L-R: Geranium californicum (California geranium), Viguiera laciniata (San Diego County goldeneye), Allium monticola (San Bernardino mountain onion), Lepechinia cardiophylla (Heartleaf pitcher sage), Calochortus kennedyi (Red mariposa lily)

California Plant Names:
Latin and Greek Meanings and Derivations
An Annotated Dictionary of Botanical and Biographical Etymology
Compiled by Michael L. Charters

  • bithy'nica: from Bithynia, a region of northwest Asia Minor.
  • blair'ii: named for Erwin (or Erve) Grant Blair (1865-1965), born in Pennsylvania, a sheep rancher in Park County,
      Montana, before moving to southern California about 1913. He was born of Scotch and English ancestry at McConnolsburg, Pennsyvania. His family moved to Aurora, Illinois, when he was a year old. At 19 he came west with an older brother to homestead in Montana. In 1915 he took a 20-year grazing lease on San Clemente Island and raised sheep there. He returned to the mainland in 1934 when the Navy took over the island. Peter Raven's A Flora of San Clemente Island, 1963, gives the following: "Philip A. Munz, then of Pomona College, made a notable visit to the island
    from April 8-12, 1923, accompanied by F. W. Peirson, D. D. Keck (at that time a student at Pomona), Dr. J.G. Needham (Munz's professor at Cornell, then on a visit to California), and five others. The party landed at Wilson Cove, circled the north end dunes, and the next day set out by wagon for the south, camping near Lemon Tank, and then working the canyons on both sides of the island to the vicinity of Middle Ranch and Thirst. They were materially aided in their efforts by Mr. E. G. Blair, in charge of the sheep company operations at the time; he even gathered flowering material of Munzothamnus for them the following autumn." The website Islapedia says: "E. G. Blair incorporated the San Clemente Sheep Company with his Montana ranching partner, Lewis Penwell, for the express purpose of buying the San Clemente Island lease and assets from Charles Taggart Howland and the San Clemente Wool Company. In 1918, the government lease was reassigned to the San Clemente Sheep Company. E. G. Blair was the largest stockholder, president and manager. In 1934 the leasing of San Clemente Island was discontinued, and sheep operations ended as the Navy’s administration of the island began." He spent many years as a bronc buster, ranger rider, rancher and sheep owner, and he was a charter member of the National Cwboy Hall of Fame. He died in San Diego at the age of 99. (Photo credit: Santa Cruz Island Foundation)
  • blaisdel'lii: named for Frank Ellsworth Blaisdell, Sr. (1862-1946), American entomologist and anatomy expert who was an influential authority on beetles. He was born at Pittsfield, New Hampshire and moved with his family to San Francisco in 1870 and then to San Diego three years later. His father had been a saddler and harness maker, and from 1874 to 1886 engaged in farming in the Poway Valley. During this time young Blaisdell collected insects and maintained an apiary. In 1887 he entered Cooper Medical College and he graduated with a medical degree in 1889, returning to San Diego to practice medicine for the next three years. In 1892 he relocated to San Francisco where he practiced medicine and collected insects at Mokelumne Hill, Calaveras County until 1900.  After going to Alaska on vacation where he collected beetles, he was appointed to a teaching position at Cooper Medical College, a position he held for ten years. In 1909 he spent a year at John Hopkins in Baltimore studying medicine. In 1910 Cooper College became affiliated with Stanford University and Blaisdell was at that time professor of anatomy and head of department. After the affiliation he was made professor of surgery and he held that title until his retirement in 1927. He became a life member of the California Academy of Sciences in 1904. When the earthquake and fire of 1906 destroyed the Academy building, he helped to save what he could of his collection as well as other collections that were in the building. He was the author of a hundred papers on the Coleoptera, publishing from 1892 to 1945. He died in Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, California.
  • blak'ei: named for American botanist Sidney Fay Blake (1892-1959), a taxonomist who was recognized as one of
      the world's experts on botanical nomenclature. He was born in Stoughton, Massachusetts, south of Boston. His father was a grocer and his grandfather was a dentist. His interest in natural history began early with a study of birds. A neighbor of theirs happened to be a professor of botany at Harvard. By the time he entered Harvard, he was determined to be a botanist, and he received a bachelor’s degree in 1912, a master’s in 1913 and a PhD in botany in 1917. He studied with Benjamin Lincoln Robinson and Merritt Lyndon Fernald. That same year he began his career
    under Frederick Coville at the Bureau of Plant Industry for the United States Department of Agriculture, and worked there till he died in 1959. Blake published only one work in 2 volumes, Flora of the World, the second volume of which was published after his death. In 1956 he was named one of the 50 greatest living botanists in America by the Botanical Society of America. In 1943 he was elected president of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. His other areas of interest were paleontology and researching Sherlock Holmes for the Baker Street Journal.
  • blak'leyi: named for Elwood Robert "Jim" Blakley (1924-2008), botanist and retired historian, and member of the
      Santa Cruz Foundation's "All Eight Club" of people who have spent time on all eight Channel Islands. Amazingly there are over 200 people in the All 8 Club. Jim collected plants on all eight between 1958 and 1964. As a naturalist and historian of the Santa Barbara backcountry, he was the co-author with Karen Barnette in 1985 of "Historical Overview of the Los Padres National Forest." He was born in Colorado and was the Grounds Superintendent at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. (Photo credit Santa Cruz Island Foundation)
  • blanche'ae: named for botanical collector Luella Blanche Engle Trask (1865-1916). She seemed to have had a love of
      flowers from the earliest age, and recalled the story that her mother would find her in the garden at the age of 2 or 3 kissing the pansies and verbenas and telling them how much she loved them. The following is from the website Islapedia. “She was born in Waterloo, Iowa, and later moved to Minnesota with her family [where she began collecting wild plants]. Her father was a nurseryman which is probably where she developed her first interest in plants. Although she also explored some of the desert mountains of the west, such as the San Jacinto Mountains, Colorado Desert,
    Death Valley, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and Yellowstone, it was the Channel Islands that held her. She became a botanist, poet and island explorer who lived on Santa Catalina Island at Avalon and Fisherman’s Cove from 1893-1912. She made extensive collections on the Southern Channel Islands during the late 1890s and early 1900s. As early as 1896 she made field trips to San Clemente Island, and in April 1897 she collected plant specimens on San Nicolas Island. In 1900 she collected plants on both Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz island, at the latter of which island mountain mahogany, Cercocarpus betuloides var. blancheae bears her name. In 1901 she discovered a species of Dudleya on Santa Barbara Island which was named in her honor, Dudleya traskae. The locoweed, Astragalus traskae, found on both Santa Barbara and San Nicolas islands, was also named in her honor, as was Catalina mahogany, Cercocarpus traskae. Mrs. Trask spent an additional three months on San Clemente Island in 1903, but specimens from this trip, as well as many others were lost in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fires. Nine years later, Trask’s personal herbarium was destroyed by fire at Avalon on Santa Catalina Island in November 1915. Trask authored more than a dozen articles and poems, particularly about Santa Catalina Island. On March 6, 1886 at age 20, Blanche married Walter Trask in Minnesota, and they had a daughter, Caroline, born December 6, 1887. They divorced in 1895 when Caroline was 9 years old.” Willis Linn Jepson described Trask this way: “No one knows so much about Catalina Island as Mrs. Blanche Trask who has been here about 17 years. For the island as a whole, its rocks, cliffs, and canyons, as well as its plants, trees and shrubs this woman has a most remarkable love. It has grown out of her love for its wildness, its inaccessible cliffs, and its great solitudes of canyon crest, and sky. She has worked through all its canyons, even on the inaccessible south coast, and beyond ‘the isthmus,’ at all times of the year but especially in the winter season. It is so intolerably hot in the dry season that she hibernates, usually from May to September or October. There is little water on the island, only a few springs, which are frequented by the sheep or goats. I have never known anyone anywhere who knows the plants individually over such a large area as she does. She seems to know the individual trees and shrubs like old friends and knows whether they have changed in the last ten years and how much.” In addition to botany, her interests included archeology, history, zoology and geology, and she carried on an extensive correspondence with Alice Eastwood and Willis Jepson.  Blanche Trask died in Colfax, California on November 11, 1916 where she had gone due to her pulmonary trouble. It was the year following the devastating destruction of her herbarium caused by a fire that swept through Avalon on Santa Catalina Island. She collected on six of the eight Channel Islands, was a great friend of Alice Eastwood, and found a mammoth tooth on San Nicolas in 1902. Her winter home was in Avalon, but she also had a summer refuge in Fisherman's Cove, and frequently walked the roundtrip route over the ridge trail in a day. She was described by Charles Frederick Milspaugh, former curator of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, as an "indefatigable pedestrian." Trask was 51 years old at the time of her death, and undoubtedly would have accomplished much more had she been granted a longer span of life.
  • blandow'ii: named for Otto Christian Blandow (1778-1810), German apothecary and botanist, specializing in the field of bryology. He trained in Malchin, Germany, and then worked as an apothecary in Rostock, Neubrandenburg, Anklam, Woldegk and Waren. Since 1875, a collection of his mosses (250 specimens) has been kept at the British Museum of Natural History. He was also honored with the genus name Blandowia, published in 1809 by Carl Ludwig Willdenow.
  • blan'dus: charming, mild, not bitter, pleasing.
  • blankinship'ii: named for American botanist Joseph William Blankenship (Blankinship) (1862-1938) who studied plant pathology, weeds and the flora of Montana. He was born in Glasgow, Illinois and grew up in rural Missouri where his father was a postmaster. He entered Drury Preparatory School in Springfield in 1881 and then was accepted at Harvard where he earned a BA, MA.and PhD In 1892 he collected on the Farallon Islands. He spent 1907-1908 in post-graduate studies in Berlin. He went on to become a botany professor at the Montana Agricultural College in Bozeman and first curator of the Montana State College herbarium. He left the College in 1905 and worked as a consulting plant pathologist. He later moved to California and worked as a plant pathologist for smelter companies across the Western United States. Subsequently he taught botany at U.C. Berkeley for many years, until about 1922. After divorcing his wife, ill health forced him to move to the Masonic Home in Union City in 1934. He published Weeds of Montana in 1901 and Native Economic Plants of Montana in 1905. He died of a stroke in Union City, California.
