for a chair in botanics at the University of Brussels, where he taught courses of botany, first as extraordinary professor and from 1879 as full professor.  Bommer did research on plant systems and physiology, with ferns being his special interest. He wrote a large number of articles for the Bulletin de la Société royale de botanique de Belgique. At the time of his death, he was working on a monograph of the maidenhair fern genus Adiantum. He was married to mycologist Elisa Caroline Bommer née Destrée (1832-1910). (ref. genus Bommeria)
  • bonarien'sis: of or from Buenos Aires. (ref. Erigeron bonariensis)
  • bonan'nii: named for Vincenzo Bonanno (?-?) and/or Antonio Bonanno (?-1719), possibly a Sicilian botanist, possibly author of a work entitled Sicilian-Latin Botanical Dictionary. (ref. Trifolium fragiferum ssp. bonannii)
  • bongardia'na/bongard'ii: named for German botanist August Gustavus Heinrich Bongard (1786-1839). He worked mostly at St. Petersburg. Wikipedia says: “He was among the first botanists to describe the new plants then being discovered in Alaska (under Russian ownership at the time), including species now of major commercial importance like Sitka Spruce and Red Alder. The specimens he described were mostly collected by Carl Mertens at Sitka, Alaska.” He was honored with the genus name Bongardia, published in 1831 by Carl Anton Meyer. (ref. Alsine bongardiana, Ranunculus bongardii, Saxifraga bongardii)
  • bonjean'ii: named for Joseph (Jean) Louis Bonjean (1780-1846), French pharmacist and botanist at Chambery and director of the botanical garden there. He collected on Sardinia and was the author of Traité théorique et pratique de l'Ergot de Seigle, and a history of the potato in 1836. The genus Bonjeanea was published in 1832 by Heinrich Ludwig Gottlieb Reichenbach. ( ref. Dicranum bonjeanii)
  • bonplandia'na/bonpland'ii: named for Aimé Jacques Alexandre Goujaud Bonpland (1773-1858). French explorer
      and botanist who traveled with Alexander von Humboldt in Latin America from 1799 to 1804. Wikipedia says that he was born as Aimé Jacques Alexandre Goujaud, although his father’s name was Simon-Jacques Goujaud-Bonpland. David Hollombe provided this clarification about his name: “According to Hamy, the family name dating back to the sixteenth century was Goujaud and the name of Bonplant, later Bonpland, was not adopted until about 1778 by Aime's father, Simon Jacques Goujaud, upon whom it had originally been bestowed as a nickname in allusion to the fact
    that his father had planted a “bon plant de la vigne" upon the date of his birth.” Aimé apparently subsequently decided to treat it as his surname. The source for this information was Ernest Théodore Hamy, “Aimé Bonpland, médecin et naturaliste, explorateur de l'Amérique du Sud; sa vie, son oeuvre, sa correspondance avec un choix de pièces relatives à sa biographie, un portrait et une carte.” Aimé was born in La Rochelle, France, and in 1790 he joined his brother Michael in Paris where folowing in the footsteps of their father they both studied medicine. They attended courses at the Botanical Museum of Natural History where among their instructors were Lamarck, de Jussieu and Desfontaines. Bonpland served as a surgeon in the French military. He befriended Alexander von Humboldt and joined him on a five-year journey through Mexico, Colombia, and the Orinoco and Amazon basins. He collected and classified about 6000 species that were mostly unknown in Europe, and published them in the multi-volume Plantes equinoxiales. The Empress Josephine installed him as superintendent of the gardens at Malmaison. In 1816 he took some European plants to Buenos Aires, where he was elected professor of natural history, but soon left his post to explore the interior of South America. In 1821 he established a colony in territory that was claimed by both Argentina and Paraguay. The colony was destroyed by the Paraguayan military and Aimé was arrested on suspicion of being a French spy, being held until released in 1829. While there he had some ability to move around on the Paraguayan side of the border and he served as a physician to local people and to the soldiers stationed nearby. After being released he went to Brazil and Uruguay, and then In 1853 returned to Corrientes Province in Argentina where he was the Curator of the Natural History Museum. He had planned to return to Paris but died at the age of 84 before that could be undertaken. His name is on a European botany journal that was initiated in 1853. (ref. Salix bonplandiana, Carex bonplandii)
  • bo'nus: good.
  • booth'ii: after William Beattie Booth (1804-1874), Scottish botanist, gardener and horticulturist, and close friend and countryman of Scottish collector David Douglas. He was a leading authority on Camellias and was co-author with Alfred Chandler of llustrations and Descriptions of the plants which compose the natural order Camellieae, and of the varieties of Camellia Japonica, cultivated in the gardens of Great Britain (1831). He was gardener to Sir Charles Lemon at Carclew, Cornwall, Assistant Secretary of the Horticultural Society and member of the Botanical Society of London. (ref. Eremothera boothii ssp. condensata, Eremopthera boothii ssp. desertorum, Eremothera boothii ssp. intermedia)
  • booth'ii: after William Edwin Booth (1908-1987), ecologist and botanist, and a man who has been described as having contributed more to our knowledge of the flora of Montana than any other individual. (ref. Salix boothii)
  • boot'tii: named for botanist William Boott (1805-1887), born and died in Boston. He was younger brother of physician and botanist Dr. Francis M.B. Boott (1792-1863), John Wright Boott (1788-1845), who maintained a large and acclaimed collection of orchids, and for whom the species Prenanthes boottii, which he discovered in New Hampshire’s White Mountains, was named, and Kirk Boott (1790-1837), one of the founders of Lowell, Massachusetts. He was educated at Exeter Academy in New Hampshire and Harvard, although he was forced to withdraw for medical reasons before receiving a degree.  The website Biographies of people who contributed plants to the Putnam Museum Herbarium says:. “Early on, Boott became an accomplished linguist, but apparently was persuaded to enter the field of botany by his brother Francis. William published one paper in the Botanical Gazette in 1884, "Notes on Cyperaceae". He also contributed the report on the Cyperaceae in Rothrock's "Reports Upon the Botanical Collections Made in Portions of Nevada, Utah, California, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona" (Boott 1878) and he wrote the Carex revision in the "Botany of California" (Boott 1880). In addition to his work on the Cyperaceae, William Boott studied the native flora of Massachusetts in general and Isoetes and the Poaceae specifically. Only eight of William Boott's specimens are present in the Putnam Museum herbarium, but hundreds of W. Boott plant collections may be reviewed at the Harvard University Herbaria database.” (ref. Carex deflexa var. boottii)
  • Bora'go: an ancient name of uncertain origin, possibly from the Latin burra, "a hairy garment," alluding to the hairy leaves. This is the name that gives the family Boraginaceae its name. (ref. genus Borago)
  • borea'le/borea'lis: northern. (ref. Glyceria borealis, Linaea borealis, Microseris borealis, Wolffia borealis)
  • borea'li-atlan'tica: of or from the northern Atlantic region. (ref. Elytrigia juncea ssp. boreali-atlantica)
  • borregan'us: of or from the Borrego area. (ref. Astragalus lentiginosus var. borreganus)
  • borregoen'se: see previous entry. (ref. Galium angustifolium ssp. borregoense)
  • borreria'num: after British botanist William Borrer (1781-1862), the father of British lichenology. He was
      one of the leading botanists of the first half of the 19th century and his knowledge of lichen flora at that time was almost without parallel. He was born in Sussex. His father was the High Sheriff of Sussex. He received his first education at Hurstpierpoint and Carshalton in Surrey but left school at an early age and continued schooling under private tutors. Though his father encouraged him to follow an agricultural course, he was inclined toward medicine, but took up botany, travelling to all parts of Britain to study and collect plants. In 1805 he was elected a Fellow of the Linnean
    Society and he also became a member of the Royal Society and Wernerian Society of Natural History in Edinburgh. One of his sons was the noted British ornithologist William Borrer (1814-1898), author of The Birds of Sussex. (ref. Isopteryium borrerianum) (Photo credit: National Portrait Gallery)
  • Boschniak'ia: after a Russian botanist named Alexander Karlovich Boschniak (1786-1831) who was descended from a wealthy noble family. From the age of 13 he was brought up in a university boarding school in Moscow. He served as an official in various departments of the government. In his travels in the southern and western regions of Russia, he collected numerous botanical specimens, and published their results (1820-1821) in two volumes entitled "Afternoon notes of A. Boshnyak's travel to different regions of western and southern Russia, in 1815", which provides a lot of floral data about the places visited by him. He also made significant collections of insects. (ref. genus Boschniakia)
  • Bothriochlo'a: from the Greek bothros, "a pit or hole," and chloe or chloa, "grass." (ref. genus Bothriochloa)
  • Botry'chium: from the Greek botrys, "a bunch of grapes," alluding to the bunchlike appearance of the spore-bearing organs of these ferns. (ref. genus Botrychium)
  • Botry'pus: from botrys, "a bunch of grapes," and the suffix -pus, which alludes to 'a foot,' of uncertain application. (ref. genus Botrypus)
  • botryo'ides: resembling a cluster of grapes. (ref. Muscari botryoides)
  • bo'trys: a cluster of grapes. (ref. Dysphania botrys, Erodium botrys)
  • bot'tae: after the variously named Paulo Emilio Botta or Paul-Émile Botta (1802-1870), Italian/French
      diplomat and archeologist, about whom the ever dependable David Hollombe provides the following information: "Born at Turin, raised at Paris. Surgeon and naturalist on French trading ship, Heros (in California 1827-1828). From 1830-1869, army physician, explorer and consul in the Middle East, where he discovered the ruins of the Assyrian capital, Ninevah, in 1843." Actually, while he believed he was excavating Ninevah, he was in reality uncovering the great palace of the Assyrian King Sargon II, who ruled from 721 to 705BC, at Khorsabad, 15 miles
    to the north of Ninevah, which was the Assyrian capital until Sargon's death and the rise to power of his son Sennacherib, who moved the capital to Ninevah. In 1830, Botta was the personal physician to Mohammed Ali Pashi of Egypt, in 1833 the French consul in Alexandria, and in 1840 became a Consular agent in Iraq where in 1842 he began the excavations at Khorsabad. During his visit to California he collected the type specimen of Charina bottae, the southern rubber boa, and also sent the first specimen of the road runner to France. He was among the first Italians to visit Hawaii, where he spent two months in 1828, and his experiences and observations were included by his father Carlo Botta in his book entitled Viaggio Interno al Globo principalmente alla California ed alle Isole Sandwich. He wrote his own book Observations on the Inhabitants of California 1827-1828, and his name was also given to the pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, and to Euphorbia bottae. Botta wrote Monument de Nineve in 1849-1850, which consisted of one volume of text and four volumes of illustrations by the artist E.N. Flandin. Botta became a scholar of cuneiform, and was consul in Jerusalem in 1846 and in Syria in 1868. (ref. Clarkia bottae)
  • bouchon'ii: after a French botanist or plant collector named Albert Jean Victor Bouchon (1881-1948), about whom I have no information except that he apparently was an assistant at the Botanical Garden of Bordeaux and collected the type specimen in Bordeaux in 1925. His father was (Elie Joseph) Georges Bouchon (1852-1939), private secretary to the mayor of Bordeaux and an local officer in the Union Républicaine, a political party. (ref. Amaranthus powellii ssp. bouchonii)
  • Bougainvil'lea: named in honor of Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811), the noted mathematician,
      scientist, lawyer, soldier, author and Fellow of the Royal Society of London, who from 1767 to 1769 sailed around the world. Several South Pacific place names commemorate him, such as a reef in the Coral Sea, an island near Papua New Guinea that was important in WWII, a strait in the Solomon Islands, and a cape in western Australia. It was in the early stages of his trip around the world that he met with his supply ship in Rio de Janeiro, and learned that a botanist named Commerson on that ship had discovered a shrubby climbing plant which he named in honor of the
    captain. He was the first Frenchman to sail around the world, made important astronomical observations whhich contributed to later navigational charts, was appointed secretary to Louis XV, served as commodore of a French fleet off the coast of North America supporting the American Revolution, escaped the massacres of Paris in 1792, and was made a Senator, Count and member of the Legion of Honor by Napolean. (ref. genus Bougainvillea)
  • bourgeauan'um: after Eugene Bourgeau (1813-1877), a French botanist. "Eugene Bourgeau was the botanist
      on the Palliser Expedition [1857-1860], his career having begun with his love of flowers in the French Alps where he tended his father's herds. Sir William Hooker, the first Director of Kew Gardens in London, had received many specimens from distant lands through Bourgeau's work. He referred to Eugene Bourgeau as a 'prince of botanical collectors,' and recommended him to those who were organizing the expedition. Bourgeau was not a disappointment. During his time with the Expedition he collected specimens from eight hundred and nineteen species as well as a great
    quantity of seeds. John Palliser wrote that, 'Little Bourgeau is a brick, his collections seem to me very pretty an the colours as vivid after the specimens are saved as they are in life. He is most indefatigable and always at work.' As a horseman however, Palliser described him as, 'shocking' and Bourgeau travelled most of the journey across the prairies riding in a Red River cart. Bourgeau accompanied James Hector up the Bow Valley as far as Cascade Mountain. When Bourgeau left the expedition in 1859 to fulfill a previous commitment to do botanical work in London and in the Caucasus in Europe, he had obviously made an impression with Palliser and other members of the expedition. Palliser wrote that Bourgeau was, 'always hard at his work in which his whole soul seems engrossed, and no matter what his fatigues or privations may be, his botanical specimens are always his first care. We were very sorry indeed to lose our friend, who was a great favourite with us all. In addition to his acquirements as a botanist, he united the most sociable, jovial disposition, ever ready not only to do his own work, but assist anyone else who asked him.'" (Quoted from an interesting website called Peakfinder.com, which provides information on the peaks of the Canadian Rockies). (ref. Lepidium ramosissimum var. bourgeauanum)
  • boursieri: after Charles Germain de Boursier de la Rivière (1800-1879). David Hollombe provided the following: "[He] came to California in the gold rush and was hired as agent at Mokelumne Hill by the French consul in San Francisco (Guillaume Patrice Dillon).  He helped establish several hospitals and carried reports back to Paris.He also collected plants and seeds, including the types of Juniperus californicus and Aquilegia eximia and the strawberries that were used to breed the first everbearing cultivars. On his return he was unable to find a buyer for his collection in France and ended up selling it in Belgium.  He spent the latter part of his life at Jussas in Charente Maritime." (ref. Holodiscus boursieri)
  • Boussingault'ia: named for Jean-Baptiste Joseph Dieudonné Boussingault (1801-1887), French chemist who made
      significant contributions to agricultural science, petroleum science and metallurgy. He was born in Paris and studied at the school of mines at Saint-Etienne, following which he went to Alsace to work for two years in the asphalt mines. Next he went with the Peruvian geologist Mariano Rivero to Venezuela as a mining engineer on behalf of an English company contracted by General Simón Bolivar, and in Urao lagoon near Lagunillas, Merida State, Venezuela, he discovered the mineral Gaylussite. He was attached to the staff of General Bolivar and travelled widely in the northern