  • blaschkea'na: named for Eduard Leonidovich Blashke (Eduard Leontevich Blaschke) (1810-1878). The following is quoted from an article by Richard Bland in the Journal of Northwest Anthropology 49(1):71-86, 2015: “Eduard Leonidovich Blashke (1810–1878) was a Baltic German who, after completing medical school, went into the service of the Russian-American Company. In 1834 he was sent across Siberia, vaccinating the population as he went. In Okhotsk he boarded the sloop Sitkha and arrived in Novo-Arkhangel’sk in 1835. In that year smallpox, which seemed to have come from the south, broke out in the Alexander Archipelago. Many Tlingit, who viewed vaccination as an attempt by Europeans to annihilate them, refused to be vaccinated. As a result, about 400 Tlingit in a settlement near Novo-Arkhangel’sk died, as did about half the Native village at Novo-Arkhangel’sk. The Russians by contrast suffered only one death at Sitka. Dr. Blashke believed that diseases arose from local factors, that is, the geography, weather, plants, soil, and so on. Therefore, he made a study of the area around Novo-Arkhangel’sk in an attempt to determine the cause of diseases of that area. For example, in his book he provides the first ethnographic use of devil’s club, the ash of which the Tlingit used to treat sores. Despite Blashke’s beliefs regarding the origin of diseases, he was well aware that vaccines could prevent them. With this knowledge, between 1835 and 1838 he tried to vaccinate as many of the Tlingit as he could. By comparing the number of deaths, which would have been available to the Tlingit, between those who had been vaccinated and those who had not, one might wonder why the Tlingit generally remained so set against vaccination. However, we have only to look at our present-day American society. Dr. Blashke published two works during his lifetime. His major contribution was Topographia Medica Portus Novi-Archangelscensis [The Topography of Medicine at the Port of Novo-Arkhangel’sk] in 1842. In 1848, he published his article about his Aleutian travels in the Russian journal Morskoi sbornik (Maritime Journal).”
  • blasdal'ei: named for Walter Charles Blasdale (1871-1960). The following is quoted from a 1961 University of California Memorium essay: "Walter Charles Blasdale was born on January 10, 1871, in Jericho, Queens County, New York, the son of Charles Blasdale, MD, and Julia Smith Blasdale. His scientific education was obtained at the University of California. He matriculated in 1888 and received a BS degree in chemistry in 1892, an M.S. degree in 1896, and a PhD degree in 1900. His was the first doctorate in chemistry awarded by the University of California. He started teaching in the College of Chemistry during his graduate studies. He was assistant in chemistry from 1892 until 1895, instructor from 1895 until 1903, assistant professor from 1903 until 1911, associate professor from 1911 until 1919, and professor from 1919 until 1941. He became professor of chemistry emeritus, in 1941 at the age of seventy. The bibliography of his published writings contains contributions to botany as well as chemistry. His first paper, "Studies in the Life History of a Puccinia found on the leaves of Oenothera ovata," was prepared while he was still an undergraduate. It was published in the Report of the Agricultural Experiment Station (California) for 1891-92. Another paper, "On Certain Leaf Hair Structures" appeared in Erythea in December, 1893. Professor Blasdale's first chemical publication, "On the Physical and Chemical Properties of Some California Oils," was printed in the Journal of the American Chemical Society in December, 1895. The bulletins of the Department of Geology, in which Louderback described the new mineral Benitoite and associated minerals (Vol. V, No. 9, 1896; Vol. V, No. 23, 1909), included chemical analyses of these minerals by Professor Blasdale. In July, 1899 he published a bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Some Chinese Vegetable Food Materials, Their Nutritive and Economic Value. For many years he taught quantitative analysis, and his experience in teaching this subject resulted in the publication, in 1914, of Principles of Quantitative Analysis. The fourth edition of this book was published in 1936 under the title Fundamentals of Quantitative Analysis. During a year's leave from the University in 1904-05, Professor Blasdale developed his knowledge of physical chemistry by studying with the famous Jacobus Van't Hoff in Berlin. The Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften contains three joint papers by Van't Hoff and Blasdale. Subsequently, he published research papers on "Equilibria in Solutions Containing Mixtures of Salts." This work culminated in publication of a book, Equilibria in Saturated Salt Solutions in 1927, as one of the Chemical Monograph Series of the American Chemical Society. A contribution to the International Critical Tables in 1928, was "Freezing-point Solubility; Data for Three (or more) Component Aqueous Solutions of Salts and Inorganic Compounds." His researches in this field were of value for the utilization of salt deposits found in dried lakes in California and elsewhere. For many years he taught a course in the Phase Rule.
    Professor Blasdale's researches in chemistry were paralleled by his contributions to botany. Many of his publications appeared in the Journal of the California Horticultural Society, the National Horticultural Magazine, and the Quarterly of the American Primrose Society. The botany of the primrose especially received his attention; he studied it through plantings in his garden and greenhouse. His work on the primrose culminated in a major work, The Cultivated Species of Primula, University of California Press, 1948. He also published a work, Cyclamen Persicum; Its Natural and Cultivated Forms, Stanford University Press, 1952. Professor Blasdale's broad interests also included the history of science. He taught a course in the history of chemistry and for many years was an active member of the History of Science Dinner Club of the University of California. Professor Blasdale was a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Horticultural Society, the California Horticultural Society, and the Royal Horticultural Society of Great Britain. He was a member of the Faculty Club, Phi Beta Kappa, and Sigma Xi. He was active in the First Congregational Church of Berkeley and in the Boy Scouts. In view of his interest in young people, it was fitting that he should serve on the Academic Senate Committee on Undergraduate Scholarships. He was chairman of that committee from 1930 until 1934. He was active in the California Horticultural Society until about a month before his death; he often attended its meetings in San Francisco. Professor Blasdale was married on June 28, 1905, to Elizabeth Rogers. He died on May 23, 1960, after a seventy-two-year association with the University of California, perhaps the longest on record."
  • Blas'ia: named for Blasius Biagi (1670-1735), an Italian clergyman from village of Vallombrosa. The genus Blasia was published by Carl Linnaus in 1753.
  • blattar'ia: from the Latin name blatta for "cockroach or an insect that shuns the light."
  • Blech'num: from the classical Greek blechnon, a name used by Pliny for a fern or ferns. The genus Blechnum was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.
  • Blennosper'ma: means "slimy seed" from the Greek blenna, "mucus, slime, phlegm" and sperma, "seed." The genus Blennosperma was published by Christian Friedrich Lessing in 1832.
  • Blepharidach'ne: from the Greek blepharon, "eyelid or eyelash," and achne, "chaff, glume," referring to the ciliate lemmas. The genus Blepharidachne was published by Eduard Hackel in 1887.
  • Blepharipap'pus: from the Greek words meaning "eyelash pappus." The genus Blepharipappus was published in 1833 by William Jackson Hooker.
  • Blepharizon'ia: from the Greek blepharis, "eyelash," and zone, "a belt, armor or girdle," referring to the fruits which are weakly held by the phyllaries. The genus Blepharizonia was published by Edward Lee Greene in 1885.
  • blepharophyl'la: with leaves like genus Blepharis, from the Greek blepharon, "eyelash."
  • Blind'ia/blind'ii: named for Alsatian pastor and bryologist Jean-Jacques Blind (1806-1867). He was born and died in Strasbourg. The genus Blindia was published in 1846 by Philipp Bruch and Wilhelm Philipp Schimper.
  • blissia'num: named for Anna Dorinda Blaksley (Mrs. Demas Barnes, Mrs. William Henry Bliss) (1851-1935) and her
      daughter Mildred Barnes (Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss) (1879-1969). Anna Dorinda Blaksley was born in Missouri, married first Demas Barnes with whom she had a daughter Mildred and who died in 1888, moved to New York City, then married former US District Attorney and railroad executive William Henry Bliss. She was a noted philanthropist, donating money to the Aero Club of America, the League of Political Education, the American Museum of Natural History, Harvard University and the Cottage Hospital of Santa Barbara. In 1918 she built an eighty-room winter home in Santa Barbara and created the Blaksley Botanical Garden in Mission Canyon, which was renamed in 1939 the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. According to the biography on the website of the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library: “She built a monument in the Woodlawn Cemetery, New York, dedicated to those who lost their lives in the sinking of the ocean liner Titanic in 1912; she is buried at the back of this monument. Anna Barnes Bliss belonged to the National Society of The Colonial Dames of America, the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Colony Club, and the
    Cosmopolitan Club. She died at Casa Dorinda on February 22, 1935.” The following is quoted from a website of Harvard University Library: "Robert Woods Bliss [1875-1962] was a graduate of Harvard College, Class of 1900. He began work as the secretary to the governor of Puerto Rico and entered the US Foreign Service in 1903 with a post in Venice. For the next thirty years he served the diplomatic corps in St. Petersburg, Brussels, Buenos Aires, Paris, Washington, D.C., and Stockholm. He retired in 1933, but returned to the State Department for occasional special service. Robert Woods Bliss married his stepsister, Mildred Barnes, in 1908. They had no children. She was a well-educated and well-travelled heir to the Castoria patent medicine fortune. Mildred Bliss was an active participant and leader in social and cultural circles at every diplomatic post to which Robert Bliss was assigned. She was an avid art collector as well as patron of musicians and visual artists in Europe, South America and the United States. She organized the American Distributing Service to transfer medical supplies to French hospitals and funded several vehicles for the Ambulance Corps. She was honored with numerous decorations for her war relief efforts in France during World War I. In addition to extensive philanthropic work, the Blisses were recognized as important art collectors. In 1920 they purchased an estate in Georgetown called "The Oaks." They renamed it "Dumbarton Oaks" and spent the next several decades involved with the development of both the exterior landscape and the art and book collections within. In 1940 Mildred and Robert Woods Bliss conveyed Dumbarton Oaks to Harvard University as the Center for Byzantine Studies. The Blisses resided nearby and maintained an active interest in the formation and funding of its garden, library, art collection and musical program. Plans to build a gallery at Dumbarton Oaks to house Robert Bliss's collection of pre-Columbian art were underway when he died of lung cancer on April 19, 1962. The Robert Woods Bliss Collection of Pre-Columbian Art was opened to the public in 1963. Mildred Bliss continued to travel and take part in Washington's cultural life and philanthropy life until her death on January 17, 1969." (Photo credit: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library)
  • blito'ides: resembling blitum, an old name for strawberry blite, a course weed with a red fruit.