    parts of the continent. Returning to France, he was married to a woman whose family had the concession to the asphalt mines where he had previously worked. He became a professor of chemistry at Lyon  and in 1839 was appointed to the chair of agricultural and analytical chemistry at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers in Paris and was elected to the Académie des Sciences. In 1848 he was elected to the National Assembly representing Alsace. Early in his career he wrote papers on such subjects as the cause of goitre in the Cordilleras, the gases of volcanoes, earthquakes and tropical rain, but from 1836 he devoted himself primarily to agricultural and mineral chemistry and animal and vegetable physiology. In 1839, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He established the world’s first agricultural experimental station in Alsace and made a series of discoveries that were to become the foundation of the modern agriculture. Among his agricultural discoveries were the benefits of crop rotation and soil fertility, ammonia in rainwater, and the ability of legume crops to add nitrogen to soil. The mineral Boussingaultite is named after him. He was the author of Économie rurale, 2 vols. (Paris, 1843–1844, 1851), Agronomie, chimie agricole et physiologie, 2nd ed., rev. and enl., 8 vols. (Paris, 1860–1891), and Mémoires de J.-B. Boussingualt, 5 vols. (Paris, 1892–1903). He died in Paris. The genus Boussingaultia was published in 1825 by Karl Sigismund Kunth. (ref. genus Boussingaultia)
  • Boutelou'a: named after the brothers Claudio (1774-1842) and Estéban (1776-1813) Boutelou Agraz, Spanish botanists and horticulturists of Swiss or French descent. Claudio was a botanist, agronomist and a professor of agriculture in Madrid. He studied agriculture and horticulture in France and England from 1790 to 1798 and met there Lamarck and l'Héritier and worked in the Royal Gardens of Paris. He also became chief gardener of the Botanical Garden of Madrid. Estéban was also a botanist and agronomist and worked closely with his brother throughout his life. When the French wanted to use the Botanical Garden for fortifications, it was Estéban who prevented this. They were descended from a family that had included many celebrated gardeners and had been called to Spain by Felipe V. The genus Bouteloua was published by Spanish botanist Mariano Lagasca y Segura in 1805. (ref. genus Bouteloua)
  • bowerman'iae: after Mary Leolin Bowerman (1909-2005), American botanist, co-author of The Flowering Plants and
      Ferns of Mount Diablo, California; Their Distribution and Association into Plant Communities, and the co-founder of Save Mount Diablo. She was born in Toronto and moved with her parents to Pasadena when she was a teenager. Her parents moved with her to Berkeley when she enrolled at UC Berkeley, where she eventually earned a doctorate in botany in 1936. They later moved to Lafayette, California in 1954, to the same house where Miss Bowerman died. One of her professors in graduate school was Willis Lynn Jepson and her doctoral thesis was the flora of Mt.
    Diablo. In 2005, the same year she died, the Mt. Diablo buckwheat, Eriogonum truncatum, which she had been in 1936 the last person to knowingly see, was rediscovered. She co-founded the activist group Save Mount Diablo in 1971 and served on its Board of Directors until her death. She was honored with the species name Arctostaphylos bowermaniae. She received many awards for her Diablo preservation efforts and was the subject of interviews, news articles, and editorials including in photographer Galen Rowell’s book Bay Area Wild, 1997. She died at the age of 97. (ref. Arctostaphylos bowermaniae)
  • bo'wiei: after English botanist James Bowie (1789-1869). He was born in London the son of an Oxford Street seed merchant and little is known about his early education. He entered into the service of the Royal Gardens, Kew, in 1810, and worked there for four years. In 1814 he was appointed botanical collector to the gardens, with Allan Cunningham. At the behest of Joseph Banks, they went to Brazil for two years, making collections of plants and seeds. Two years later Bowie was ordered to the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa where he arrived from Brazil in November 1816.  He gathered collections of living and dried plants and made drawings for the Kew herbarium. He wrote “…no places are so productive as the Cape of Good Hope … the plants of this country are beautiful in the extreme and suit the conservatory.” In 1823 a vote of the House of Commons having reduced the sum granted for botanical collectors, Bowie was recalled home and dismissed. Another factors in his recall may have been Bowie's apparent habit of purposefully providing insufficient and false or misleading location details for plants, and his alleged riotous life style while in the field. He took up residence at Kew. In 1827 he decided to permanently settle in the Cape Colony and in 1829 he wrote the earliest guide to the Cape flora printed in South Africa (1829) and later collected plants for horticulture on a consignment basis. He became a correspondent of William Henry Harvey, who dedicated the genus Bowiea to him. He was employed as a gardener to the Baron Carl von Ludwig and left that employment in 1841 to spend most of his time making journeys into the interior to collect plants for sale. During the latter part of his life he was engaged as a gardener by Ralph H. Arderne at his gardens at Claremont, Cape Colony, outside Cape Town. He died in poverty in 1869. Specimens he collected are held at the British Museum, London (Natural History) and at Kew. (ref. Oxalis bowiei)
  • Bowles'ia: after William Bowles (1705-1780), an Irish naturalist, traveler, and author of Introduccion a la historia natural, y a la geografía física de España published at Madrid, 1775. "William Bowles was born near Cork in 1720 (some references state 1705). Little is known about his early life. He studied law in London and then went to Paris (1740) where he studied natural history, chemistry, metallurgy and astronomy. He subsequently travelled through France and Germany studying natural history and mineral and other productions. In 1752, having become acquainted with Don Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795), afterwards Admiral of the Spanish Fleet, Bowles was inducted to superintend the Spanish State mines, form a natural history collection and establish a chemical laboratory to study platinum and its alloys. One of his early successes was to visit the Almaden [e has accent] mercury mines that had been damaged by fire, and the plans he proposed were successfully adopted for their resuscitation. Also, Bowles’s research on platinum caused him to refute the ideas current at the time that platinum was merely an alloy of iron and gold. Afterwards Bowles travelled extensively in Spain, observing the flora and fauna, and commenting on the inhabitants and their customs as well as collecting information on the mineral deposits of Spain. His society was much valued in the ‘best’ Spanish circles. Bowles’s principal work, An Introduction to the Natural History and Physical geography of Spain, was published in Spanish in Madrid in 1775. This book has considerable value, being the first work of its kind. Bowles had difficulty learning Spanish and enlisted the help of friends to translate important documents. Don J.N. de Azara (Spanish ambassador at Rome) helped him in preparing the first edition of his book. It was later translated into several languages [although apparently not into English]. In his work Bowles observed the geology, flora and fauna of Spain and collected mineral and biological specimens. He described the action of the sea on the coastline and made notes on springs and groundwater and the extinct Spanish volcanoes. Because of his familiarity with German geological thinking and with the geology of France and the Alps he appreciated the idea of geological uniformity and could put Spanish formations into context. Specific references to Ireland in the book include the assertion that the potato came to Ireland from Galicia (NW Spain), and a comment on the success of importing Irish Wolfhounds to Spain in keeping down the Spanish wolf population. Ulluoa convinced King Ferdinand VI in 1752 of the need to establish a Council of Natural History to consolidate the teaching of mineralogy, botany and zoology. The Museum of Natural History was founded in Madrid in 1753 with Ulluoa as Director and Bowles as principal scientist. Bowles introduced the heather Daboecia Cantabrica, previously found in NW Spain and Ireland, to England. Also a genus of plant from Peru related to the carrot, Bowlesia, was named after him. Bowles married a German woman Anna Rustein and she accompanied him frequently on his travels around Spain as they were very devoted to each other. They moved house so many times that, to avoid putting their furniture in storage, they sold it each time a long trip was planned. Anna was pensioned by the King of Spain after her husband’s death in 1780. Although Bowles had an initial bad reaction to Spain, declaring that "All Spain was stupid, lethargic, poor, dirty, jealous and melancholy," he quickly changed his mind and, as already described, became well accepted in Spanish society. He observed and commented on the similarity between Spanish and Irish people. In particular he observed the peasants of Vizcaya in the Basque region noting their love of fairs and dancing, resembling Irish celebrations of feast-days of Patron Saints. He described the tradition of ‘fist-fights’ at these fairs in both countries and noted that serious injury was seldom sustained. He compared the ‘Sheebeens’ of Ireland with the ‘Chacoli’ of Vizcaya, both venues for drinking illicit liquor. He decided that the women of Ireland and of Vizcaya greatly resembled each other and asserted that "the Irish have always professed a great love for the Spanish nation." William Bowles died on August 25, 1780 in Madrid and is buried in the Church of San Martin. He made a remarkable contribution to science in general and to Spanish science in particular. Not only was he a fine scientist, but he was generally a fine fellow, described by his contemporaries as tall and fine-looking, generous, honourable, active, ingenious and well-informed." This entry is quoted from an online article entitled "William Bowles, Unrecognized Irish-Born Scientist," by William Reville, University College, Cork, which first appeared in The Irish Time, May 17, 2001, and is based almost entirely on a history of the life and work of William Bowles compiled by George Reynolds, a winner of the Aer Lingus Young Scientist competition in 1968 (ref. genus Bowlesia)
  • bow'maniae: after Frances Agnes Bowman (1873-1931), daughter of George Francis and Mary Vansant (Coryell) Bowman, she was born in Shanghai. Her father worked for the Pacific Mail steamship line before returning to San Francisco and going into real estate. “Bowman, Frances Agnes. School teacher; born in Shanghai, China, 22 Aug. 1873, died in San Francisco, Calif., 16 Apr. 1931. Came to San Francisco when one year old and was educated there; graduated from Stanford University in 1896 where she majored in botany; her interest in botany, and in a beautiful garden, continued through many years while she taught school in San Francisco; at one time she assisted Alice Eastwood in the herbarium, donating her services. Both she and her mother, Mary C. Bowman, were charter members of the Calif. Bot. Club and both brought many specimens to the Academy.” (Biographical Notes on Persons In Whose Honor Alice Eastwood Named Native Plants (Ella Dales Cantelow and Herbert Clair Cantelow, Leaflets of Western Botany, 1957). (ref. Navarretia bowmaniae)
  • boydii: named for Steven (‘Steve’) Douglas Boyd (1957- ), author of Vascular Flora of the Liebre Mountains, Western Transverse Ranges, California, and co-author with Timothy Ross, Orlando Mistretta and David Bramlet of the monograph “Vascular Flora of the San Mateo Canyon Wilderness Area, Cleveland National Forest, California.” He was born in Riverside, California, and attended the University of California, Riverside. He received a Bachelor’s degree in biology in 1980 and worked as a herbarium assistant. From 1980 to 1985 he worked as a botanical consultant for Tierra Madre Consultants. He was awarded a Master’s degree in 1983 and in 1985 began to work as a herbarium technician at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. His positions there eventually included Herbarium Manager (1986-1993), Herbarium Administrative Curator (1993-1999) and finally Herbarium Curator in 1999. He was named Curator Emeritus and Research Associate in 2009. He was Curator of the Herbarium at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden and served as an editor of the Jepson Flora Project at UC Berkeley. He is currently working on a floristic manual of California’s southern seven counties. At various times in the past he has been the president, vice-president and director-at-large for Southern California Botanists. He has conducted taxonomic work on members of the Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae and Rhamnaceae families. JSTOR says: “[He conducted] extensive fieldwork in the wildland regions of the southernmost counties of this state (Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and San Diego), concentrating particularly on western Riverside County the Santa Ana Mountains region of the Peninsular Ranges, the Liebre and San Gabriel Mountains regions of the Transverse Ranges, and various portions of the Mojave Desert. His fieldwork has been largely floristic in nature, focusing on the vascular plants and in particular studying the relative importance of annual plants to floristic diversity in various habitats of southern California. Highlights in his career include the discovery and description of Ceanothus ophiochilus. S. Boyd, T.S. Ross and Arnseth (Rhamnaceae) and Sibaropsis hammittii S. Boyd and T.S. Ross (Brassicaceae), both narrowly endemic species from Riverside County. Boyd was involved in efforts to secure State and Federal protection for the former of these species, and the latter, a new Brassicaceae genus. To a lesser degree Boyd has also collected in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada and Utah as well as in Mexico (in the coastal, desert, and montane areas of Baja California and Baja California Sur and a small amount in Morelos). In 1990 he visited Inner Mongolia, China where he also collected plants. His taxonomic and systematic work has focused on the genera Ceanothus L. (Rhamnaceae), Arabis L., Boechera Á. Löve and D. Löve, and Sibaropsis S. Boyd & T.S. Ross (Brassicaceae), and Lepechinia Willd. (Lamiaceae).” He is a member of the California Botanical Society, the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, and the California Native Plant Society. (ref. Monardella boydii)
  • Boykin'ia: after Dr. Samuel Boykin (1786-1848), an eminent field botanist born in South Carolina who did the majority of his collecting in Georgia. He was one of the many collectors who sent significant numbers of plant samples to John Torrey and Asa Gray. (ref. genus Boykinia)
  • brace'linae: named for Nina Floy (Perry) Bracelin (Mrs. Harry P. Bracelin) (1890-1973), American botanist and illustrator who worked as assistant to Alice Eastwood at the herbarium of the California Academy of Sciences.  She was born in Star Lake, Minnesota, and was schooled by private tutors before entering the University of California at Berkeley. Her mother encouraged her to study medicine but she became interested in botany. Later, while working as an assistant researcher in the university's herbarium she met the acquaintance of Mexican-American plant collector Ynes Mexia and Bracelin set to work on her vast but disorganised herbarium. From 1928 she labelled specimens and sent them to experts for identification, developing a large network of correspondents. She married Harry P. Bracelin and became known to her friends and family as Bracie. She is sometimes referred to as Nina Floy Burfield because that was her mother’s name before she married Edwin Perry, and her mother subsequently went back to using Burfield and insisted that he daughter also use that last name. I have found no evidence however that she did. After helping Ynes Mexia with organizing, documenting and labelling some 145,000 specimens that she had collected, she became a full-time employee, but because of downsizing and lack of funds in the wake of the depression she was let go in the mid-thirties.  Mexia died in 1938 but she left a small bequest to the California Academy of Sciences to employ Bracie as a research assistant to its Curator of botany Alice Eastwood. She later worked at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Western Laboratory in Albany, California, producing botanical illustrations. In 1948 she was selected by the Academy as a lifetime member in recognition of her contributions. She was also honored with several plant names. She died in Berkeley in 1973 after a long illness. (ref. Salix lasiolepis var. bracelinae)
  • brachia'tus: branched at right angles. (ref. Streptanthus brachiatus)
  • brachy-: a prefix indicating the characteristic of being short, same as brevi-.