  • blochman'iae: named for Ida May Twitchell Blochman (1854-1931), born in Maine, and lived lived in Iowa from
      1857-1880, graduating from the State College at Ames in 1878. She came to La Graciosa, California (an old community now within the city limits of Orcutt, south of Santa Maria), and bceame a schoolteacher. She married Lazar Blochman in 1888. Twitchell maintained a lifelong interest in botany and collected plants in the Santa Maria Valley of the Santa Barbara region, mainly in the 1890s. She published a number of papers on the subject of California plants and gathered a herbarium of 600 plants from northern Santa Barbara County. In 1893 she sent a large
    collection of plants to the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and corresponded with Alice Eastwood and Edward Lee Greene. Several endemics bear her name, although most are Central Coast plants. Senecio blochmanae and Erigeron blochmaniae was both named for her by Green. (Photo credit WikiName/Islapedia)
  • bloom'eri/Bloomer'ia: named for Hiram Green Bloomer (1819-1874), an early San Francisco botanist and one of the founders of the California Academy of Sciences and the director of its museum. He came with his family to California in 1854 from New York, his native state, and from the time of his arrival to that of his death paid attention to the science of botany. The Academy owes very much of its success to Mr. Bloomer, whose memory will be held in grateful remembrance by its members and all others who knew his labors in a field which had much interest for him. Some sources have identified him incorrectly as Dr. Bloomer. His son, Hiram Reynolds Bloomer (1845-1911), was a distinguished San Francisco artist. He trained in Paris, London and under several other American artists. He held exhibitions in Philadephia (1876), Paris Salon and Expo Universelle (1878); Royal Academy of London (1880) and San Francisco Art Institute (1904); and many other locations. The genus Bloomeria was named in his honor in 1863 by Albert Kellogg and his name also forms part of the taxonomic names of a number of other species.
  • blu'meri: named for Jacob Corwin Blumer (1872-1948), Swiss born American plant collector and farmer. He was born in Engi, Switzerland and moved with his family to a farm in Davis County, Iowa. He received a bachelor’s degree from Iowa State College in 1902 and then studied at the University of Michigan from 1904 to 1906, gaining a master’s degree. He spent his summers as a seasonal worker for the US Forestry Service, working and collecting in Idaho, Colorado and Arizona. JSTOR says: “In 1907-1908 he undertook his first major botanical expedition to Arizona, collecting in the Chiricahua Mountains, and over the following year or so gathered specimens in the Rincon Mountains and other ranges of southern Arizona. At this time Blumer was selling many of his specimens to fund his travels. One institution which purchased his material was the Carnegie Desert Laboratory in Tucson and Blumer worked there during 1907-1908, mapping the distribution of certain plant species and sampling soil. It seems that he struggled to see projects through and left several paid botanical positions for various reasons, including this one. During the early 1910s Blumer continued to collect in Arizona, taking a particular interest in the Sonoran desert, and later worked as an assistant forester for the Commission of Conservation in Canada (1913-1916). In 1917 he made the decision to farm for a living and during the 1930s and 40s lived alone on a farm outside Clinton in Minnesota. Blumer was responsible for 23 scientific papers, the most important of which focused on ecology, topography and plant communities in the South-west. His herbarium, at the time of his death from a heart attack in 1948, contained over 10,000 specimens.”
  • blyt'tii: named for Norwegian botanist Mathias Numsen Blytt (1789-1862), naturalist, traveller, professor of botany and director of the university botanical garden in Christiana.  He was born at Overhalla in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. He attended the University of Christiania (now University of Oslo) and the University of Copenhagen. Blytt was first lecturer and then professor of botany at the University of Oslo. He was an important cryptogamic collector and during botanical collecting excursions to the Dovrefjell area in 1835 he was accompanied by his student Daniel Cornelius Danielssen whose later work would mark the beginning of the modern medical history of leprosy. The scientific journal of botany called Blyttia was named for him and his son Axel Gudbrand Blytt (1843–1898) who was also a botanist, and the hepatic genus Hypoblyttia  was named in his honorr.
  • boar'ia: the Dave's Garden Botanary site gives "of cattle" as the meaning of this name. The author of the species Maytenus boaria in his 1809 work The Geographical, Natural and Civil History of Chili [Chile] in his reference to the species states that "The cattle are very fond of the leaves and will forsake any herbage for them; and were it not for the hedges and ditches with which the inhabitants surround the young trees, the species would probably before this time have been destroyed."
  • boas'ii: named for Canadian botanist Frank M. Boas (?-?)
  • boccon'i: named for Paolo Boccone (1633-1703), a Sicilian Cistercian monk, botanist and physician. His botanical interest evolved during a visit to the botanical garden in Messina, founded by the Roman physician Pietro Castelli there in 1635. He also studied with him. He was a court botanist with the Tuscan Grand Duke Ferdinand II and his son Cosimo III. Boccone toured Sicily, Malta, Italy, Corsica, the Netherlands, England and Poland. He was a professor at the University of Padua. In 1696 he became a member of the Leopoldina. In the 1697 published work Museo di piante rare ... he describes rare plants from Sicily, Malta, Corsica, Piedmont and Germany. At his entrance to the monastery he took the name Silvio. Boccone was highly regarded by his contemporaries and was in contact with many European scientists. The French botanist Charles Plumier studied with him. (German Wikipedia)
  • bodien'sis: from the Bodie Hills in the eastern Sierra Nevadas.
  • bodinier'i: named for French Catholic priest/missionary and botanist Émile Marie Bodinier (1842-1901). He was born at Vaiges (Mayenne) and entered the Seminary of Le Mans in 1862, being ordained as a priest two years later. He went to Kouy-Tcheou (Kuy-chou), China, the following year, where he worked for thirty-five years. He collected more that 3000 herbarium samples during his lifetime of which about 200 are named. He sent consignments of flowers and other plants to the Paris Museum, various learned societies and to known naturalists. Some of the plants he collected were later studied and/or described by Hector Léveillé. Bodinier died in China.
  • Boe'bera: named for Johann von Böber (Boeber) (1746-1820), a little-known German plant collector from St. Petersburg. He was a botanist, teacher, and entomologist. He was director of schools in Yekaterinoslav Governorate, then was a professor at St. Peter’s College Jelgava and in 1796 became an advisor to the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. He died at St. Petersburg. The genus Boebera was published by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu.
  • Boech'era: named for Tyge Wittrock Böcher (Boecher) (1909-1983), Danish botanist, evolutionary biologist, plant
      ecologist and phytogeographer, born in Copenhagen, an authority on Arctic vegetation and the flora of Greenland based on field work he did in Greenland, Denmark, and various European mountain regions. He also worked in Argentina. Thanks to Boechera authority Dr. Ihsan Al-Shehbaz at the Missouri Botanical Garden for the following information: "Tyge Boecher worked (1951-1969) on a group of species then referred to as members of the genus Arabis. He did a splendid job. Askel and Doris Love recognized his contribution and named the genus Boechera
    forTyge [in 1975]. It turned out that Arabis and Boechera are [not closely related] genera that belong to different tribes." He also added that the pronunciation of the generic name should be boo'-ker-a.  He was a co-founder of Flora Europaea and he authored the Flora of Greenland (1968). Wikipedia says: “He was a professor of botany at the University of Copenhagen from 1954 to 1979. He was a prolific scientific writer, leaving some 250 scholarly books and articles. His scientific research covered as diverse phylogenetic lineages as vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and algae and a broad set of disciplines from anatomy, ecology and evolution of plant species to the ecology of plant populations and plant communities. He was particularly interested in chromosomal and ecological races of plant species.”
  • Boehmer'ia: named for Georg(e) Rudolf Boehmer (Böhmer) (1723-1803) of Saxony, professor of botany and anatomy at the University of Wittenberg succeeding Abraham Vater. He studied botany at the University of Leipzig under Christian Gottlieb Ludwig (1709–1773) and was interested as well in entomology. On September 10, 1746, he obtained the degree of medical baccalaureate and on March 20, 1750, the degree of a medical licentiate. He later became professor of therapy and had part-time duties as Stadtphysikus in Wittenberg and then in Kemberg, responsible for governmental measures that concerned the health care of the population and the hygienic conditions in the city. He was also responsible for supervising the pharmacies and people involved in medical tasks, such as midwives and bath physicians, and had forensic tasks such as the assessment of injury to living persons, the external examination of corpses and the performance of burials in non-natural and unexplained death. Among his publications was a five volume work on natural history called Bibliotheca scriptorum historiae naturalis. The plant genus Boehmeria from the family Urticaceae was named in his honor in 1760 by Nicolaus Joseph von Jacquin.
  • Boerhav'ia: sometimes spelled Boerhaavia, named for Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738), Dutch botanist, chemist,
      Christian humanist, and physician, sometimes referred to as ‘the father of physiology’ and often hailed as the Dutch Hippocrates. His father was a Protestant pastor and as a youth studied for a divinity degree, however he got a scholarship and took a degree in philosophy and then turned to the study of medicine, graduating in 1693. In 1701 he was appointed a lecturer at the University of Leiden and eight years later a professor of botany and medicine, making improvements and additions to the botanic garden of Leiden and publishing numerous works containing descriptions
    of new plant species. He married in 1710 and had four children, only one of whom survived to adulthood. Appointed Rector of the University in 1714, he succeeded to the chair of practical medicine and then in 1718 to the chair of chemistry as well. He was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London. One of his great accomplishments was increasing the fame of the University of Leiden, making it a center of practical medical education for students from all over Europe. He was visited by Peter the Great, Voltaire and Carl Linnaeus, who became a close friend. British medical schools credit Boerhaave for developing the system of medical education upon which their current institutions are based and every founding member of the Edinburch Medical School attended Boerhaave’s lectures at Leiden. He was a great admirer of both René Descartes and Isaac Newton. Among his publications were Het Nut der Mechanistische Methode in de Geneeskunde (The Utility of the Mechanistic Method in Medicine, 1703), Institutiones medicae (Medical Institutions, 1708), Aphorismi de cognoscendis et curandis morbis (Aphorisms of Knowledge and Curing Diseases, 1709), and Elementa chemiae (Elemental Chemistry, 1732). The genus Boerhavia was published in his honor in 1754 by British botanist Philip Miller.
  • Bogenhard'ia: named for Carl Friedrich Adolph Bogenhard (1811-1863), German pharmacist and botanist. He first worked as a pharmacist and lived in Jena and Rudolfstadt, and in 1852 travelled to North America. When he first arrived in the US from Germany, he wrote to Asa Gray with a letter of recommendation from Dr. Reichenbach, and entered into several communications with John Torrey, expressing the difficulty he was having and the fact that he had apparently been swindled out of most of his finances such as they were. He entered into an apothecary business in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. He was the co-author of Taschenbuch der Flora von Jena (Pocket Book of the Flora of Jena). The genus Bogenhardia was published in 1841 by Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach.
  • Boisduval'ia: named for Jean Baptiste Alphonse Dechauffour de Boisduval (1801-1879), a French naturalist,
      botanist, lepidopterist, entomologist and physician. He was one of the most respected lepidopterists of France and the co-founder of the Société Entomologique de France. He began his career in the field of botany and collected a great number of plant specimens in France. He was the author of the textbook Flore francaise (1828), Faune entomologique de l'Océan Pacifique, Histoire naturelle des insectes and a number of other works. His brother was Adolphe-Armand Dechauffour de Boisduval, a doctor, naturalist, and health officer in their native Ticheville.
    Wikipedia says: “Early in his career, he was interested in Coleoptera and allied himself with both Jean Théodore Lacordaire and Pierre André Latreille. He was the curator of the Pierre Françoise Marie Auguste Dejean collection in Paris and described many species of beetles, as well as butterflies and moths, resulting from the voyages of the Astrolabe, the expedition ship of Jean-François de Galaup, Comte de La Pérouse and the Coquille, that of Louis Isidore Duperrey. Boisduvalia. a genus now placed in Epilobium, was originally published in 1835 by French botanist Édouard Spach.
  • boland'eri: named for Henry Nicholas Bolander (1831-1897), a collector of plants in Yosemite National Park and
      California State Botanist in 1864. The following is quoted from a website of the Harvard University Herbaria: "Henry Nicholas Bolander was born in Schleuchtern, Germany and emigrated to the United States in 1846, at the age of 15. At the encouragement of his uncle, he entered the Lutheran Seminary in Columbus, Ohio. Bolander completed this course of study and was ordained but never became a minister. In 1851 he began teaching in the German-English schools. During this time he was introduced to the study of plants by his neighbor, Leo Lesquereux, a paleobotanist
    and bryologist. Bolander suffered ill health for a number of years, prompting his physician to recommend a change of climate. Based on this advice, Bolander decided in 1861 to move to California, where he became acquainted with many members of the California Academy of Sciences and the State Geological Survey. In 1864 he succeeded W. H. Brewer as the State Botanist of California and began making collections for the Survey. Bolander collected cryptogams and flowering plants, and became a specialist on grasses. He would continue this connection with the State Geological Survey until it was discontinued. His published works include A Catalogue of Plants Growing in the Vicinity of San Francisco (1870), as well as papers on California grasses that were published in the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. In 1871, Bolander's career took a turn away from botany and back towards his previous vocation, education. He was elected as of State Superintendent of Schools, an office which he held until December 1875. He was also the editor of a monthly magazine, California Teacher. In 1878 Bolander left California and traveled for several years. It is known that he went to Guatemala, Chile and Peru; it is likely that he was also in South Africa, Madagascar and Europe. Bolander returned to the Pacific Coast in 1883 and settled in Portland, Oregon. He once again returned to education, teaching modern languages and botany in St. Helen's Hall and Bishop Scott Academy until his death in 1897."
  • Bolan'dra: see previous entry. The genus Bolandra was published in 1868 by Asa Gray.
  • Bolboschoen'us: from the Greek bolbos, "a bulb, onion," and the related genus Schoenus. The genus Bolboschoenus was published by Eduard Palla in 1905.
  • bollea'num: named for Carl August Bolle (1821-1909), German naturalist and collector who was born at Berlin into a
      wealthy brewing family. He studied medicinend natural history at Berlin and Bonn, visited the Cape Verde and Canary Islands, and was a founding member of the German Ornithological Society. In addition to a number of plant species named for him, and the genus Bollea published in 1852 by Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach,  he had two birds named for him, Columba bollii or Bolle’s laurel pigeon, and Phoeniculus bollei, the white-headed wood-hoopoe. The herbarium that he left to the Berlin-Dahlen Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum was largely destroyed in the
    Second World War. He corresponded with George Engelmann and was the author of Meiner Zweiter Beitrage zur Vogelkunde der Canarischen Inseln (My Second Contribution to the Ornithology of the Canary Islands, 1857) and Die Palmen (The Palms, 1857) and co-author of Die Wirbeltiere der Provinz Brandenburg (The Vertebrates of the Province Brandenburg, 1886). He also maintained a substantial collection of living trees. In 1855 he was elected a member of the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina which is now the German National Academy of Sciences.
  • Bommer'ia: named for (Joseph) Jean-Édouard Bommer (1828-1895), Belgian botanist specializing in the field of
      pteridology. He was born and died in Brussels. He worked from an early age, after the death of his father, as a typesetter in a printing house, but at the same time despite having no formal training developed a great interest in botany during his many visits to the nearby Établissement Géographique de Bruxelles. In 1856 he acquired a position as an assistant at the Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, and later served as curator and as a provisional director. In 1862 Bommer was co-founder of the Société royale de botanique de Belgique. He was also co-founder of the
    Société Belge de Microscopie. In 1870 he was appointed as a botany teacher at the Rijkstuinbouwschool van Vilvoorde, and in 1872 exchanged this post for a chair in botanics at the University of Brussels, where he taught courses of botany, first as extraordinary professor and from 1879 as full professor.  Bommer did research on plant systems and physiology, with ferns being his special interest. He wrote a large number of articles for the Bulletin de la Société royale de botanique de Belgique. At the time of his death, he was working on a monograph of the maidenhair fern genus Adiantum. He was married to mycologist Elisa Caroline Bommer née Destrée (1832-1910). The genus Bommeria was published by Eugène Pierre Nicolas Fournier in 1876.
  • bonarien'sis: of or from Buenos Aires.
  • bonan'nii: named for Vincenzo Bonanno (?-?) and/or Antonio Bonanno (?-1719). Antonio was possibly a Sicilian botanist, possibly author of a work entitled Sicilian-Latin Botanical Dictionary, and possibly a pupil of Francesco Cupani, an Italian naturalist mainly interested in botany who in 1692 became the first director of the botanic garden at Misilmeri.
  • bongardia'na/bongard'ii: named for German botanist August Gustavus Heinrich Bongard (1786-1839). He worked mostly at St. Petersburg. Wikipedia says: “He was among the first botanists to describe the new plants then being discovered in Alaska (under Russian ownership at the time), including species now of major commercial importance like Sitka Spruce and Red Alder. The specimens he described were mostly collected by Carl Mertens at Sitka, Alaska.” He was honored with the genus name Bongardia, published in 1831 by Carl Anton Meyer.
  • bonjean'ii: named for Joseph (Jean) Louis Bonjean (1780-1846), French pharmacist and botanist at Chambery and director of the botanical garden there. He collected on Sardinia and was the author of Traité théorique et pratique de l'Ergot de Seigle, and a history of the potato in 1836. The genus Bonjeanea was published in 1832 by Heinrich Ludwig Gottlieb Reichenbach.
  • bonplandia'na/bonpland'ii: named for Aimé Jacques Alexandre Goujaud Bonpland (1773-1858). French explorer
      and botanist who traveled with Alexander von Humboldt in Latin America from 1799 to 1804. Wikipedia says that he was born as Aimé Jacques Alexandre Goujaud, although his father’s name was Simon-Jacques Goujaud-Bonpland. David Hollombe provided this clarification about his name: “According to Hamy, the family name dating back to the sixteenth century was Goujaud and the name of Bonplant, later Bonpland, was not adopted until about 1778 by Aime's father, Simon Jacques Goujaud, upon whom it had originally been bestowed as a nickname in allusion to the fact
    that his father had planted a “bon plant de la vigne" upon the date of his birth.” Aimé apparently subsequently decided to treat it as his surname. The source for this information was Ernest Théodore Hamy, “Aimé Bonpland, médecin et naturaliste, explorateur de l'Amérique du Sud; sa vie, son oeuvre, sa correspondance avec un choix de pièces relatives à sa biographie, un portrait et une carte.” Aimé was born in La Rochelle, France, and in 1790 he joined his brother Michael in Paris where following in the footsteps of their father they both studied medicine. They attended courses at the Botanical Museum of Natural History where among their instructors were Lamarck, de Jussieu and Desfontaines. Bonpland served as a surgeon in the French military. He befriended Alexander von Humboldt and joined him on a five-year journey through Mexico, Colombia, and the Orinoco and Amazon basins. He collected and classified about 6000 species that were mostly unknown in Europe, and published them in the multi-volume Plantes equinoxiales. The Empress Josephine installed him as superintendent of the gardens at Malmaison. In 1816 he took some European plants to Buenos Aires, where he was elected professor of natural history, but soon left his post to explore the interior of South America. In 1821 he established a colony in territory that was claimed by both Argentina and Paraguay. The colony was destroyed by the Paraguayan military and Aimé was arrested on suspicion of being a French spy, being held until released in 1829. While there he had some ability to move around on the Paraguayan side of the border and he served as a physician to local people and to the soldiers stationed nearby. After being released he went to Brazil and Uruguay, and then in 1853 returned to Corrientes Province in Argentina where he was the curator of the Natural History Museum. He had planned to return to Paris but died at the age of 84 before that could be undertaken.
  • bo'nus: good.
  • Booth'ia: named for William Beattie Booth (1804-1874), see next entry.