  • brachyan'therum: with short anthers. (ref. Hordeum brachyantherum ssp. californicum)
  • brachyan'thum/brachyan'thus: short-flowered. (ref. Eriogonum brachyanthum, Penstemon procerus var. brachyanthus)
  • brachyca'lyx: having a short calyx. (ref. Lewisia brachycalyx)
  • brachycar'pa/brachycar'pum: having short fruit. (ref. Descurainia pinnata ssp. brachycarpa, Epilobium brachycarpum, Erodium brachycarpum)
  • brachycer'as: short-horned.
  • brachychae'tum: from brachys, "short," and chaeta, "a bristle." (ref. Achnatherum brachychaetum)
  • brachycla'da: short-jointed or short-branched.
  • brachyle'pis: with short scales. (ref. Ericameria brachylepis)
  • brachylo'ba/brachylo'bus: short-lobed. (ref. Orobanche parishii ssp. brachyloba, Phacelia brachyloba)
  • brachyphyl'la: short-leaved. (ref. Baccharis brachyphylla, Festuca brachyphylla)
  • brachypo'da/brachypo'dum: from the Greek brachys, "short," and podion, "a little foot," thus meaning "short-footed" in reference to the pedicels of the spikelets. (ref. Osmorhiza brachypoda, Eriogonum brachypodum)
  • Brachypo'dium: see brachypoda/brachypodum above. (ref. genus Brachypodium)
  • brachyp'tera: short-winged.
  • brachysper'ma: short-seeded. (ref. Elatine brachysperma)
  • brachysta'chys: with a short spike. (ref. Phalaris brachystachys)
  • brachyste'mon: with short stamens. (ref. Plectritis brachystemon)
  • bractea'ta/bractea'tus: bearing bracts. (ref. Gutierrezia bracteata, Verbena bracteata, Plagiobothrys bracteatus)
  • bracteo'sa/bracteo'sum/bracteo'sus: with well-developed or conspicuous bracts. (ref. Isocoma acradenia var. bracteosa, Orthocarpus bracteosus)
  • brad'buryi: after John Bradbury (1768-1823), English botanist noted for his travels in the United States Midwest and West in the early 19th Century and his eyewitness account of the New Madrid earthquake. Although described by a number of websites as Scottish, he was born like his father in Lancashire, England qand worked in the cotton mills of northern England. From an early age he was interested in natural history and botany. In 1792 he was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1792 and had collected plants in Cheshire before 1805. While living in Manchester, he petitioned the trustees of the Liverpool Botanic Garden to fund a visit to the United States to collect plants with the additional provision that he would work on improving the supply of cotton from America).  The dates are uncertain but he did travel to America met with Thomas Jefferson in 1809 who recommended that he should base his investigations in St. Louis, Missouri rather than New Orleans, Louisiana, and this he did, exploring the area and sending seeds back to Liverpool. In 1811 John Jacob Aster financed a venture which saw Bradbury, Thomas Nuttall, Wilson Price Hunt and other members of the Pacific Fur Company to explore the Missouri River. They proceeded on to the Platte where they negotiated trade with members of an Omaha tribe. Deciding to return to St. Louis, he travelled south and was near Chicksaw Bluffs (future site of Memphis, Tennessee) on 16 December 1811, on the Mississippi River when the New Madrid earthquake occurred. His first person account is reported as the only eyewitness account of the earthquake from a person with a scientific background. He then went on to New Orleans. Wikipedia says: “Bradbury documented 40 new species of plants by sending seeds to his son. Some of Bradbury's plants were documented, without Bradbury's permission, by Frederick Traugott Pursh in Flora americae septentrionalis; or A Systematic Arrangement and Description of The Plants of North America… Bradbury was "deeply offended [by Pursh's purloining of his botanical specimens] and with his fame as a collector and discover of new plants stolen, Bradbury did little in botany after that. Bradbury had intended to return to England but the War of 1812 delayed the return and he was to study the states east of the Mississippi and published an appendix to his Travels book entitled Remarks on the States of Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana, with the Illinois and Western Territory, and on the Emigrations to Those Countries.”  He went back to England finally in 1816 but returned to America shortly thereafter, spent some time in St. Louis and then settled in Kentucky where he died. (ref. Castilleja bradburyi)
  • Bra'hea: after Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), the great Danish astronomer. He was born Tyge Ottesen Brahe at his
      family's ancestral seat of Knutstorp Castle, Denmark, and adopted the Latinized form Tycho for his name around age 15. He had a twin brother who died at birth. He grew up with an uncle, was engaged in Latin education from the ages of 6 to 12 probably at Nykøbing, and began his higher education at the age of 12 at the University of Copenhagen, where he studied law and other subjects including astronomy. It was an eclipse that occurred in 1560 and the fact that it had been predicted that really spurred his interest in astronomy which became his life’s work. He relied
    heavily on a classic work by Ptolemy which exists to this day with his scribbled notes in the margin. He finished the first phase of his education at the University of Leipzig and in 1566, Brahe left to study at the University of Rostock. In that same year he lost part of his nose in a rapier duel with another nobleman, and for the rest of his life had a prosthetic nose. Although never formally married, he and his commoner wife had eight children, six of who lived to adulthood. In 1572 he observed a “new” star which appeared and he determined that it was a fixed star beyond any of the planets, and he published De nova stella thus coining the term ‘nova.’ We now know that this was a supernova and its appearance absolutely cemented his decision to be an astronomer. Despite his scientific bent, he was still  a believer in astrology and acted as royal astrologer for the Crown and prepared almanacs and horoscopes. In 1588 the second volume of his Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata (Introduction to the New Astronomy) was published; the first volume not being ready was not published in his lifetime. He also produced a star catalog giving the positions of 1,000 stars. In 1599, he obtained the sponsorship of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor and moved to Prague, as Imperial Court Astronomer, he where worked closely with Johannes Kepler, an assistant. He died suddenly aa a result of a bladder or kidney ailment at the age of 54. He was significant especially for setting new standards for precise and objective measurements. He was the last major astronomer to study the heavens without the use of a telescope. The lunar crater Tycho is named in his honour, as is the crater Tycho Brahe on Mars. The genus Brahea was published in 1837 by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. (ref. genus Brahea)
  • brain'erdii: after Vermont botanist Ezra Brainerd (1844-1925), President of Middlebury College, graduated theological school at Middlebury, taught in English and rhetoric, physics and mathematics departments, distinguished himself as a plant systematist specializing in the difficult genera Crateagus, Viola, and Rubus, wrote a memorium for C.C. Pringle in Rhodora, father of Viola Brainerd Baird, author of Wild Violets of North America, published in 1942. (ref. Carex brainerd)
  • Brande'gea/brande'geeana/brande'geei: named for Townsend Stith Brandegee (1843-1925), a pioneer western
      botanist who collected throughout California, Baja and western Nevada. After the Civil War, Townsend studied at Yale with Professor William Brewer, just back from a survey expedition to California. During a period of railroad construction as a civil engineer in Colorado and New Mexico, he developed an interest in botany and was recommended for a post with the U.S. Geographical and Geological Survey by Professor Asa Gray. He gradually moved farther west, collecting in California and Baja, and eventually marrying Mary Katherine Layne Curran, who Mary Katherine Layne Curran
    was curator of botany for the California Academy of Sciences. For a honeymoon, they walked and botanized from San Diego to San Francisco. They founded a botanical journal, and donated their large botanical library and specimen collection to UC Berkeley. The genus Brandegea was published in 1890 by Célestin Alfred Cogniaux. Species names have been changed in the Jepson flora from brandegei to brandegeei and from brandegeana to brandegeeana. (ref. genus Brandegea, Cryptantha brandegeei, Justicia brandegeana, Mimulus brandegeei, Phacelia eisenii var. brandegeana, Salvia brandeei)
  • brande'geeae: named for Mary Katherine (Curran) Brandegee (nee Mary Katherine Layne) (1844-1920), noted
      American botanist known for her studies of California flora. She was born in western Tennessee the daughter of a farmer. She moved with her family to California at the age of five during the Gold Rush. When she was nine, they settled in Folsom. In 1866 she married Hugh Curran and stayed married to him until he died of alcoholism in 1874. A year later she moved to San Francisco to attend medical school at the University of California, and while there became interested in medicinal plants and botany. She got an M.D. in 1878 but chose to pursue botany rather than practice
    medicine. She joined the California Academy of Sciences, collected plants and worked in the herbarium alongside Albert Kellogg. When he retired in 1883 she became botanical curator, a position she held until 1893. In 1889 she married civil engineer and plant collector Townsend Stith Brandegee. For their honeymoon, the couple walked from San Diego to San Francisco collecting plants. She took up writing and editing to establish the Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences, which gave West Coast botanists the opportunity to publish their new species quickly rather than having them be transported to Asa Gray at Harvard. She also founded and contributed to the botanical journal Zoe. In 1891 she brought Alice Eastwood to the Academy as co-curator of the herbarium, and when she resigned two years later, Eastwood continued as sole curator. She moved with her husband to San Diego the following year, built a herbarium, and established San Diego’s first botanical garden, continuing to collect plants across California, Arizona and Mexico. In 1906 following the great earthquake, they moved back and donated over 76,000 specimens to UC Berkeley. Mary K. Brandegee died in 1920 at the age of 75. Species name has been changed in the Jepson flora from brandegeae to brandegeeae. (ref. Amsinckia brandegeeae, Elodea brandegeeae, Eriastrum brandegeeae) (Photo credit: Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation)
  • brannenii: named for Samuel Louis Brannan (1845-1931). An obituary on the Find-a-Grave website says: "Named after his father, one of the leading figures of the state's early history, he is the late Samuel L. Brannan, who died Thursday at the home of Mrs. J. E. Cassin, where he had lived for the past four years. Mr. Brannan will be buried by the side of his father in Mount Hope cemetery here. The varying fortunes of the Brannan family provide one of the most interesting tales of early California history. Mr. Brannan, born November 17, 1844, in New York, came around the Horn with his father and mother when less than two years old. At nine years of age, young Brannan and his three sisters were taken to Europe by their mother, and he was educated at Geneva as a mineralogist. He spent forty years of his life in Mexican mining operations and lost a fortune in the silver decline of 1898. For the past nine years he has lived in San Diego, ending his years in moderate circumstances, like his father before him." It also says: "Brannan Senior, at one time owned nearly the whole of Napa County, virtually every lot on Market Street, San Francisco, 2,000,000 acres in Mexico and 160,000 acres in Los Angeles County. (ref. Phacelia brannanii)