  • booth'ii: named for William Beattie Booth (1804-1874), Scottish botanist, gardener and horticulturist, and close friend and countryman of Scottish collector David Douglas. He was a leading authority on Camellias and was co-author with Alfred Chandler of llustrations and Descriptions of the plants which compose the natural order Camellieae, and of the varieties of Camellia Japonica, cultivated in the gardens of Great Britain (1831). He was gardener to Sir Charles Lemon at Carclew, Cornwall, assistant secretary of the Horticultural Society and member of the Botanical Society of London. (Camissonia boothii)
  • booth'ii: named for William Edwin Booth (1908-1987), ecologist and botanist, and a man who has been described as having contributed more to our knowledge of the flora of Montana than any other individual. (Salix boothii)
  • boot'tii: named for botanist William Boott (1805-1887), born and died in Boston. He was younger brother of physician and botanist Dr. Francis M.B. Boott (1792-1863), John Wright Boott (1788-1845), who maintained a large and acclaimed collection of orchids, and for whom the species Prenanthes boottii, which he discovered in New Hampshire’s White Mountains, was named, and Kirk Boott (1790-1837), one of the founders of Lowell, Massachusetts. He was educated at Exeter Academy in New Hampshire and Harvard, although he was forced to withdraw for medical reasons before receiving a degree.  The website "Biographies of people who contributed plants to the Putnam Museum Herbarium" says:. “Early on, Boott became an accomplished linguist, but apparently was persuaded to enter the field of botany by his brother Francis. William published one paper in the Botanical Gazette in 1884, "Notes on Cyperaceae". He also contributed the report on the Cyperaceae in Rothrock's "Reports Upon the Botanical Collections Made in Portions of Nevada, Utah, California, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona" (Boott 1878) and he wrote the Carex revision in the Botany of California (Boott 1880). In addition to his work on the Cyperaceae, William Boott studied the native flora of Massachusetts in general and Isoetes and the Poaceae specifically. Only eight of William Boott's specimens are present in the Putnam Museum herbarium, but hundreds of W. Boott plant collections may be reviewed at the Harvard University Herbaria database.”
  • Bora'go: an ancient name of uncertain origin, possibly from the Latin burra, "a hairy garment," alluding to the hairy leaves. Going back through the levels of derivation, we have modern French bourrache, old French bourage, Anglo-French burage, medieval Latin borrago, and possibly from the Arabic for "father of roughness." Thus are words transmitted down to us over the centuries. This is the name that gives the family Boraginaceae its name. The genus Borago was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, and is called simply borage or starflower.
  • borea'li-atlan'tica: of or from the northern Atlantic region.
  • borregan'us: of or from the Borrego area.
  • borregoen'se: see previous entry.
  • borreria'num: named for British botanist William Borrer (1781-1862), the father of British lichenology. He was one
      of the leading botanists of the first half of the 19th century and his knowledge of lichen flora at that time was almost without parallel. He was born in Sussex. His father was the High Sheriff of Sussex. He received his first education at Hurstpierpoint and Carshalton in Surrey but left school at an early age and continued schooling under private tutors. Though his father encouraged him to follow an agricultural course, he was inclined toward medicine, but took up botany, travelling to all parts of Britain to study and collect plants. In 1805 he was elected a fellow of the Linnean
    Society and he also became a member of the Royal Society and Wernerian Society of Natural History in Edinburgh. One of his sons was the noted British ornithologist William Borrer (1814-1898), author of The Birds of Sussex. (Photo credit: National Portrait Gallery)
  • Boschniak'ia: named for a Russian botanist named Alexander Karlovich Boschniak (1786-1831) who was descended from a wealthy noble family. From the age of 13 he was brought up in a university boarding school in Moscow. He served as an official in various departments of the government. In his travels in the southern and western regions of Russia, he collected numerous botanical specimens, and published their results (1820-1821) in two volumes entitled "Afternoon notes of A. Boshnyak's travel to different regions of western and southern Russia, in 1815", which provides a lot of floral data about the places visited by him. He also made significant collections of insects. The genus Boschniakia was published in 1832 by Carl Anton (Andreevič) von Meyer.
  • Bossek'ia: possibly named for Heinrich Otto Bosseck (1726-1776), born and died in Liepzig, author of Medizinische dissertation (1754) and co-author with Anton Wilhelm Plaz of De Flore Plantarum (1749).
  • botanywom'aniae: named for Kate Harper, Senior Consulting Botanist and Wildlife Biologist, Harper Biological Consulting, who saw the plants first. She has been part of a group that has been documenting the plants of Anza Borrego Desert State Park for many years. When advised that the authors wished to name the plant for her in recognition of her discovery, she requested that the epithet be the name by which she is known in the group, which is Botany Woman, and the common name to be Botany woman's threadplant. (Quoted from Madroño, 67(1):35-60, 2020).
  • Bothriochlo'a: from the Greek bothros, "a pit or hole, trench" and chloe or chloa, "grass," referring to the pitted lower glumes of some species. The genus Bothriochloa was published in 1891 by Carl (Karl) Ernst (Eduard) Otto Kuntze.
  • Botry'chium: from the Greek botrys, "a bunch of grapes," alluding to the bunch-like appearance of the spore-bearing organs of these ferns. The genus Botrychium was published in 1800 by Olof Swartz.
  • Botry'pus: from botrys, "a bunch of grapes," and the suffix -pus, which alludes to 'a foot or stalk,' of uncertain application. The website Illinois Botanizer says that Botrypus stands for "stalked grape cluster." The genus Botrypus was published by Andre Michaux in 1803.
  • botryo'ides: resembling a cluster of grapes.
  • bo'trys: a bunch or cluster of grapes, of uncertain derivation.
  • bot'tae: named for Paulo Emilio Botta or Paul-Émile Botta (1802-1870), Italian/French diplomat and archeologist.
      He was born at Turin and his father was the distinguished historian Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta. In 1822 they moved to Paris where he studied under Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville. He also studied medicine, but then entered the French diplomatic corps. Wikipedia says: “Botta was selected to be naturalist on a voyage around the world. Although he had no formal medical training, he also served as the ship surgeon. The Heros under Captain Auguste Bernard Duhaut-Cilly left Le Havre April 8, 1826, and sailed south through the Atlantic Ocean, stopping in Rio de
    Janeiro and around Cape Horn. They traveled up the coast stopping at Callao, Mexico, and Alta California." During his visit to California he collected the type specimen of Charina bottae, the southern rubber boa, and also sent the first specimen of the road runner to France. He was among the first Italians to visit Hawaii, where he spent two months in 1828, and his experiences and observations were included by his father Carlo Botta in his book entitled Viaggio Interno al Globo principalmente alla California ed alle Isole Sandwich. He wrote his own book Observations on the Inhabitants of California 1827-1828, and his name was also given to the pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, and to Euphorbia bottae. Jean Baptiste Rives, the former secretary of the Kingdom of Hawaii, had convinced investors from the family of Jacques Laffitte to finance the voyage to promote trade to California and Hawaii, but Rives disappeared along with some of the cargo. After visiting the Hawaiian Islands they reached China on December 27, 1828. In late July, 1829, the Heros returned to Le Havre. During his visit to California he collected the type specimen of Charina bottae, the southern rubber boa, and also sent the first specimen of the road runner to France. He was among the first Italians to visit Hawaii, where he spent two months in 1828, and his experiences and observations were included by his father Carlo Botta in his book entitled Viaggio Interno al Globo principalmente alla California ed alle Isole Sandwich. He wrote his own book Observations on the Inhabitants of California 1827-1828, and his name was also given to the pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, and to Euphorbia bottae. He then entered the French diplomatic corps. Initially assigned to Alexandria, Egypt, Botta secured an appointment to the city of Mosul in Mesopotamia, then controlled by the Ottoman Empire. He spoke Arabic and was fascinated by the prospect of discovering the lost cities of Assyria. Their locations had been forgotten; the cities were known only from biblical references and other ancient documents, some of which contradicted each other, and he was eager to excavate them. In 1830, Botta was the personal physician to Mohammed Ali Pashi of Egypt, in 1833 the French consul in Alexandria, and in 1840 became a consular agent in Iraq where in 1842 he began the excavations at Khorsabad. While digging at Khorsabad, Botta believed he had discovered the ancient Assyrian capital of Ninevah. Actually, while he believed he was excavating Ninevah, he was in reality uncovering the great palace of the Assyrian King Sargon II, which was fifteen miles to the north of Ninevah. But his mistaken belief which was reported back to Paris caused the French government to immediately declare itself the leader in the study of antiquities and further financial support was quickly forthcoming, allowing Botta to continue excavating. Botta shipped hundreds of statues and other antiquities back to Paris. Unfortunately, one shipment sunk to the bottom of the swiftly flowing Tigris, but statues of Sargon and the winged bulls from his palace did make it safely to the Louvre. They went on display in 1847, in a newly established Assyrian Museum there. Botta wrote Monument de Nineve in 1849-1850, which consisted of one volume of text and four volumes of illustrations by the French orientalist artist Eugène Napoléon Flandin. Botta became a scholar of cuneiform, and was consul in Jerusalem in 1846 and in Syria in 1868. He was consul in Tripoli from 1855 to 1868. Due to his bad health he returned to France. He died on March 29, 1870, in Achères, France.
  • bouchon'ii: named for a French botanist and/or plant collector named Albert Jean Victor Bouchon (1881-1948), about whom I have little information except that he apparently was an assistant at the Botanical Garden of Bordeaux and collected the type specimen of in Bordeaux in 1925. His father was (Elie Joseph) Georges Bouchon (1852-1939), private secretary to the mayor of Bordeaux and an local officer in the Union Républicaine, a political party. His name is on the former Amaranthus powellii ssp. bouchonii, now Amaranthus powellii.
  • Bougainvil'lea: named for Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811), the noted mathematician, scientist, lawyer,
      soldier, author and fellow of the Royal Society of London, who from 1767 to 1769 sailed around the world. Several South Pacific place names commemorate him, such as a reef in the Coral Sea, an island near Papua New Guinea that was important in WWII, a strait in the Solomon Islands, and a cape in western Australia. It was in the early stages of his trip around the world that he met with his supply ship in Rio de Janeiro, and learned that a botanist named Commerson on that ship had discovered a shrubby climbing plant which he named in honor of the captain. He was the first
    Frenchman to sail around the world, made important astronomical observations whhich contributed to later navigational charts, was appointed secretary to Louis XV, served as commodore of a French fleet off the coast of North America supporting the American Revolution, escaped the massacres of Paris in 1792, and was made a senator, count and member of the Legion of Honor by Napolean. The genus Bougainvillea was published in 1709 by Philibert Commerson.
  • bourgeauan'um: named for Eugene Bourgeau (1813-1877), a French botanist. "Eugene Bourgeau was the botanist
      on the Palliser Expedition [1857-1860], his career having begun with his love of flowers in the French Alps where he tended his father's herds. Sir William Hooker, the first director of Kew Gardens in London, had received many specimens from distant lands through Bourgeau's work. He referred to Eugene Bourgeau as a 'prince of botanical collectors,' and recommended him to those who were organizing the expedition. Bourgeau was not a disappointment. During his time with the Expedition he collected specimens from 819 species as well as a great quantity of seeds. John
    Palliser wrote that, 'Little Bourgeau is a brick, his collections seem to me very pretty and the colours as vivid after the specimens are saved as they are in life. He is most indefatigable and always at work.' As a horseman however, Palliser described him as, 'shocking' and Bourgeau travelled most of the journey across the prairies riding in a Red River cart. Bourgeau accompanied James Hector up the Bow Valley as far as Cascade Mountain. When Bourgeau left the expedition in 1859 to fulfill a previous commitment to do botanical work in London and in the Caucasus in Europe, he had obviously made an impression with Palliser and other members of the expedition. Palliser wrote that Bourgeau was, 'always hard at his work in which his whole soul seems engrossed, and no matter what his fatigues or privations may be, his botanical specimens are always his first care. We were very sorry indeed to lose our friend, who was a great favourite with us all. In addition to his acquirements as a botanist, he united the most sociable, jovial disposition, ever ready not only to do his own work, but assist anyone else who asked him.'" (Quoted from an interesting website called Peakfinder.com, which provides information on the peaks of the Canadian Rockies).
  • boursier'i: named for Charles Germain de Boursier de la Rivière (1800-1879). David Hollombe provided the following: "[He] came to California in the gold rush and was hired as agent at Mokelumne Hill by the French consul in San Francisco (Guillaume Patrice Dillon).  He helped establish several hospitals and carried reports back to Paris. He also collected plants and seeds, including the types of Juniperus californicus and Aquilegia eximia and the strawberries that were used to breed the first everbearing cultivars. On his return he was unable to find a buyer for his collection in France and ended up selling it in Belgium.  He spent the latter part of his life at Jussas in Charente Maritime."
  • Boussingault'ia: named for Jean-Baptiste Joseph Dieudonné Boussingault (1801-1887), French chemist who made
      significant contributions to agricultural science, petroleum science and metallurgy. He was born in Paris and studied at the School of Mines at Saint-Etienne, following which he went to Alsace to work for two years in the asphalt mines. Next he went with the Peruvian geologist Mariano Rivero to Venezuela as a mining engineer on behalf of an English company contracted by General Simón Bolivar, and in Urao lagoon near Lagunillas, Merida State, Venezuela, he discovered the mineral Gaylussite. He was attached to the staff of General Bolivar and travelled widely in the northern
    parts of the continent. Returning to France, he was married to a woman whose family had the concession to the asphalt mines where he had previously worked. He became a professor of chemistry at Lyon, and in 1839 was appointed to the chair of agricultural and analytical chemistry at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers in Paris and was elected to the Académie des Sciences. In 1848 he was elected to the National Assembly representing Alsace. Early in his career he wrote papers on such subjects as the cause of goiter in the Cordilleras, the gases of volcanoes, earthquakes and tropical rain, but from 1836 he devoted himself primarily to agricultural and mineral chemistry and animal and vegetable physiology. In 1839, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He established the world’s first agricultural experimental station in Alsace and made a series of discoveries that were to become the foundation of the modern agriculture. Among his agricultural discoveries were the benefits of crop rotation and soil fertility, ammonia in rainwater, and the ability of legume crops to add nitrogen to soil. The mineral Boussingaultite is named for him. He was the author of Économie rurale, 2 vols. (Paris, 1843–1844, 1851), Agronomie, chimie agricole et physiologie, 2nd ed., rev. and enl., 8 vols. (Paris, 1860–1891), and Mémoires de J.-B. Boussingualt, 5 vols. (Paris, 1892–1903). He died in Paris. The genus Boussingaultia was published in 1825 by Karl Sigismund Kunth.
  • Boutelou'a: named for the brothers Claudio (1774-1842) and Estéban (1776-1813) Boutelou Agraz, Spanish botanists and horticulturists of Swiss or French descent. Claudio was a botanist, agronomist and a professor of agriculture in Madrid. He studied agriculture and horticulture in France and England from 1790 to 1798 and met there Lamarck and l'Héritier and worked in the Royal Gardens of Paris. He also became chief gardener of the Botanical Garden of Madrid. Estéban was also a botanist and agronomist and worked closely with his brother throughout his life. When the French wanted to use the Botanical Garden for fortifications, it was Estéban who prevented this. They were descended from a family that had included many celebrated gardeners and had been called to Spain by Felipe V. The genus Bouteloua was published by Spanish botanist Mariano Lagasca y Segura in 1805.
  • bowerman'iae: named for Mary Leolin Bowerman (1909-2005), American botanist, co-author of The Flowering
      Plants and Ferns of Mount Diablo, California; Their Distribution and Association into Plant Communities, and the co-founder of Save Mount Diablo. She was born in Toronto and moved with her parents to Pasadena when she was a teenager. Her parents moved with her to Berkeley when she enrolled at UC Berkeley, where she eventually earned a doctorate in botany in 1936. They later moved to Lafayette, California in 1954, to the same house where Miss Bowerman died. One of her professors in graduate school was Willis Lynn Jepson and her doctoral thesis was the flora of Mt.
    Diablo. In 2005, the same year she died, the Mt. Diablo buckwheat, Eriogonum truncatum, which she had been in 1936 the last person to knowingly see, was rediscovered. She co-founded the activist group Save Mount Diablo in 1971 and served on its board of directors until her death. She was honored with the species name Arctostaphylos bowermaniae. She received many awards for her Diablo preservation efforts and was the subject of interviews, news articles, and editorials including in photographer Galen Rowell’s book Bay Area Wild, 1997. She died at the age of 97.
  • bow'iei: named for English botanist James Bowie (1789-1869). He was born in London the son of an Oxford Street seed merchant and little is known about his early education. He entered into the service of the Royal Gardens, Kew, in 1810, and worked there for four years. In 1814 he was appointed botanical collector to the gardens, with Allan Cunningham. At the behest of Joseph Banks, they went to Brazil for two years, making collections of plants and seeds. Two years later Bowie was ordered to the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa where he arrived from Brazil in November 1816.  He gathered collections of living and dried plants and made drawings for the Kew herbarium. He wrote “…no places are so productive as the Cape of Good Hope … the plants of this country are beautiful in the extreme and suit the conservatory.” In 1823 a vote of the House of Commons having reduced the sum granted for botanical collectors, Bowie was recalled home and dismissed. Other factors in his recall may have been Bowie's apparent habit of purposefully providing insufficient and false or misleading location details for plants, and his alleged riotous life style while in the field. He took up residence at Kew. In 1827 he decided to permanently settle in the Cape Colony and in 1829 he wrote the earliest guide to the Cape flora printed in South Africa (1829) and later collected plants for horticulture on a consignment basis. He became a correspondent of William Henry Harvey, who dedicated the genus Bowiea to him. He was employed as a gardener to the Baron Carl von Ludwig and left that employment in 1841 to spend most of his time making journeys into the interior to collect plants for sale. During the latter part of his life he was engaged as a gardener by Ralph H. Arderne at his gardens at Claremont, Cape Colony, outside Cape Town. He died in poverty in 1869. Specimens he collected are held at the British Museum, London (Natural History) and at Kew.
  • Bowles'ia: named for William Bowles (1705-1780), an Irish naturalist, traveler, and author of Introduccion a la historia natural, y a la geografía física de España published at Madrid, 1775. "William Bowles was born near Cork in 1720 (some references state 1705). Little is known about his early life. He studied law in London and then went to Paris (1740) where he studied natural history, chemistry, metallurgy and astronomy. He subsequently travelled through France and Germany studying natural history and mineral and other productions. In 1752, having become acquainted with Don Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795), afterwards Admiral of the Spanish Fleet, Bowles was inducted to superintend the Spanish State mines, form a natural history collection and establish a chemical laboratory to study platinum and its alloys. One of his early successes was to visit the Almadén mercury mines that had been damaged by fire, and the plans he proposed were successfully adopted for their resuscitation. Also, Bowles’s research on platinum caused him to refute the ideas current at the time that platinum was merely an alloy of iron and gold. Afterwards Bowles travelled extensively in Spain, observing the flora and fauna, and commenting on the inhabitants and their customs as well as collecting information on the mineral deposits of Spain. His society was much valued in the ‘best’ Spanish circles. Bowles’s principal work, An Introduction to the Natural History and Physical geography of Spain, was published in Spanish in Madrid in 1775. This book has considerable value, being the first work of its kind. Bowles had difficulty learning Spanish and enlisted the help of friends to translate important documents. Don J.N. de Azara (Spanish ambassador at Rome) helped him in preparing the first edition of his book. It was later translated into several languages [although apparently not into English]. In his work Bowles observed the geology, flora and fauna of Spain and collected mineral and biological specimens. He described the action of the sea on the coastline and made notes on springs and groundwater and the extinct Spanish volcanoes. Because of his familiarity with German geological thinking and with the geology of France and the Alps he appreciated the idea of geological uniformity and could put Spanish formations into context. Specific references to Ireland in the book include the assertion that the potato came to Ireland from Galicia (NW Spain), and a comment on the success of importing Irish Wolfhounds to Spain in keeping down the Spanish wolf population. Ulluoa convinced King Ferdinand VI in 1752 of the need to establish a Council of Natural History to consolidate the teaching of mineralogy, botany and zoology. The Museum of Natural History was founded in Madrid in 1753 with Ulluoa as director and Bowles as principal scientist. Bowles introduced the heather Daboecia Cantabrica, previously found in NW Spain and Ireland, to England. Also a genus of plant from Peru related to the carrot, Bowlesia, was named for him. Bowles married a German woman Anna Rustein and she accompanied him frequently on his travels around Spain as they were very devoted to each other. They moved house so many times that, to avoid putting their furniture in storage, they sold it each time a long trip was planned. Anna was pensioned by the King of Spain after her husband’s death in 1780. Although Bowles had an initial bad reaction to Spain, declaring that "All Spain was stupid, lethargic, poor, dirty, jealous and melancholy," he quickly changed his mind and, as already described, became well accepted in Spanish society. He observed and commented on the similarity between Spanish and Irish people. In particular he observed the peasants of Vizcaya in the Basque region noting their love of fairs and dancing, resembling Irish celebrations of feast-days of Patron Saints. He described the tradition of ‘fist-fights’ at these fairs in both countries and noted that serious injury was seldom sustained. He compared the ‘Sheebeens’ of Ireland with the ‘Chacoli’ of Vizcaya, both venues for drinking illicit liquor. He decided that the women of Ireland and of Vizcaya greatly resembled each other and asserted that 'the Irish have always professed a great love for the Spanish nation.' William Bowles died on August 25, 1780 in Madrid and is buried in the Church of San Martin. He made a remarkable contribution to science in general and to Spanish science in particular. Not only was he a fine scientist, but he was generally a fine fellow, described by his contemporaries as tall and fine-looking, generous, honorable, active, ingenious and well-informed." This entry is quoted from an online article entitled "William Bowles, Unrecognized Irish-Born Scientist," by William Reville, University College, Cork, which first appeared in The Irish Times, May 17, 2001, and is based almost entirely on a history of the life and work of William Bowles compiled by George Reynolds, a winner of the Aer Lingus Young Scientist competition in 1968. The genus Bowlesia was published in 1794 by Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón.