  • bran'scombii: after Donald Lee Branscomb (1932-2011). (ref. Polypodium californicum f. branscombii)
  • Brasen'ia: Umberto Quattrocchi says: "Derivation obscure, apparently from the plant's name in Guiana." Most references indicate derivation obscure. Rafinesque in 1828 said, "from a German botanist, Brasen" with no further details. However, James S. Pringle in a 1995 article in Sida, Contributions to Botany ("Possible Eponomy of the Generic Name Brasenia") suggests that there is good circumstantial evidence that the name does honor Christoph Brasen (1738-1774), a Danish surgeon and leader of the 1771 missionary expedition that established the Moravian mission of Nain on the coast of Labrador the purpose of which was to convert the Inuit residents there to Christianity, and served as its first superintendent. He died in 1774 when on the return trip a storm struck the exploratory voyage he was undertaking to explore the northern Labrador coast and establish a second mission post. The genus was named by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber who was a professor of natural history and director of the botanical garden at Erlangen, Bavaria. He was familiar with the Moravians and frequently received collected plant specimens from them. Brasen is known to have collected botanical specimens in Labrador and had developed a reputation for being "knowledgeable in botany." Although no direct provable link has been uncovered between Brasen and von Schreber, it is highly likely that upon hearing of the former's death, the suggestion was made that an honorific name be granted to some taxon on his behalf. (ref. genus Brasenia)
  • brasilien'sis: of or from Brazil. (ref. Wolffia brasiliensis)
  • Bras'sica: a Latin name for "cabbage." (ref. genus Brassica)
  • braun'ii: after Professor of botany Alexander Karl Heinrich Braun (1805-1877). The following is quoted
      from the Encyclopedia Britannica online: Braun was "chief botanist of the “nature philosophy” school, a doctrine attempting to explain natural phenomena in terms of the speculative theories that dominated early 19th-century German science. Despite his lifelong adherence to vitalistic principles, Braun added important qualifications to the cell theory—i.e., the concept of the cell as the basic unit of life. He also did much to elucidate the sex cycles of primitive plants. Collaborating with the German biologist Karl Schimper, he attempted to establish an idealized
    plant model based on their observation that the arrangement of leaves on the plant stem (phyllotaxy) in many cases describes a spiral pattern according to fixed geometric rules. Braun taught botany and zoology at the Karlsruhe Polytechnic School (1833–46) and was professor of botany at the University of Freiburg, Breisgau (1846–50), before holding the same position and serving as director of the botanical garden at the University of Berlin (1851–77). He devoted much of his career to the study of cryptogams (non-seed-bearing plants), which led him to his theoretical system of plant structure expounded in Betrachtungen über die Erscheinung der Verjüngung in der Natur . . . (1851; “Observations on the Appearance of Rejuvenation in Nature . . .”). While he argued against the inductive reasoning characteristic of empirical research, his work encouraged the systematic study of plant morphology; his recognition of the basic unity of organisms in form and function by defining the cell in terms of cytoplasm enveloped by a flexible membrane constitutes perhaps his most important contribution." He was the brother-in-law of Louis Agassiz. (ref. Equisetum telmateia ssp. braunii)
  • braunton'ii: after Ernest Braunton (1867-1954), a landscape architect who introduced the selling of macadamia nut seedling trees into California. He became associated in the nursery business with W.S. Lyon, and in 1915 published The Garden Beautiful in California: A Practical Manual for All Who Garden. (ref. Astragalus brauntonii)
  • Brayulin'ea: a composite name given in honor of two students of the family Amaranthaceae in North America,
      William L. Bray (1865-1953) (picture at left), American botanist, high school teacher in Iowa and Missouri, and head of the botany department and dean of the graduate school at Syracuse University whose areas of speciality were phytogeography, forest resources in Texas and New York, plant adaptive strategies, pest species, and plant ecology, and Edwin Burton Uline (1867-1933), botanist and New York high school principal. The genus Brayulinea was published in 1903 by John Kunkel Small. (ref. genus Brayulinea)
  • brecciar'um: I have been unable so far to get a certain meaning of this name. I am assuming that it has some relation to the words "breccia" (a rock consisting of sharp fragments embedded in a fine-grained matrix such as sand or clay) and/or "brecciate" (to form or break rock into breccia or fragments), and it may be a reference to the type of soil that a species having this name prefers or was found in. Argus gilia does grow in sandy places, and my indefatigable source David Hollombe contributes that the man responsible for naming that species (Jones) did have an interest in geology and gave the name 'brecciarum' to at least one other species. He also wrote geological and mining articles for "Mining Review" in 1900-1903. The type specimen of Gilia brecciarum was collected in Contact, Nevada where there are still a few families living and acting as caretakers for the town. (ref. Gilia brecciarum)
  • bree'a: after Robert Francis Bree (1746-1842), clergyman, botanist and plant collector. He was Curate of St. Giles, Camberwell, and a Fellow of the Linnean Society. (ref. genus Breea)
  • breed'lovei/breedlov'ei: after Dennis Eugene Breedlove (1939- ), who did his graduate work at Stanford under the direction of Peter Raven. In addition to doing valuable work in Kern County and the Piute Mountain region, Breedlove is a botanist and collector of plants, did extensive work in ethnobotany in the Chiapas region of Mexico, and was curator of the California Academy of Sciences herbarium. He also chaired the botany department and is now curator emeritus and a lifetime fellow of the California Academy of Sciences. He was co-author with Peter Raven of Principles of Tzeltal Plant Classification: An Introduction to the Botanical Ethnography of a Mayan-Speaking People of Highland Chiapas (1974) and with Robert Laughlin of The Flowering of Man: A Tzotzil Botany of Zinacantán (2000). He also authored in 1981 Introduction to the Flora of Chiapas. Breedlove is author or co-author of more than 40 botanical names, and of articles in scientific journals such as Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Brittonia, Novon and Systematic Botany. He did research work on California and Nevada plants especially in the Sweetwater Mountains. He has authored more than 40 plant names, has collected specimens of plants that are now considered either rare or extinct in the wild, and has also collected herpetological specimens. (ref. Eriogonum breedlovei)
  • Breid'leria: named for Johann Breidler (1828-1913), Austrian mason and architect. He was an amateur botanist known mainly for work in bryology. After completing elementary school, he completed a bricklayer apprenticeship, and then attended a technical school to study architecture and engineering in Berlin. After working for the Viennese architect Ludwig Christian Friedrich Forster and then receiving an inheritance, he retired into private life and devoted himself to botany. He attended lectures at the University of Vienna on the morphology and systematics of cryptogams. He had a particular affinity for alpine plants and became an expert in alpine bryoflora. He conducted numerous alpine expeditions and published a number of botanical works. In 1896 he moved from Vienna to Graz where his wife worked on his collections. He died in 1913. (ref. genus Breidleria)
  • Breitung'ia/breitung'ii: after August Johann Julius Breitung (1913-1987), Canadian botanist and aerospace draftsman interested in the flora of Saskatchewan. The following is quoted from the JSTOR website: "The son of immigrant German parents, August Breitung was born in Muenster, Saskatchewan and attended various schools in the Tisdale area. During the late 1940s he took night classes in English literature and composition at Carleton University in Ottawa. Breitung became an assistant to the botanist A.E. Porsild and conducted collecting expeditions on the Canol (Canadian Oil) Road in Yukon Territory (1944), Banff National Park (1945) and Jasper National Park (1946). Employed as an assistant technician at the Canadian Department of Agriculture's herbarium in Ottawa between 1946 and 1952 he collected privately around the Waterton Lakes National Park in 1953. Following this Breitung had a change of career, taking a course in applied aerodynamics at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, and from 1954 until around 1982 he worked as a draftsman in the aerospace industry in California. Largely self-trained as a botanist, Breitung is responsible for the collection of some 10,000 specimens from east-central Saskatchewan as well as several thousand from Cypress Hills and Waterton Lakes National Park. His work as a taxonomist resulted in a number of new varieties and forms and his major publications include Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Flora of Saskatchewan (1957) and The Agaves (1968). Breitung was married to Mathilde Presch but they had no children and he died in Lakewood, California, in 1987. (ref. genus Breitungia, Antennaria breitungii, Thalictrum breitungii)
  • brevi-: a prefix indicating the characteristic of being short, same as brachy-.
  • breviala'tus: short-winged. (ref. Lotus scoparius var. brevialatus)
  • brevibractea'tum: short-bracted. (ref. Zigadenus brevibracteatum)
  • brevicarina'ta: with a short keel. (ref. Collinsia torreyi var. brevicarinata)
  • brevicau'lis: short-stemmed. (ref. Lupinus brevicaulis)
  • brevicor'nu: short-horned. (ref. Chorizanthe brevicornu)
  • brevi'cula/brevi'culus: from the root word for "short" and the diminutive -cula, "little," thus "somewhat short." (ref. Hackelia brevicula, Linanthus breviculus)
  • brevicul'mis: short-stemmed. (ref. Festuca brachyphylla ssp. breviculmis)
  • bre'videns: short-toothed. (ref. Astragalus canadensis var. brevidens)
  • breviflor'a/breviflor'um: short-flowered. (ref. Cuscuta californica var. breviflora, Keckiella breviflora, Mohavea breviflora, Androstephium breviflorum)
  • brevifo'lia/brevifo'lius: with short leaves. (ref. Amsonia brevifolia, Hulsea brevifolia, Imperata brevifolia, Yucca brevifolia, Scleropogon brevifolius, Elymus elymoides ssp. brevifolius)
  • brevilo'ba: short-lobed. (ref. Gilia aliquanta ssp. breviloba)
  • breviloba'ta: same as previous entry. (ref. Castilleja hispida ssp. brevilobata)
  • bre'vior: shorter ("more short"). (ref. Lupinus brevior)
  • bre'vipes: with a short stalk. (ref. Chylismia brevipes ssp. brevipes, Carex brevipes, Cleomella brevipes, Lycium brevipes, Mimulus brevipes)
  • breviros'tra/breviros'tris: short-beaked. (ref. Sagittaria brevirostra)
  • brevisca'pus: with a short scape or stem.
  • brevis'simus: very short. (ref. Psilocarphus brevissimus)
  • brevistamin'ea: with short stamens. (ref. Heuchera brevistaminea)
  • brevisty'lis: with a short style.
  • brevisty'la/brevisty'lum: with a short style. (ref. Castilleja brevistyla, Cirsium brevistylum, Epilobium brevistylum)
  • brevivex'illus: related to the root word vexillaris, "having a standard or banner, as in the large petal of a pea flower," thus with brevi- or "short" meaning short-bannered. (ref. Lotus salsuginosus var. brevivexillus)
  • Brevoort'ia: after James Carson Brevoort (1818-1887), American collector of rare books and coins, president of the Long Island Historical Society and superintendent of the Astor Library in New York. He was born in Bloomingdale, New York and died in Brooklyn. Wikipedia says: “He received his early education at home, in France, and at Hofwyl, near Berne, Switzerland. He then studied at the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in Paris, and was graduated with the diploma of a civil engineer. On returning to the United States, he accompanied his uncle, James Renwick, one of the commissioners on the northeastern boundary survey. In 1838 he went abroad as private secretary to Washington Irving, U. S. Minister to Spain. After serving a year in this capacity, he spent several years in European travel, and returned home in 1843. Two years later he married the daughter of Judge Leffert Lefferts, of Brooklyn, where he afterward resided, serving on the board of education, and as one of the constructing board of water commissioners. He became a regent of the University of New York in 1861, and the same year received the degree of LL.D. from Williams College. For ten years, beginning in 1863, he was president of the Long Island Historical Society. In 1868, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. For two years, March 1876 to February 1878, he was superintendent of the Astor Library in New York City, of which he had been a trustee since 1852. He oversaw the beginning of a card catalog for the Astor collection. He resigned as a trustee in September 1878. He was a member of the New York Historical Society, the Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Geographical Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Pennsylvania Historical Society, and numerous other scientific, literary, and artistic associations, in which he was always actively involved. He was a collector of rare books and coins. From his father, Henry Brevoort, he inherited about 6,000 volumes, mostly Americana, which were collected in Europe during the turbulent years from 1810 until 1832. To this library, Brevoort made large additions, until in 1875 it comprised about 10,000 volumes, many of them very rare and costly. He also collected medals and manuscripts. About 1875 he began to bestow many of his treasures upon various institutions. His collections also embraced entomology and ichthyology (books and specimens). Brevoort removed, in early life, to Yonkers, but returned to New York and was a member of the Common Council for many years. Brevoort married Elizabeth Dorothea Lefferts in 1845, and they had one child, Henry L. Brevoort (1849-1895). In 1852 he moved to Rye, where he resided until his death." The genus Brevoortia was published in 1867 by Alphonso Wood. (ref. genus Brevoortia)
  • brew'eri/breweria'num: in honor of William Henry Brewer (1828-1910), an American botanist and professor. "William
      H. Brewer was the first Chair of Agriculture at the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale University and a botanical explorer of California and the Pacific Coast.  He was Principal Assistant in charge of botany on the pioneering Geological Survey of California, 1860-1864.  His recommend-ations about Alaska led to its purchase by the United States in 1867.  Brewer was born on a farm at Poughkeepsie, New York on September 14, 1828.  Shortly thereafter the family moved to Enfield, near Ithaca, New York.  In 1848 Brewer entered Yale University to study agricultural chemistry
    under Professors Benjamin Silliman, Jr. and John Pitkin Norton. At Yale he was one of the first members of the Berzelius Society.  After two years at Yale, Brewer returned to Enfield and began his teaching career at Ithaca Academy.  In 1852 he returned to Yale where he received a Bachelor of Philosophy degree from the Sheffield Scientific School.  Among this first graduating class were George J. Brush and William P. Blake.  From 1852 to 1855 he taught at the Ovid Academy in Ovid, New York. In 1855 he traveled to Heidelberg, where he studied natural sciences under Professor Bunsen, and also travelled to Munich where he studied under Professor Liebig.  In the summer of 1856, he undertook a 600 mile botanical exploration of Switzerland.  Before returning to Ovid in 1857, he attended Chevreul's lectures on chemistry in Paris.  In 1858, he was appointed Professor of Chemistry at Washington College (now Washington and Jefferson College) at Washington, Pa. That year he married his first wife, Angelina Jameson.  In 1860, after the deaths of his wife and newborn son, Brewer was invited to participate in the Geological Survey of California, directed by Josiah Dwight Whitney. This survey would set the standards for all future geological surveys undertaken in the United States. His primary task was leading field parties and maintaining records of botanical collections. [Particularly interested in alpine flora, he collected 1368 specimens for the University of California and the Jepson Herbarium. The journal of his explorations was entitled Up and Down California in 1860-1864] Classifications were not undertaken until after the survey was completed. Although no longer employed by the survey, Brewer brought his specimens to Harvard where he was advised by Asa Gray on their determinations. The first volume of the botany portion of the Geological Survey of California [called The Botany of California] was not published until 1876. The second volume appeared in 1880 under the authorship of Sereno Watson (1826-1892). [During 1863-1864 he was Professor of Chemistry at the University of California.]  In 1864, Brewer left the California survey to occupy the Chair of Agriculture in the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale. He remained at this post until 1903, retiring as professor emeritus. He was active in Connecticut government, establishing agricultural experiment stations and organizing the Connecticut and New Haven Boards of Health.  He was a special agent in the 1880 census, reporting on the production of cereals in the U.S. and he chaired the committee appointed by the National Academy of Sciences [to which he had been elected in 1880] in 1903 to make recommendations for a scientific survey of the Philippine Islands.  Other botanical explorations he participated included: the Rocky Mountains of Colorado (1869); Greenland (1894); and the Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899).  He was awarded an honorary degree by the University of California in 1910.  A diarist and letter writer, his writings are preserved in the History of Technology Collection at the University of California, Berkeley archives. They were most recently edited by Frances P. Farquhar in 1966. Brewer had remarried in 1868 to Georgiana Robinson at Exeter, New Hampshire. They had four children: Nora, Henry, Arthur, and Carl. William H. Brewer died at New Haven in 1910." (Extracted from a website of the New York Botanical Garden) (ref. Arabis breweri, Calamagrostis breweri, Calandrinia breweri, Cardamine breweri, Castilleja breweri, Chrysopsis breweri, Draba breweri, Erigeron breweri var. breweri, Erigeron breweri var. jacinteus, Lupinus breweri var. grandiflorus, Mimulus breweri, Monardella breweri, Navarretia breweri, Pellaea breweri, Phyllodoce breweri, Senecio breweri, Hypnum brewerianum, Isothecium brewerianum)
  • Brew'eria: after Samuel Brewer. (1670-1743). (ref. genus Breweria)
  • Brickel'lia: named for Dr. John Brickell (1749-1809), early naturalist and physician of Georgia who came to the U.S. in 1770 from Ireland. The genus Brickellia was named for him by Stephen Elliott (1771-1830), a professor of botany in Georgia. This Brickell is not to be confused with another John Brickell (1710?-1745) from Ireland who came to the United States around 1729, was coincidentally also a naturalist and physician, and wrote The Natural History of North Carolina, published in Dublin in 1737, and Catalogue of American Trees and Plants which will Bear the Climate of England, published in London in 1739. (ref. genus Brickellia)
  • brickellio'ides: bearing a likeness to the genus Brickellia. (ref. Aster brickellioides, Hazardia [formerly Haplopappus] brickellioides)
  • bridg'esii: named after Thomas Bridges (1807-1865), English botanist and plant collector who in 1858 wrote to William J. Hooker: "I can scarcely describe to you how pleasing and gratifying it has been to me to learn that in my collections you have found some new and rare plants--I was partially under the impression that from the labours of Douglas, Hartweg, Jeffrey, Lobb and other travelers from Europe with the many United States Exploring Expeditions that little or nothing remained to be discovered and only gleanings were left to those of us of the present day." David Hollombe sent me the following from San Francisco as a Mecca for Nineteenth Century Naturalists by Joseph Ewan: "Thomas Bridges, British naturalist and horticultural collector, a Fellow of the Linnaean and Zoological societies of London, had been in south America before coming to San Francisco in November, 1856. There is substantial evidence that he was an enthusiastic collector and he proved to be California's first resident ornithologist. One obituary noted that 'few, if any more useful lives have passed away as martyrs to science during the present century.' Bridges' principal field of collecting was the Sierra Nevada. There he collected seventy-five bulbs of the lily, Lilium washingtonianum, for his English employer but the steamer Central America, which carried them, was lost at sea. He wrote W. J. Hooker that he was going to make an effort to replace them. Evidently visited the Academy often, and in 1858 he wrote Hooker of his pleasure at finding [The Botany of] Beechey's Voyage [a work by Hooker], Torrey's works, and other works in the Academy's library. He lived in 'Chinese House' on Eleventh Street between Market and Madison streets, and may have associated with William Lobb, then a resident of the city, but of that friendship we have no hint. One of Bridges' most profitable trips was to the mining town of Silver Mountain on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada near Ebbets Pass in 1863. There he met William H. Brewer and Brewer wrote: 'It was a relief to meet Mr. Bridges, an old rambler and botanical collector, well known to all botanists... It was a relief to meet him and talk botany; yet, even he is affected--he has dropped botany and is here speculating in mines. 'Mining fever' is a terrible epidemic; when it is really in a community, lucky is the man who is not affected by it. Yet a few become immensely rich.' In April, 1865, Bridges set out on a collecting trip to Nicaragua but was stricken with malaria and died at sea, September 9, 1865, en route back to San Francisco on the steamer Moses Taylor. Captain Blethen, Bridges' friend, brought the body back to San Francisco and he was carried to the ultima thule of the city, Lone Mountain Cemetery." (ref. Penstemon bridgesii)
  • bring'hurstii: after Royce S. Bringhurst (1918-2005). He was born in Bennion, Salt Lake County, Utah and lived and worked on the family farm while attending Granite High School. Wikipedia says: “He graduated from high school in 1937, and attended Utah State College for two years, interrupting his schooling to serve in the Spanish-American Mission of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from November 1939 to April 1942. Several weeks after his return, he married his high school sweetheart, Pearl Davidson. He departed shortly thereafter to serve in the U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II. He flew 65 combat missions in B-25 bombers over Italy, France and Germany as radioman, bombardier, photographer and navigator. After a six-year absence, he returned to college and graduated with a B.S. degree in agronomy from Utah State University in 1947. By 1950, he had completed master’s and doctorate degrees in agronomy and genetics from the University of Wisconsin. He took a faculty position at UCLA in 1950 as an avocado geneticist, and subsequently moved to UC Davis in 1953 to become a strawberry geneticist. At UCD he served as chairman of the pomology department for several years beginning in 1970 and retired from the university after 39 years of service in 1989. During his long career he developed some 30 strawberry varieties, which produced more than 75 percent of the nation’s strawberries. His work on day-neutral varieties changed the landscape of the strawberry industry and greatly extended the growing season. He was honored for his work as a Fellow in the American Society of Horticultural Science in 1970, and Utah State University awarded him an honorary doctorate at its 100th commencement in 1993. He consulted for the Ford Foundation, US AID, UN FAO and Argentina, Mexico, Italy, United Arab Republic and Egypt. He died after a long battle with Parkinson’s disease.” (ref. Fragaria xbringhurstii)
  • britan'nica: of or from Great Britain. (ref. Rumex britannica)
  • Bri'za: see following entry. (ref. genus Briza)
  • brittoniae: named for Elizabeth Gertrude Knight Britton (Mrs. Nathaniel Lord Britton) (1858-1934), American
      botanist, bryologist, and educator, co-founder of the predecessor to the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, and involved in the creation of the New York Botanical Garden. She was born in New York City and spent much of her childhood in the vicinity of Matanzas, Cuba where her family had a furniture factory and a sugar plantation, following which she attended a private school in New York and Normal (later Hunter College) graduating in 1875. After graduation she joined the staff of Normal College. She joined the Torrey Botanical Club in 1879. By 1883 she
    was beginning to specialize in bryology. She married Nathaniel Lord Britton in 1885, an assistant in geology at Columbia, resigned at Normal College, and took charge of moss collections at Columbia. From 1886 to 1888 she was editor of the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, and in 1889 published the first of an eleven-part series of papers titled "Contributions to American Bryology.” After the establishment of the New York Botanical Garden she was named Honorary Curator of the Mosses in 1912, a post which she held until her death. She collected botanical specimens in the Great Dismal Swamp, the Adirondack Mountains and the mountains of North Carolina, the islands of the Caribbean and West Indies including Bermuda and the Bahamas. She co-founded in 1898 the Sullivant Moss Society which later became the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, and served as its president from 1916 to 1919. She was not confined to mosses and published "A Revision of the North American Species of Ophioglossum," and collected the type specimens of Dryopteris brittonae andPonthieva brittonae. In 1893 Britton was the only woman among the 25 scientists nominated for charter membership in the Botanical Society of America. In 1902 she was elected to the Board of Managers of the Wildflower Preservation Society of America. Other members of the board included Liberty Hyde Bailey, William Trelease, Charles Frederick Millspaugh, and Alice Eastwood, while its president was Frederick Vernon Coville. She published a total of 346 papers, of which 170 were on mosses. The moss genus Bryobrittonia was named in her honor as well as a number of plants. She died in the Bronx following an apoplectic stroke and was survived by four months by her husband. (ref. Eurhynchium brittoniae) (Photo credit: Geni)
  • brittoniana/brittonii: named for American botanist and taxonomist Nathaniel Lord Britton (1859-1934). He was
      born in Staten Island, New York, and though encouraged by his parents to follow a religious career chose instead the natural sciences. He graduated from the Columbia University School of Mines in 1879 and became an assistant in geology at Columbia. He later was a botanist and assistant geologist for the Geological Survey of New Jersey for five years. Although most of his training was in geology and mining, botanical interests dominated his career, and in 1890 he became adjunct professor of botany, and in 1891 was made professor of botany. He visited the Royal