  • bowman'iae: named for Frances Agnes Bowman (1873-1931), daughter of George Francis and Mary Vansant (Coryell) Bowman, she was born in Shanghai. Her father worked for the Pacific Mail steamship line before returning to San Francisco and going into real estate. “Bowman, Frances Agnes. School teacher; born in Shanghai, China, 22 Aug. 1873, died in San Francisco, Calif., 16 Apr. 1931. Came to San Francisco when one year old and was educated there; graduated from Stanford University in 1896 where she majored in botany; her interest in botany, and in a beautiful garden, continued through many years while she taught school in San Francisco; at one time she assisted Alice Eastwood in the herbarium, donating her services. Both she and her mother, Mary C. Bowman, were charter members of the Calif. Bot. Club and both brought many specimens to the Academy.” (Biographical Notes on Persons In Whose Honor Alice Eastwood Named Native Plants (Ella Dales Cantelow and Herbert Clair Cantelow, Leaflets of Western Botany, 1957).
  • boyd'ii: named for Steven (‘Steve’) Douglas Boyd (1957- ), author of Vascular Flora of the Liebre Mountains, Western Transverse Ranges, California, and co-author with Timothy Ross, Orlando Mistretta and David Bramlet of the monograph “Vascular Flora of the San Mateo Canyon Wilderness Area, Cleveland National Forest, California.” He was born in Riverside, California, and attended the University of California, Riverside. He received a bachelor’s degree in biology in 1980 and worked as a herbarium assistant. From 1980 to 1985 he worked as a botanical consultant for Tierra Madre Consultants. He was awarded a master’s degree in 1983 and in 1985 began to work as a herbarium technician at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. His positions there eventually included Herbarium Manager (1986-1993), herbarium administrative curator (1993-1999) and finally herbarium curator in 1999. He was named curator emeritus and research associate in 2009. He was curator of the Herbarium at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden (now California Botanic Garden) and served as an editor of the Jepson Flora Project at UC Berkeley. He is currently working on a floristic manual of California’s southern seven counties. At various times in the past he has been the president, vice-president and director-at-large for Southern California Botanists. He has conducted taxonomic work on members of the Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae and Rhamnaceae families. JSTOR says: “[He conducted] extensive fieldwork in the wildland regions of the southernmost counties of this state (Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and San Diego), concentrating particularly on western Riverside County, the Santa Ana Mountains region of the Peninsular Ranges, the Liebre and San Gabriel Mountains regions of the Transverse Ranges, and various portions of the Mojave Desert. His fieldwork has been largely floristic in nature, focusing on the vascular plants and in particular studying the relative importance of annual plants to floristic diversity in various habitats of southern California. Highlights in his career include the discovery and description of Ceanothus ophiochilus. S. Boyd, T.S. Ross and Arnseth (Rhamnaceae) and Sibaropsis hammittii S. Boyd and T.S. Ross (Brassicaceae), both narrowly endemic species from Riverside County. Boyd was involved in efforts to secure State and Federal protection for the former of these species, and the latter, a new Brassicaceae genus. To a lesser degree Boyd has also collected in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada and Utah as well as in Mexico (in the coastal, desert, and montane areas of Baja California and Baja California Sur and a small amount in Morelos). In 1990 he visited Inner Mongolia, China where he also collected plants. His taxonomic and systematic work has focused on the genera Ceanothus (Rhamnaceae), Arabis (Brassicaceae), Boechera (Brassicaceae), Sibaropsis (Brassicaceae), and Lepechinia (Lamiaceae).” He is a member of the California Botanical Society, the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, and the California Native Plant Society.
  • Boykin'ia: named for Dr. Samuel E. Boykin, Sr. (1786-1848), an eminent naturalist and field botanist born in Camden, South Carolina, who did the majority of his collecting in Georgia. He was one of the many collectors who sent significant numbers of plant samples to John Torrey and Asa Gray. He was educated at the University of Georgia (graduated 1807) and the Pennsylvania Medical College in Philadelphia, and practiced medicine in Milledgeville for 25 years. He was also engaged in banking and was chosen to be on the committee of distinguished citizens to entertain General LaFayette on his tour of America when he visited Milledgeville in 1825. He was a man of considerable scientific attainment and reputation, and the celebrated English botanist, Sir Charles Lyell, visited him in Columbus and makes mention of him in one of his works. Boykin was the first to demonstrate that sugar cane could be grown in Georgia as far north as Baldwin Co. In 1836 he sold his plantation to William Whitaker, a kinsman, moved his planting interests to Alabama, and settled his family in Columbus, Georgia, where he was buried after according to one source having died in Russell, Alabama.  He served in both houses of the Georgia legislature, and was the discoverer of several species of flowers and shells which bear his name. The genus Boykinia was published by Thomas Nuttall in 1825.
  • brace'linae: named for Nina Floy (Perry) Bracelin (Mrs. Harry P. Bracelin) (1890-1973), American botanist and illustrator who worked as assistant to Alice Eastwood at the herbarium of the California Academy of Sciences.  She was born in Star Lake, Minnesota, and was schooled by private tutors before entering the University of California at Berkeley. Her mother encouraged her to study medicine but she became interested in botany. Later, while working as an assistant researcher in the university's herbarium she made the acquaintance of Mexican-American plant collector Ynes Mexia, and Bracelin set to work on her vast but disorganised herbarium. From 1928 she labelled specimens and sent them to experts for identification, developing a large network of correspondents. She married Harry P. Bracelin and became known to her friends and family as Bracie. She is sometimes referred to as Nina Floy Burfield because that was her mother’s name before she married Edwin Perry, and her mother subsequently went back to using Burfield and insisted that her daughter also use that last name. I have found no evidence however that she did. After helping Ynes Mexia with organizing, documenting and labelling some 145,000 specimens that she had collected, she became a full-time employee, but because of downsizing and lack of funds in the wake of the depression she was let go in the mid-thirties.  Mexia died in 1938 but she left a small bequest to the California Academy of Sciences to employ Bracie as a research assistant to its curator of botany Alice Eastwood. She later worked at the US Department of Agriculture’s Western Laboratory in Albany, California, producing botanical illustrations. In 1948 she was selected by the Academy as a lifetime member in recognition of her contributions. She was also honored with several plant names. She died in Berkeley in 1973 after a long illness.
  • brachia'tus: branched at right angles.
  • brachy-: a prefix indicating the characteristic of being short, same as brevi-.
  • brachyan'therum: with short anthers.
  • brachyan'thum/brachyan'thus: short-flowered.
  • brachyca'lyx: having a short calyx.
  • brachycar'pa/brachycar'pum/brachycar'pus: having short fruit.
  • brachycer'as: short-horned.
  • brachychae'tum: from brachys, "short," and chaeta, "a bristle."
  • brachycla'da: short-jointed or short-branched.
  • brachyle'pis: with short scales.
  • brachylo'ba/brachylo'bum/brachylo'bus: short-lobed.
  • brachyphyl'la: short-leaved.
  • brachypo'da/brachypo'dum: from the Greek brachys, "short," and podion, "a little foot," thus meaning "short-footed" in reference to the pedicels of the spikelets.
  • Brachypo'dium: see brachypoda/brachypodum above. The genus Brachypodium was published by Ambroise Marie François Joseph Palisot de Beauvois in 1812.
  • brachyp'tera: short-winged.
  • brachysper'ma: short-seeded.
  • brachysta'chys: with a short spike.
  • brachyste'mon: with short stamens.
  • brach'ythrix: from the Greek prefix brachy- meaning 'short' and the Greek root -thrix meaning 'hair,' denoting the defining character of short ligule hairs.
  • bractea'ta/bractea'tus: bearing bracts, from Latin bracteatus, “gold-plated, golden”, in turn from bractea, “gold leaf, veneer, glitter.”
  • bracteo'sa/bracteo'sum/bracteo'sus: with well-developed or conspicuous bracts.
  • bradbur'yi: named for John Bradbury (1768-1823), English botanist noted for his travels in the American Midwest and West in the early 19th century and his eyewitness account of the New Madrid earthquake. Although described by a number of websites as Scottish, he was born like his father in Lancashire, England and worked in the cotton mills of northern England. From an early age he was interested in natural history and botany. In 1792 he was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society and had collected plants in Cheshire before 1805. While living in Manchester, he petitioned the trustees of the Liverpool Botanic Garden to fund a visit to the United States to collect plants with the additional provision that he would work on improving the supply of cotton from America.  The dates are uncertain but he did travel to America, met with Thomas Jefferson in 1809 who recommended that he should base his investigations in St. Louis, Missouri rather than New Orleans, Louisiana, and this he did, exploring the area and sending seeds back to Liverpool. In 1811 John Jacob Aster financed a venture which arranged for Bradbury, Thomas Nuttall, Wilson Price Hunt and other members of the Pacific Fur Company to explore the Missouri River. They proceeded on to the Platte where they negotiated trade with members of an Omaha tribe. Deciding to return to St. Louis, he travelled south and was near Chicksaw Bluffs (future site of Memphis, Tennessee) on 16 December 1811, on the Mississippi River when the New Madrid earthquake occurred. His first person account is reported as the only eyewitness account of the earthquake from a person with a scientific background. He then went on to New Orleans. Wikipedia says: “Bradbury documented 40 new species of plants by sending seeds to his son. Some of Bradbury's plants were documented, without Bradbury's permission, by Frederick Traugott Pursh in Flora americae septentrionalis; or A Systematic Arrangement and Description of The Plants of North America… Bradbury was "deeply offended [by Pursh's purloining of his botanical specimens] and with his fame as a collector and discover of new plants stolen, Bradbury did little in botany after that. Bradbury had intended to return to England but the War of 1812 delayed the return and he was to study the states east of the Mississippi and published an appendix to his travels book entitled Remarks on the States of Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana, with the Illinois and Western Territory, and on the Emigrations to Those Countries.”  He went back to England finally in 1816 but returned to America shortly thereafter, spent some time in St. Louis and then settled in Kentucky where he died.