    Botanical Garden in London on his honeymoon in 1888 and wondered along with his wife why there was not some such in the U.S. Plans proceeded apace and in 1896 Britton was formally appointed director in chief. His main interests were in taxonomy and the plants of eastern North America and the West Indies, to which he made frequent visits in the wintertime when the New York weather was inclement.  He was either the founder or co-founder of the Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden in 1896, the garden’s Journal and Memoirs in 1900, and Addisonia in 1916, as well as the North American Flora in 1905. The journal Brittonia was named for him in 1931 as were the plant genera Brittonamra, Brittonastrom, and Brittonella.His wife was Elizabeth Gertrude Knight (1858–1934), herself a botanist of distinction. Best known in her own specialty of bryology, she also was a constant helper in her husband’s work. Britton is also remembered as one of the signatories of the American Code of Botanical Nomenclature that proposed such radical changes to the rules governing nomenclature that a compromise was not reached (and some of the principal American provisions adopted) until nearly 30 years later. He wrote Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions in 3 vols. (1896-1898) with Addison Brown, and The Cactaceae with Joseph Nelson Rose and a number of other works including The Flora of Bermuda (1918), The Flora of the American Virgin Islands (1918), The Bahama Flora (1920), The Sedges of Jamaica (1907) and others. He died at his home in the Bronx after suffering a stroke just two months after the death of his wife of almost fifty years. (ref. Cotyledon brittoniana, Echeveria brittonii, Lupinus brittonii, Monotropa brittonii)
  • brizifor'mis: from the Greek briza, a kind of rye-like grain growing in Macedonia. (ref. Bromus briziformis)
  • Broc'chia: named for Giovanni Battista Brocchi (1772-1826), Italian naturalist, mineralogist and geologist. He was
      born in Castelfranco Veneto, Italy, educated in classics and literature, and was introduced to the natural world while accompanying his father hunting. He studied jurisprudence at the University of Padova, but soon shifted his attention from law to minerology and botany. He was chosen as a professor of botany in 1802 in the new lyceum of Brescia, but he concentrated mainly on geological researches in the adjacent districts and published a treatise on the iron mines of the Mella traditional region which led to his being selected in 1808 as inspector of mines in the
    recently established kingdom of Italy. His writings over the next several years dealt with the structure of the Apennine Range and the fossils of the Italian Tertiary strata compared with existing species. Encyclopedia.com says: “Brocchi published five major books and contributed about seventy articles to various journals. He wrote upon an amazing range of subjects from antiquities to zoology in carefully documented papers replete with classical references. While at Brescia he published zoological and mineralogical articles; these include observations on the anatomy of insect eyes and on infusoria. In 1818 he conducted experiments on “night air” at Rome, in the hope of finding the cause of malaria; the results were negative but duly reported. He also published several articles on recent shells. Brocchi’s most significant contributions, however, were in the field of geology. Early papers such as the memoir on the Val di Fassa consist largely of mineralogical descriptions. Brocchi’s masterpiece is the Conchiologia fossile subappennina (1814). It opens with an eighty-page survey of paleontological studies in Italy—a mine of historical data that has been freely used by Lyell, Zittel, and other writers." At some point he was curator of the Natural History Museum in Milan. In 1822 he sailed to Egypt and travelled up the Nile to Syria and Palestine to investigate the geology and mineral resources  of those regions, but in 1826 he fell victim to bubonic plague and died at Khartoum. The genus Brocchia was published in 1836 by Roberto de Visiani. (ref. genus Brocchia) (Photo credit: Wooster Geologists)
  • Brodiae'a/Bro'diaea: named for James Brodie (1744-1824), Scottish botanist who specialized in algae, ferns
      and mosses. The following is quoted from Joshua Wilson's 'Biographical index to the present House of Commons' (1808): "Mr. Brodie was bred up at the grammar school at Elgin, whence he removed to St. Andrews. He afterwards married Lady Margaret Duff, sister to the present earl of Fife, and had issue by her, two sons and two daughters. In 1786, her ladyship unfortunately perished by the unhappy circumstance of her clothes taking fire. One of his sons, after having resided in a commercial character in Spain, obtained leave to go to the East Indies in the capacity
    of a free merchant. His brother Alexander, formerly M. P. for the Elgin district of boroughs, has returned some years from Asia, where he acquired a considerable fortune. Mr. Brodie, who always had a scientific turn, is a F.R.S. [Fellow of the Royal Society] and L.S. [Linnaean Society]. He posesses a taste for botany, and has discovered several nondescript plants in his own grounds. He has now sat in three succeeding parliaments, having been returned in 1796; and is lord lieutenant of the county of Nairn." And from an English website called Botanists of Repute: "James Brodie collected and recorded plants, mainly around Edinburgh but also around Brodie Castle in Moray, towards the end of the eighteenth century. Most of Brodie's herbarium is in the Royal Botanic Gardens in Edinburgh. He was in regular contact with a number of eminent botanists of his time, including Sir William Jackson Hooker who became Professor of Botany at the University of Glasgow and also a Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, in England." He suffered another tragedy when his eldest son died in a drowning accident. His was a very old family, and the following gives some indication of just how old: "This most ancient family takes its name from the lands of Brodie near Forres in Morayshire. The family lost most of its early charters and other documents when the Gordons burnt the castle in 1645. Shaw suggests that the name itself is derived from the Gaelic word, ‘brothaig’, meaning ‘ditch’ or perhaps simply ‘muddy’. He suggests that they may have shared a common ancestry with the Morays and Inneses who were all settled along the Moray Firth in the twelfth century, pointing to the similarity of their coats of arms, each of which bears three stars." (from MyClan.com). He was a friend of the important British botanist Sir James Edward Smith, author of English Botany (ref. genus Brodiaea)
  • brod'iei: after David Arthur Brodie (1868-1951), American botanist and agronomist. He was born in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada and died in Avon Park, Florida. (ref. Panicum brodiei)
  • Bromelea'ceae: named for Olaus Olai Bromelius (Olof Ole Bromell) (1639-1705), Swedish physician and numismatist. He was born in Örebro and studied botany as part of his formal training. After studying medicine at the University of Uppsala, he went to Stockholm in 1669 to become an official herbalist in charge of pharmacies in the city. In 1672 , he went to practice medicine in the Netherlands and became a doctor of medicine at the University of Leiden in 1673 . He returned to Sweden in 1674 . He then practiced medicine in Stockholm, from 1675 , then in Gothenburg, from 1691. In 1676 he was also part of a commission to examine witchcraft cases in Stockholm. The work of this commission led to an end to the witchcraft trials then being conducted in the capital of Sweden (at least 8 women were executed there for witchcraft in 1675-1676). He was the author of a number of books, including Chloris Gothica: seu catalogus stirpium circa Gothoburgum nascentium, the first serious study devoted to the flora of the Göteborg region. He died in Göteborg. He is considered one of the best pre-Linnaean Swedish botanists. (ref. family Bromeliaceae)
  • bromo'ides: like genus Bromus. (ref. Vulpia bromoides) (Photo credit: WikiTree)
  • Bro'mus: from the Greek bromos, an ancient name for the oat. (ref. genus Bromus)
  • brongniart'ii: named for Adolphe Theodore Brongniart (1801-1876), son of mineralogist, chemist, geologist and
      paleontologist Alexandre Brongniart. Adolphe was a student of the Rhamnaceae, a pioneer in the study of plant morphology and physiology, author of an important work on fossil plants, and a French botanist whose classifications of fossil plants showed surprisingly accurate relationships between extant and extinct forms. In 1831 he became an assistant to the botanist Rene Desfontaines at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, and took his place two years later, a position he was to hold for the remainder of his life. He is considered one of the founders
    of modern paleobotany, and made substantial contributions to the field of angiosperm morphology also producing a valuable first account of pollen. He founded the Societe botanique de France. The genus Adolphia was first published in 1837 by Carl Daniel Friedrich Meisner and then by Sereno Watson in 1876. (ref. Carex brongniartii)
  • brooks'ii: named for Benjamin Brooks (1876-1961). The following is quoted from Cantelow & Cantelow: “Engineer; born in San Francisco, Calif., 26 Nov. 1876, and still a resident of that city. Accompanied Alice Eastwood, together with Pierson Durbrow and Lucien Berry, when she explored the South Fork of Kings River in 1899; the only plants interesting to him were in the form of "good grass and clover for the burros." Mr. Brooks believes Miss Eastwood was the first woman to scale Mt. Stanford. His father, Wm. Brooks, left Brooklyn when four months old and celebrated his first birthday in San Francisco in 1849.” He resigned as a junior assistant engineer in 1910 and according to David Hollombe is listed as an insurance broker in 1930 and 1940. (ref. Castilleja brooksii)
  • brooks'ii: named for Elisha Brooks (1841-1930). He was born in St. Joseph County, Michigan and travelled with his
      family to California in 1852. He had a twin brother named Elijah Brooks and a younger brother Justus Brooks. The Find-a-Grave entry for him says: “Elisha Brooks enlisted as a private at San Pablo, California, November 15, 1864, and was mustered into Company D, 8th California Infantry, November 30. He was commissioned 2nd Lieutenant January 1, 1865. Lieutenant Brooks was mustered out at the Presidio of San Francisco October 24, 1865. After the war he resided for many years in San Francisco, where he married Ellen Worth on April 20, 1869. He was a member of San
    Francisco's Thomas Post, No. 2, Grand Army of the Republic, and the Society of California Volunteers, both being Union veterans' organizations.”  He died at Ben Lomond, Santa Cruz County, California. I have no further information about him. (ref. Viola brooksii) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • Bross'aea: after Guy de la Brosse (1586-1641), French botanist, pharmacist and physician to King Louis XIII and
      founder and first director of the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. He was born presumably in Paris and his father was the court physician to King Henry IV. Little appears to be known of his early life except that he studied medicine, but in 1626 he received royal permission to found a herb garden to cultivate plants useful to medicine to replace those of Montpellier created by Henri IV. The creation of the garden was delayed because the Faculty of Medicine in Paris thought the garden competed with their activities, because La Brosse wished to teach botany and chemistry there, but
    the garden, originally known by the name of Jardin du Roi, and then as Jardin des Plantes medicinales was planted by La Brosse in 1635 and opened to the public in 1640. The King resolved the problem with the University by restricting the Jardin du Roi to having only a single instructor. He devoted his life to the description of plants in the garden, the study of their composition and properties, and the teaching of botany and chemistry. (ref. genus Brossaea)
  • brown'ii: after Horace Edgar Brown (1861-1943). David Hollombe contributed the following: "Horace Edgar Brown was born at Bloody Island, MO, 20 Oct. 1861. His family moved to Colorado, Nebraska, California, eastern Washington and Idaho. In 1896 his widowed mother homesteaded about 3 miles southeast of Forestville, Idaho, and that summer Brown was hired by Amos A. and Emily Heller as a guide on a collecting expedition, and Brown began collecting plant specimens on his own for sale. By November of that year he moved to California and collected in the Berry Creek area of Butte County where his brother-in-law, William W. Williams owned a large ranch. The next summer, he made an expedition to collect on what he apparently thought was Mount Shasta, but it seems, from the plants he brought back, he actually was on Mount Eddy. Brown lived near Santa Rosa for several years, and married there in 1889. He wrote from there to the New York Botanical Garden that year asking for advice on where to take his specimens for identification. He seems to have stopped collecting after 1898, except for the Spring of 1902 when he spent two months travelling and collecting from Sonoma County to Butte County and back with Heller. The 1910 census shows Brown working as a real estate agent in Sheridan, Oregon and in 1920 as a sawmill worker in the Coos Bay area where he remained until his death, October 28, 1943." (ref. Lathyrus brownii)
  • brown’ii: after Joseph R. Brown. David Hollombe has provided the only nugget of information about this individual. “This three-awn grass [Aristida brownii] is known only from Del Norte Mountains; of minor importance for forage except prior to anthesis. Named for Joseph R. Brown who practices good conservation on his Altuda Mountain ranch.” (ref. Aristida brownii)
  • brown'ii: after Robert Brown (1773-1858), well-known British botanist. The following is quoted from Wikipedia
      : "Robert Brown (December 21, 1773–June 10, 1858) is acknowledged as the leading British botanist to collect in Australia during the first half of the 19th century. Brown was born in Montrose, Scotland on 21 December 1773. He studied medicine and joined the army as a surgeon in 1795. In December 1800 he accepted an offer of the position of naturalist on board the Investigator under Matthew Flinders, which was about to depart on its historic yovage to chart the coast of Australia. The Investigator arrived in King George Sound in what is now Western
    Australia in December 1801. For 3½ years Brown did intensive botanic research in Australia, collecting about 3400 species, of which about 2000 were previously unknown. A large part of this collection was lost, however, when the Porpoise was wrecked en route to England. Brown remained in Australia until May 1805. He then returned to England where he spent the next four years working on the material he had gathered. He published numerous species descriptions; in Western Australia alone he is the author of nearly 1200 species. In 1810, he published the results of his collecting in his famous Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae, the first systematic account of the Australian flora. That year, he succeeded Jonas C. Dryander as Sir Joseph Banks' librarian, and on Banks' death in 1820 inherited his library and herbarium. This was transferred to the British Museum in 1827, and Brown was appointed Keeper of the Banksian Botanical Collection. In 1827, while examining pollen grains and the spores of mosses and Equisetum suspended in water under a microscope, Brown observed minute particles within vacuoles in the pollen grains executing a jittery motion. He then observed the same motion in particles of dust, enabling him to rule out the hypothesis that the motion was due to pollen being alive. Although he did not himself provide a theory to explain the motion, the phenomenon is now known as Brownian motion in his honour. After the division of the Natural History Department into three sections in 1837, Robert Brown became the first Keeper of the Botanical Department, remaining so until his death at Soho Square in London on June 10 1858. He was succeeded by John Joseph Bennett. Brown's name is commemorated in the Australia herb genus Brunonia, as well as numerous Australian species such as Eucalyptus brownii." (ref. Paeonia brownii)
  • bruce'ae: after Cornelia Josephine Austin Bruce (Mrs. Charles Clinton Bruce), daughter of Rebecca Merritt Smith Leonard Austin (see austiniae) (1865-1931). (ref. Arabis bruceae, Arnica bruceae, Potentilla drummondii ssp. bruceae)
  • Bruch'ia:named for Philipp Bruch (1781-1847), German pharmacist, zoologist, botanist and plant collector. He was born in Zweibrücken in the Palatinate, the son of a pharmacist. He first worked and studied in a pharmacy in Mainz, and then studied in Marburg and Paris. He inherited the pharmacy after his father’s death. Although the details are absent, he clearly must have studied botany and mosses in particular, and he collaborated with Wilhelm Philippe Schimper on the epic Bryologia europaea, a six-volume work on European bryology. He died on his birthday at the age of 66. The genus Bruchia was published in 1824 by Christian Friedrich Schwagrichen. (ref. genus Bruchia)
  • Brugman'sia: after Sebald Justin Brugmans (1763-1819), Dutch botanist and physician, a professor of
      natural history at Leiden. The following is quoted from Wikipedia: “Brugmans studied philosophy, mathematics and physics at the Universities of Franeker and Groningen, earning his doctorate in 1781. In 1785 he became a professor at Franeker, where he taught classes in physics, astronomy, logic and metaphysics. During the following year, he succeeded David van Royen (1727–1799) as professor of botany at the University of Leiden At Leiden, he also served as Director of the "Hortus Botanicus Leiden." In 1791, he transferred from the Faculty of Philosophy to that of
    Medicine, which from 1795 included the field of chemistry. Brugmans was very interested in the connection that exists between chemistry and medicine. In 1794, when Holland became a refuge for retreating English and Hanoverian armies, he, along with physicians and medical students at Leiden, set up emergency hospital services outside the city. He repeated this activity in 1799 (for English and Russian forces north of present-day IJmuiden), and in 1809 (bombardment of Vlissingen by the British Navy). In 1795, he was put in charge of the military medical service of the newly founded Batavian Republic. His outstanding work as a physician came to the attention of Louis Bonaparte, as well as to his more famous brother, who promoted him to seventh Inspector-general of the Grande Armee. Later on, the first king of the Netherlands, William I, restored Brugmans to his former functions, while giving him additional duties as Inspector-general of the military service, the supervision of the Navy and the Colonies, of the military veterinary service, and of sanitary conditions in prisons and quarantine stations. As a military physician, he was dedicated towards the improvement of hospital and barrack facilities. In these endeavors, he stressed the importance of cleanliness and hygiene, and strove to prevent the spread of contagious disease. He is especially remembered for his expertise in the treatment of gangrene." (ref. genus Brugmansia)
  • bruneau'nis: named after the type locality, which is Bruneau Creek, in Idaho, this taxon is called the Bruneau mariposa lily. (ref. Calochortus bruneaunis)
  • Brunier'a: named for Abel Brunier (1572/1573-1663/1665), French doctor and botanist, physician to King Louis
      XIII. Both his father and son were naturalists. He was born in Uzès and became a graduate of the Faculty of Medicine in Montpellier in 1596, and continued his training in Spain (Cordoba and Salamanca) and Italy (Pavia). He was first doctor to the daughters of Henry IV, from 1602, and Gaston of France, from his birth in 1608. He was married in 1618. He became doctor to the Duke of Orleans, a position he held until the Duke’s death in 1660, and in 1636 was appointed director of the botanical garden of the castle of Blois, property of the Duke of Orleans. In 1639 he was
    appointed a State Councilor. He is considered one of the founders of modern botany. (ref. genus Bruniera)
  • brun'neus: brown. (ref. Cordylanthus tenuis ssp. brunneus)
  • bryanti'ae: named for named for Susanna Patterson Bixby Bryant (Mrs. Ernest Albert Bryant) (1880-1946). Her
      father, John Bixby(1848-1887) came to California at the age of 21, married Susanna Patterson Hathaway in 1873 and settled in Wilmington where his son Fred was born in 1875 and his daughter Susanna was born in 1880. He died at the age of 39 after a sudden attack of appendicitis. Susanna spent her early years on her family’s Rancho Los Alamitos, and once while sick her father led her pony into the bedroom to visit her. After her father’s death in 1887 the family moved to Berkeley. She went to school in Boston, travelled in Europe and elsewhere, and then returned to
    California where she met and in 1904 married Dr. Ernest Albert Bryant, personal physician to railroad tycoon Henry Huntington (who was in the early stages of creating his own museum and botanic garden in San Marino). Her mother died in 1906 and Susanna found herself co-proprietor with her brother Fred of their childhood ranch plus another, Rancho Santa Ana. She was very interested in ranch management and planted citrus fruits, walnuts, pears, and pomegranates. She learned about and was impressed by Theodore Payne’s all-native landscape in Exposition Park and began a correspondence with him, which led to her plan to create a botanical garden of native plants on her rance. In 1927 she started planting a 165-acre section of the ranch following a design by landscape architect Ernest Braunton and a plant list compiled by John Thomas Howell. Conservation of native California flora was her number one concern and she included a herbarium, botanical library, and services for students and scholars. The garden relaocated to Claremont in 1951 and today houses more than 70,000 plants of some 2,000 species. (Information from Geni) (ref. Penstemon bryantiae) (Photo credit: Geni)
  • bryantia'na: named for naturalist Harold Child Bryant (1886-1968). He was born in Pasadena, California, and was
      awarded a B.S. degree from Pomona College with a major in zoology/ornithology and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in zoology from the University of California, Berkeley, where one of his professors was Joseph Grinnell. From 1910 to 1927 he was associated with the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology first as a Field Assistant and then as Assistant Curator of Birds and Economic Ornithologist. From 1914 he worked for the the California Fish and Game Commission, publishing articles on both birds and mammals. Later he was a lecturer and field trip leader for the University
    of California Extension, and was a summer season ranger-naturalist at Yosemite National Park. In 1923 he was appointed as a seasonal park ranger and two years later was named the first director of the Yosemite School of Field Natural History to train naturalists. He was given his first permanent position with the National Park Service as assistant director of the branch of research and education in 1930. A website of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center of USGS says: “In 1938 he served as consultant to the director and assisted in the establishment of Olympic National Park. He was appointed acting superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park in 1939. Harold assisted in the organization of Kings Canyon National Park in 1940, and was appointed superintendent of the Grand Canyon National Park on August 1, 1941, where he served until his retirement on March 31, 1954. Harold had many significant accomplishments, but was most proud of his role in establishing the interpretive programs for the National Park Service. He was a recipient of the Department of the Interior Distinguished Service Award in 1954 and received many other honorary awards and recognitions during his career.” While superintendent at the Grand Canyon, he discovered new species of birds, butterflies and plants. He was elected to the Washington Biologists’ Field Club in 1931. He published papers on ground squirrels, pocket gophers, western meadowlarks, roadrunners and waterfowl. His son was the biologist Herwil Bryant, who participated with Admiral Byrd on his Antarctic expedition. He died in Berkeley. (ref. Salix caudata var. bryantiana)
  • bryo'ides: like moss. (ref. Juncus bryoides, Lupinus breweri var. bryoides)
  • Bryo'nia: Latin and Greek name used by Dioscorides and Pliny. The Jepson Manual gives this: "Greek: swelling, from sprouting of tuber each year." The Greek bryo means either "to sprout, grow or swell" or "moss." (ref. genus Bryonia)
  • bryophor'a: moss- or lichen-bearing. (ref. Saxifraga bryophora)
  • bucari'ae: named for Louise Ilene Griset (Mrs. Pat Paul Bucaria) (1908-1966). Louise was born in Los Angeles and grew up in Santa Ana, and earned degrees from the University of Redlands and University of California (in Zoology and education), and taught in the Moreland, Los Gatos and San Jose school districts. Her last position was at Joseph M. McKinnon School for the Mentally Retarded. Her husband's occupation is listed in 1940 as barber. Louise died in Saratoga, Santa Clara County, California. (ref. Lupinus louise-bucariae)
  • bucar'ii: named for Charles Peter Bucaria (1934- ), son of Louise Griset Bucaria and Pat Paul Bucaria. (ref. Lupinus carolus-bucarii)
  • Buckiel'la: named for William Russel Buck (1950- ), botanist, bryologist and curator of the Institute of Systematic Botany at the New York Botanical Garden. He received a Ph.D. in 1979 at the University of Michigan, and from 1979 to 1986 was Associate Curator of Bryophytes and Curator of Bryophytes from 1986. He has been the editor or associate editor of Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden, Evansia, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, and North American Flora. He is a member of the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, American Fern Society, American Society of Plant Taxonomists, British Bryological Society, Bryological Society of Japan, Council of Botanical and Horticultural Libraries, International Association of Bryologists, International Association of Plant Taxonomists, Nordic Bryological Society, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Briología, and Torrey Botanical Club. His Curriculum Vitae on the website of the NYBG says: “Although mosses are often overlooked, or if seen, assumed to have little diversity, they are in fact a large and fascinating group of plants. I am primarily interested in the phylogeny, systematics and floristics of pleurocarpous mosses, those that are mat-forming and produce their capsules laterally along the stems. Although I am most interested in familial and ordinal relationships and inclusions, it is impossible to understand higher categories without first knowing species. To gain this basic knowledge I am involved in floristic studies of the West Indies and Paraguay. In order to see living mosses in the field, and therefore better understand their relationships, I have travelled extensively in the neotropics, from Cuba and Puerto Rico through Ecuador and Venezuela south to Paraguay and southernmost Brazil. For similar purposes I have collected in southern Africa, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji. To date my floristic work in the West Indies, with the final goal of producing a moss flora of the region, has taken me to all of the islands of the Greater Antilles. I anticipate field work in the Lesser Antilles in the upcoming years. My flora not only reflects the species composition of the area but provides a new approach to systematic and geographical relationships.” (ref. genus Buckiella)
  • buckleya'na: named for Samuel Botsford Buckley (1809-1883), American botanist, geologist, and naturalist. He was born on his family’s farm in Torrey, Yates County, New York and graduated from Wesleyan University in 1836. A botany professor was his mentor in college, considering him one of his best students, and he started a herbarium with specimens of plants from New York and Long Island. In 1837-1838 he made botanical collections in Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri and Illinois. From 1839 to 1840 he was principal of Allenton (Alabama) Academy and in 1842 traveled extensively through the south, discovering twenty-four new species of plants and a new genus, Buckleya. He was one of the first botanists to investigate the flora of the southern Appalachians. He studied at the College of physicians and surgeons, New York, and in the same year, in an expedition to Florida, he discovered thirteen new species of shells. From 1843 till 1855 he lived on his father’s farm in upstate New York, doing what I don’t know, except that he seems to have dropped out of the botanical world. In 1856 he moved to Ohio and in 1857 and 1858 began again collecting plants and taking barometric measurements of local mountains including one that bears his name. Antwiki says: “In 1859-'60 he traveled south and west to collect materials for a supplement to Michaux and Nuttall's Sylva. He was assistant geologist and naturalist of the Texas geological survey in 1860-1861, and from 1862 till 1865 was connected with the United States sanitary commission. He was state geologist of Texas from 1866 till 1867, and again from 1874 till 1877, and prepared two geological maps of the state. He showed by his investigations that Texas had deposits of iron and coal of much greater extent than had been supposed. In 1871-18722 he was scientific editor of the State Gazette, Austin, Tex. From 1877 till 1881 he was engaged in preparing a work on the geology and natural history of the state.” He eventually returned to farming. In the last years of his life, between 1878 and 1883, he made a number of collecting trips in northern Mexico. He wrote a number of papers on ants, which seems to have been a particular interest of his, and supposedly a book on the trees and shrubs of the U.S. although I can’t find any reference to it. He was a member of various learned societies, and contributed largely to scientific publications. He also published several valuable reports as state geologist. Other naturalists were not terribly keen on his abilities, Moses Ashley Curtis, Asa Gray and George Engelman all expressed doubts about his abilities, and both James J. Audubon and John C. Frémont turned down his requests to join them on expeditions. He was a little unusual in that he was a person who had more wives (4) than children (3). He died in Austin. (ref. Poa buckleyana)
  • buckwestior'um: this taxon is commonly called either Buckwest's clover or Santa Cruz clover, and -orum is a suffix usually given to a personal name to convert it to a substantival commemorative epithet when the epithet refers to two or more men or two or more people of mixed genders, thus Ceanothus hearstiorum, commemorating the Hearst family. In this case the individuals involved were the Santa Cruz County, California, botanists Roy Ernest Buck (1952- ) and James West (dates ?). They have collected specimens of local significance within the Scotts Creek Watershed Area of Santa Cruz County and deposited them in the Jepson Herbarium. (ref. Trifolium buckwestiorum)
  • bud'dii: named for Archibald Charles Budd (1889-1960), self-trained Canadian botanist and author of Wild Plants of the Canadian Prairies (1964). London-born, he was able to emigrate to Canada at the age of 21 thanks to having won a limerick contest. (ref. Ranunculus glaberrimus var. buddii)
  • Bud'dleja: after the Reverend Adam Buddle (1662-1715), an English botanist, this genus was originally in the Logania family, Loganiaceae, but has been placed by Jepson in a family of its own, the Buddlejaceae. (ref. genus Buddleja)
  • buekii: named for Heinrich Wilhelm Bük (Buek) (1796-1879), German physician, writer and botanist. He was born in Hamburg the son of an insurance broker. He was at the Ruetesche preparatory institution and then the scholar's school of Johanneum from 1811. It was at this time that he became attracted to botany having inherited this interest from his uncle Johannes Nicolaus Buek, who was a pharmacist and horticulturist in Hamburg, made his first botanical studies and built a herbarium in Johannes Flüggé's botanical garden on the Alster. In 1814 Buek studied anatomical, physiological and surgical questions at the general hospital of Johann Jacob August Ritter and in 1815 he assisted as a surgeon during the campaign against Napoleon. He studied at the University of Halle in 1816 and received a doctorate of medicine and surgery in 1819, returning to Hamburg to work as a doctor. At the same time he devoted himself to botanical studies and taught privately deaf children. This latter occupation led to a position in 1823 at the Freemason Hospital continuing the education of deaf children, and researched cholera and meteorological issues. He was elected as Landphysicus by the Hamburg Senate in 1833 and organized medical services, the settlement of certified surgeons and midwives, veterinary affairs, and prompted the establishment of pharmacies. His best known work was his index to De Candolle’s Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, published in four parts under the title, Genera, Species et Synonyma Candolleana, and in which Buek published a number of new names for taxa of various families, but his main taxonomic contributions concerned South African Boraginaceae and Campanulaceae and the genus Lobostemon. He apparently did not travel much but thanks to his friendship with Christian Ecklon, Johann Georg Christian Lehmann, and Otto Wilhelm Sonder, he had access to much herbarium material. His own herbarium was destroyed by fire in 1842. He was married in 1824 to Charlotte Adelaide Schiff. (ref. Packera buekii)
  • bufo'nis: see following entry. (ref. Oenothera primiveris ssp. bufonis)
  • bufo'nius: pertaining to toads or the habit of growing in moist places. (ref. Juncus bufonius var. bufonius, Juncus bufonius var. congestus, Juncus bufonius var. occidentalis)
  • bulbif'era: bulb-bearing.
  • Bul'bine: from the Greek bolbini or bolbos, "a bulb or onion," an old name used by Pliny for some species of little onion or other bulbed plant. (ref. genus Bulbine)
  • bulbo'sa/bulbo'sus: bulbous, swollen. (ref. Melica bulbosa, Orobanche bulbosa, Poa bulbosa, Ranunculus bulbosus)
  • Bulbosty'lis: having a bulb-like style. (ref. genus Bulbostylis)
  • bullard'ii: named for Frances Emily Schmidt (Mrs. James Hovey Bullard) (1863-1923). The following information
      has been gleaned from a website of the Anaheim Public Library. She was born in Anaheim, California, the daughter of one of the founding families of the Anaheim Colony in 1857, where she grew up among vineyards and wineries. She attended public school in Anaheim until at the age of 12 she was sent to a convent in Freiburg, Germany to finish her education. She met her future husband first upon her return in 1884. In 1891 she joined her father in New York City. Two years later Dr. Bullard travelled east to attend the Chicago World’s Fair and visit relatives in Boston. He
    also spent some time in New York City and that’s where they met again, and subsequently were married in September 1893, returning to Anaheim two months later. Dr. Bullard continued his successful medical practice there and then in 1895 they relocated to Los Angeles. Frances was a lifelong student of California wildflowers, and she created a garden that contained more than 10,000 specimens. She collaborated with such well-known horticulturists as Theodore Payne and Luther Burbank. She won many awards and prizes for floral displays and was involved in the creation of the succulent gardens at the Henry E. Huntington Estate, now known as The Huntington, in San Marino. She was also an accomplished artist and was close friends with the famous actress Madame Modjeska, for whom her husband had served as personal doctor. She died at the age of 69 following a serious operation. (ref. Allium bullardii)
  • bulla'ta: having a blistered or puckered surface, as in leaves (ref. Stachys bullata)
  • Bulliar'da: named for French physician and botanist Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard (1752-1793?), He was
      born in Aubepierre-sur-Aube Haute-Marne, and his early interest in the natural sciences was in birds but soon shifted to plants. He attended the Collège of Langres and then continued his field work and demonstrated his drawing skills, later studying in Clairvaux and in Paris. He attended some lectures on medicine and surgery, but concentrated on completing his 5-volume work entitled Flora Parisiensis, ou Description et figures de toutes les plantes qui croissent aux environs de Paris, which included 640 plates. In 1783 he published his Dictionnaire Elémentaire de Botanique
    contributed to the spreading and consolidation of botanical terminology and the Linné system. He was particularly interested in mushrooms and this work was especially useful in the area of mycology. He was a resident of Paris from 1775 until his sudden, mysterious and unresolved death. One source says that he was murdered. (ref. genus Bulliarda)
  • -bundus: a Latin adjectival suffix used to indicate a sense of doing or of action accomplished (e.g. floribundus, "flowering or having already flowered, full of flowers," from florere, "to flower").
  • Bupleur'um: from the Greek bous, "ox," and pleuron, "a rib." (ref. genus Bupleurum)
  • burk'ei: after James Huston Burke (1834-1922), ranch-owner and farmer who moved to California with his family in 1853. He bought land, raised crops and herded cattle and sheep. Although not much is known about his interest in plants, he apparently collected the type specimen of Lasthenia burkei near Ukiah in 1886. It was described first as Baeria burkei by Edward L. Greene in 1887 and he later placed it in the genus Lasthenia. (ref. Lasthenia burkei)
  • burk'ei: after Joseph Burke (1812-1873), a an English botanical collector who worked in South Africa between 1839 and 1843, then descended the Columbia River from Canada into the Pacific Northwest and worked as a botanical collector in eastern Idaho. In 1845 he is recorded as having passed through an area in Utah. One source says that despite his energetic efforts, his results were scanty. The Royal Botanical Gardens of Kew had no list of his specimens and his seeds only produced a solitary juniper which grew to a meager height of 5' in 1884. (ref. Lupinus polyphyllus var. burkei)
  • burlew'ii: after Fred Everts Burlew (1863-1954), an amateur botanist and photographer who was legal advisor to the California Academy of Sciences. From the age of twelve it fell on him to care for and raise his two younger brothers and he saved enough money to put all three through college. Graduating from Grinnell College and Ann Arbor Law School, he was admitted to the bar in San Francisco and then moved to Los Angeles in 1899 where he was hired by John D. Hooker of the Academy of Sciences as his legal advisor. He collected widely, especially in the Mt. Baldy region, and also grew native plants on his home site in Glendale. His collection of wildflower photographs is one of the best in California. He was selected as an honorary life member of the California Academy of Sciences. The species Allium burlewii was named in his honor in 1916 by Anstruther Davidson. (Info from an obituary in the Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences by Theodore Payne). (ref. Allium burlewii)
  • burleya'na: named for David Ellsworth Burley (1849-1920), former general passenger agent of the Oregon Short Line Railroad and namesake of the town of Burley, Idaho.He was born in Amanda, Ohio and died in Salt Lake City. (ref. Gilia burleyana)
  • burn'hamii: named for Stewart Henry Burnham (1870-1943), natural history collector who specialized in vascular
      plants, cryptogams and ornithology. He was born at Vaughns in Washington County, New York and studied at local schools. From 1893 to 1895 he attended Stanford University, then finished his undergraduate degree at the University of Michigan, graduating with a B.S. in 1899. He did further studies at Cornell University from 1904 to 1905 concentrating on mycology. A website of the Bailey Hortorium Herbarium at Cornell says: “Burnham’s professional credits are impressive: museum aid at the New York Botanical Garden (1901-1903); assistant in botany at Cornell (1904-
    1905); assistant state botanist with Charles H. Peck at the New York State Museum in Albany (1905-1913); assistant in botany at Cornell (1920-1922); and assistant curator of the Cornell University Herbarium, with Karl M. Wiegand (1922-ca. 1942). He co-authored a landmark"Flora of the Town of Southold, Long Island and Gardiner’s Island" that was published in Torreya between 1914 and 1925. This included all the vascular plants, bryophytes, algae, lichens, fungi, and plant galls of this coastal region.” His personal herbarium included about 75,000 specimens that was eventually given to Cornell. He published extensively on both botany and ornithology focusing particularly on the Lake George region of eastern New York. (ref. Gormania burnhamii)
  • Burriel'ia: named for Andrés Marcos Burriel y Lopez (1719-1762), a Spanish Jesuit historian and essayist. He was born in Buenache de Alarcón and studied at the Colegio Imperial de Madrid before starting his noviciate in 1731. He studied rhetorics, philosophy and theology and was ordained in 1743 and became a grammer school techer in Toledo. He suffered tuberculosis in 1744 and retired to Buenache de Alarcón to recover. At one point he vowed to San Francisco Javier that if he recovered he would serve the indians of California as a missionary. Although he recovered and became a teacher of philosophy in Madrid, he did not leave for California immediately, but instead continued his academic career, taking up the position of director of a seminary for the aristocracy in Madrid and the post of professor of philosophy for the Jesuit University of Alcalá. Then, 1749, on the verge of leaving for California, he was named director of an investigative commission into the ecclesiastical archives. One thing led to another and he never did go to California. He was the author of Paleografía española (1756), Memorias para la vida del santo rey don Fernando III (1762) and the Informe de la imperial ciudad de Toledo (1758). (ref. genus Burrielia)
  • bur'sa-pastor'is: literally, a shepherd's purse. (ref. Capsella bursa-pastoris)
  • Bur'sera: after botanist Joachim Burser (1583-1649). "Joachim Burser was born in the city of Kamenz in Saxonia, Germany in 1583.  He was a medical doctor in Annaberg (Saxonia) until he was appointed a professor in Medicine and Botany at Ritter-Academy, Sorö, Denmark, in 1625, [a position he held until his death].  He died in Sorö in 1639.  Both before and after he came to Sorö he made extensive travels in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, Switzerland, Italy, France and the Pyrenees and during these travels he collected a considerable amount of plant material which he arranged in a "Hortus Siccus", an herbarium in book form.  It contained 25 volumes and a supplementary volume containing Danish plants.  When Burser died, the herbarium was bought by the Danish "riksråd" [Councilor of the Realm?] J. Seefeldt and included in his library.  During the Swedish-Danish war of 1658-60, Seefeldt's library was [seized by Charles X and] brought to Sweden as war booty.  In the beginning of the 1660s, the Burser Herbarium was owned by the Swedish statssekreterare [Junior Minister ?] J.P. Coijet when Olof Rudbeck the elder got to know about it.  Olov Rudbeck asked Coijet to give the herbarium to Uppsala University.  He had plans to edit a big botanical work with pictures of all known plants and in this connection Burser's Hortus Siccus was very useful.  The plants were to be arranged according to Caspar Bauhin's Pinax Theatri botanici and the plates were to be regarded as a Plant atlas to Bauhin's book.  Twelve volumes in folio were made and the original drawings were present in the Leuvsta library owned by de Geer at that time.  Rudbeck had in mind to prepare his Campus Elysii from those drawings and started to carve the wooden pieces. Two volumes appeared but the work was interrupted by the big fire in Uppsala in 1702 when most of it was destroyed.  Two volumes of Burser's Hortus Siccus were also destroyed, No. II and No. V. The other 23 volumes plus the Danish plants were preserved in the University library. Burser's Hortus Siccus was used by Carl Linnaeus during the preparation for his Species Plantarum, and the herbarium is now a very important source for the typification of the Linnean names.  It has been since 1854 preserved in the Botanical Museum of Uppsala University.  The Herbarium consists of sheets, 20x35 cm in size, bound in 23 volumes in leather.  On every page there is a label handwritten by Burser himself according to Bauhin's Pinax.  Many plants are new and have been named by Burser. Often there is information on the locality especially for the new species.  On some occasions there are additions by Burser in weaker writings, e.g. presence in Denmark or German names of culture plants. The twenty-three volumes contain 3189 numbered sheets and to those a number of sheets were added later and marked with "post" or "ante".  For further information on Burser's Hortus siccus see the introduction in O. Juel, Joachim Burser's Hortus Siccus (1936) written in German.  We are now working with computerizing the material. (Dec. 1998)."  This information has been quoted almost exactly from the website of the The Botany Section, Museum of Evolution at Uppsala University, Sweden, and I have made some minor changes to the quote to correct spelling, tenses or punctuation and to make its flow in English better, also to add a couple of brief additional pieces of information from other sources (ref. genus Bursera)
  • bursifo'lia: with leaves like genus Bursa. (ref. Crepis bursifolia)
  • bush'ianum/bush'ii: named after Benjamin Franklin Bush (1858-1937). (ref. Chenopodium missouriense var. bushianum, Polygonum hydropiperoides var. bushianum, Amorpha bushii)
  • butanoen'sis: probably from Butano State Park in San Mateo County. (ref. Hesperocyparis abramsiana var. butanoensis)
  • but'leri: named for Bertram Theodore Butler (1872-1958), botanist, professor and chairman of the geology department of the City College of New York. He was born at Nashua, Iowa of French Huguenot ancestry. He began his teaching career in a one-room country school in South Dakota. He received a Ph.D. from Hamline University in St. Paul. Minnesota. He became a science instructor at Montana Wesleyan University and later a superintendent of schools. He was awarded an A.M degree at Columbia University. (ref. Cirsium butleri)
  • but'leri: named for George Dexter Butler (1850-1910), lawyer, teacher, botanist, plant collector, and correspondent
      of George Engelmann. He was born in Morris, Illinois, grew up in Bureau County and attended the University of Iowa. He taught at various schools in Arkansas and the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. He was clearly interested in botany and collected plants, developing a correspondence with George Engelmann. Butler sent him specimens including a species of quillwort, which was new and which Engelmann named Isoetes butleri in his honor. As a result of this discovery he published his most important botanical contribution, The species of Isoetes of Indian
    Territory, in 1878. At some point he moved to Siskiyou County, California, where he continued to teach and ran a saw mill, as well as serving in the county office. In 1896 he devoted himself to the law and began to achieve the measure of success that allowed him by 1906 to spend the final years of his life trawling the county for plant specimens, constructing a herbarium in his house, and soon amassing the most complete collection of Siskiyou plants in existence. A sudden stroke killed him in 1910. (ref. Isoetes butleri, Trifolium eriocephalum var. butleri) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • Butner'ia: named for David Sigismund August Büttner (1724-1768), Hungarian physician, botanist, biologist and author. He was born in Chemnitz, Hungary, and was appointed professor of medicine and botany in 1756 at the Collegium medico-chirurgicum Berlin. From 1760 to his death in 1768 he was professor of botany and zoology at the University of Göttingen. The genus Butneria was published in 1755 by Henri Louis Duhamel du Monceau. (ref. genus Butneria)
  • butten'sis: of or from Butte County. (ref. Calystegia atriplicifolia ssp. buttensis)
  • butterworthia'num: after botanist Clare Butterworth Hardham (1918-2010), wife of John Fraser Hardham. Her field work on the central and south coasts and the Santa Lucia Mountains was legendary; she had a number of special plants named for her, including the rare/endangered Pogogyne hardhamiae, Eriogonum butterworthianum and Galium hardhamiae, all of which are found in Monterey County. She is the plant name author of Collinsia antonina which she found near Fort Hunter Liggett. Born and raised on the family ranch in Santa Barbara, she earned a B.A. from Vassar College and an M.S. at U.C. Santa Barbara. With her husband, John F. Hardham, M.D., she had three children, Ann, Virginia and John; and operated a cattle ranch raising polled Herefords for many years. (From an obituary in the newsletter of the Monterey Bay chapter of CNPS). (ref. Eriogonum butterworthianum)
  • Buxbaum'ia/buxbaum'ii: after German botanist Johann Christian Buxbaum (1693-1730), German physician, botanist and entomologist, a scholar from the Russian Academy of Science and professor of botany at St. Petersburg, who produced some of the first scientific works on the flora of Estonia, and author of Plantarum minus cognitarum centuria. He studied medicine at the Universities of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Leyden. He was a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts and Sciences. As a physician he accompanied  a Russian diplomatic mission to Turkey  and travelled to Greece and Asia Minor. He is commemorated in the moss genus Buxbaumia (also the name of a journal on mosses) and in the names of several species (notably the sedge Carex buxbaumii). His most notable works are: Enumeratio plantarum acculatior in argo Halensi vicinisque locis crescentium una cum earum characteribus et viribus (Halle, 1721) and Plantarum minus cognitarum centuria complectens plantas circa Byzantium & in oriente observatas. (ref. Carex buxbaumii)
  • buxifo'lia/buxifo'lium/buxifolius: with leaves like those of the boxwood, genus Buxus. (ref. Garrya buxifolia, Galium buxifolium)

Cuyamaca Rancho State Park after the fire
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