  • Bra'hea: named for Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), the great Danish astronomer. He was born Tyge Ottesen Brahe at his
      family's ancestral seat of Knutstorp Castle, Denmark, and adopted the Latinized form Tycho for his name around age 15. He had a twin brother who died at birth. He grew up with an uncle, was engaged in Latin education from the ages of 6 to 12 probably at Nykøbing, and began his higher education at the age of 12 at the University of Copenhagen, where he studied law and other subjects including astronomy. It was an eclipse that occurred in 1560 and the fact that it had been predicted that really spurred his interest in astronomy which became his life’s work. He relied
    heavily on a classic work by Ptolemy which exists to this day with his scribbled notes in the margin. He finished the first phase of his education at the University of Leipzig and in 1566, Brahe left to study at the University of Rostock. In that same year he lost part of his nose in a rapier duel with another nobleman, and for the rest of his life had a prosthetic nose. Although never formally married, he and his commoner wife had eight children, six of who lived to adulthood. In 1572 he observed a “new” star which appeared and he determined that it was a fixed star beyond any of the planets, and he published De nova stella thus coining the term ‘nova.’ We now know that this was a supernova and its appearance absolutely cemented his decision to be an astronomer. Despite his scientific bent, he was still  a believer in astrology and acted as royal astrologer for the Crown and prepared almanacs and horoscopes. In 1588 the second volume of his Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata (Introduction to the New Astronomy) was published; the first volume not being ready was not published in his lifetime. He also produced a star catalog giving the positions of 1,000 stars. In 1599, he obtained the sponsorship of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor and moved to Prague, as Imperial Court Astronomer, he where worked closely with Johannes Kepler, an assistant. He died suddenly aa a result of a bladder or kidney ailment at the age of 54. He was significant especially for setting new standards for precise and objective measurements. He was the last major astronomer to study the heavens without the use of a telescope. The lunar crater Tycho is named in his honor, as is the crater Tycho Brahe on Mars. The genus Brahea was published in 1837 by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius.
  • brainerd'ii: named for Vermont botanist Ezra Brainerd (1844-1925). He was born in St. Albans, Vermont, and
      graduated from Middlebury College in 1864. He then attended and graduated from the Theological Seminary at Andover, Massachusetts, in 1868. He married Frances Viola Rockwell later that same year and they had five daughters and a son. He taught in the English and rhetoric, physics and mathematics departments and was the president of Middlebury College from 1885 to 1908. He made several important contributions to the botany and geology of Vermont, and distinguished himself as a plant systematist specializing in the difficult genera Crateagus, Viola, and Rubus.
    He published Violets of North America in 1915. His papers and letters are in several herbaria and libraries throughout New England and the East. He was married again in 1897 and had two more daughters. He wrote a memorium for C.C. Pringle in Rhodora, was the father of Viola Brainerd Baird, author of Wild Violets of North America, published in 1942. (Photo credit: Middlebury History Online)
  • Brande'gea/brandegeea'na/brande'geei: named for Townsend Stith Brandegee (1843-1925), a pioneer western
      botanist who collected throughout California, Baja and western Nevada. After the Civil War, Townsend studied at Yale with Professor William Brewer, just back from a survey expedition to California. During a period of railroad construction as a civil engineer in Colorado and New Mexico, he developed an interest in botany and was recommended for a post with the US Geographical and Geological Survey by Professor Asa Gray. He gradually moved farther west, collecting in California and Baja, and eventually marrying Mary Katherine Layne Curran, who
    was curator of botany for the California Academy of Sciences. For a honeymoon, they walked and botanized from San Diego to San Francisco. They founded a botanical journal, and donated their large botanical library and specimen collection to UC Berkeley. The genus Brandegea was published in 1890 by Célestin Alfred Cogniaux. Species names have been changed in the Jepson flora from brandegei to brandegeei and from brandegeana to brandegeeana.
  • brande'geeae: named for Mary Katherine (Curran) Brandegee (nee Mary Katherine Layne) (1844-1920), noted
      American botanist known for her studies of California flora. She was born in western Tennessee the daughter of a farmer. She moved with her family to California at the age of five during the Gold Rush. When she was nine, they settled in Folsom. In 1866 she married Hugh Curran and stayed married to him until he died of alcoholism in 1874. A year later she moved to San Francisco to attend medical school at the University of California, and while there became interested in medicinal plants and botany. She got an M.D. in 1878 but chose to pursue botany rather than
    practice medicine. She joined the California Academy of Sciences, collected plants and worked in the herbarium alongside Albert Kellogg. When he retired in 1883 she became botanical curator, a position she held until 1893. In 1889 she married civil engineer and plant collector Townsend Stith Brandegee. For their honeymoon, the couple walked from San Diego to San Francisco collecting plants. She took up writing and editing to establish the Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences, which gave West Coast botanists the opportunity to publish their new species quickly rather than having them be transported to Asa Gray at Harvard. She also founded and contributed to the botanical journal Zoe. In 1891 she brought Alice Eastwood to the Academy as co-curator of the herbarium, and when she resigned two years later, Eastwood continued as sole curator. She moved with her husband to San Diego the following year, built a herbarium, and established San Diego’s first botanical garden, continuing to collect plants across California, Arizona and Mexico. In 1906 following the great earthquake, they moved back and donated over 76,000 specimens to UC Berkeley. Mary K. Brandegee died in 1920 at the age of 75. Species name has been changed in the Jepson flora from brandegeae to brandegeeae. (Photo credit: Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation)
  • brannen'ii: named for Samuel Louis Brannan, Jr. (1845-1931). An obituary on the Find-a-Grave website says: "Named after his father [the prominent Morman Samuel Brannan, California'a first millionaire, who founded the California Star, the first newspaper in San Francisco and one of the leading figures of the state's early history], Samuel L. Brannan died Thursday at the home of Ms. J. E. Cassin, where he had lived for the past four years. The varying fortunes of the Brannan family provide one of the most interesting tales of early California history. Mr. Brannan, born November 17, 1844, in New York, came around the Horn with his father and mother when less than two years old. At nine years of age, young Brannan and his three sisters were taken to Europe by their mother, and he was educated at Geneva as a mineralogist. He spent forty years of his life in Mexican mining operations and lost a fortune in the silver decline of 1898. For the past nine years he has lived in San Diego, ending his years in moderate circumstances, like his father before him." It also says: "Brannan Senior, at one time owned nearly the whole of Napa County, virtually every lot on Market Street, San Francisco, 2,000,000 acres in Mexico and 160,000 acres in Los Angeles County.
  • branscomb'ii: named for Donald Lee Branscomb (1932-2011). In the California flora, the taxon Polypodium californicum f. branscombii was published in the American Fern Journal by Conrad Vernon Morton in 1961. It is no longer recognized as valid and is considered a synonym of Polypodium californicum.
  • Brasen'ia: Umberto Quattrocchi says: "Derivation obscure, apparently from the plant's name in Guiana." Most references indicate derivation obscure. Rafinesque in 1828 said, "from a German botanist, Brasen" with no further details. However, James S. Pringle in a 1995 article in Sida, Contributions to Botany, "Possible Eponomy of the Generic Name Brasenia," suggests that there is good circumstantial evidence that the name does honor Christoph Brasen (1738-1774), a Danish surgeon and leader of the 1771 missionary expedition that established the Moravian mission of Nain on the coast of Labrador the purpose of which was to convert the Inuit residents there to Christianity, and served as its first superintendent. He died in 1774 when on the return trip a storm struck the exploratory voyage he was undertaking to explore the northern Labrador coast and establish a second mission post. The genus was named by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber who was a professor of natural history and director of the botanical garden at Erlangen, Bavaria. He was familiar with the Moravians and frequently received collected plant specimens from them. Brasen is known to have collected botanical specimens in Labrador and had developed a reputation for being "knowledgeable in botany." Although no direct provable link has been uncovered between Brasen and von Schreber, it is highly likely that upon hearing of the former's death, the suggestion was made that an honorific name be granted to some taxon on his behalf. The genus Brasenia was published by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1789.
  • brasilien'sis: of or from Brazil.
  • Bras'sica: a Latin name for "cabbage." The genus Brassica was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.
  • Braun'ia/braun'ii: named for Professor of botany Alexander Karl Heinrich Braun (1805-1877). He was from
      Regensburg, Bavaria, and studied botany in Heidelberg, Paris and Munich. The following is quoted from the Encyclopedia Britannica online: Braun was chief botanist of the 'nature philosophy' school, a doctrine attempting to explain natural phenomena in terms of the speculative theories that dominated early 19th-century German science. Despite his lifelong adherence to vitalistic principles, Braun added important qualifications to the cell theory—i.e., the concept of the cell as the basic unit of life. He also did much to elucidate the sex cycles of primitive plants.
    Collaborating with the German biologist Karl Schimper, he attempted to establish an idealized plant model based on their observation that the arrangement of leaves on the plant stem (phyllotaxy) in many cases describes a spiral pattern according to fixed geometric rules. Braun taught botany and zoology at the Karlsruhe Polytechnic School (1833–46) and was professor of botany at the University of Freiburg, Breisgau (1846–50), before holding the same position and serving as director of the botanical garden at the University of Berlin (1851–77). He devoted much of his career to the study of cryptogams (non-seed-bearing plants), which led him to his theoretical system of plant structure expounded in Betrachtungen über die Erscheinung der Verjüngung in der Natur . . . (1851; “Observations on the Appearance of Rejuvenation in Nature . . .”). While he argued against the inductive reasoning characteristic of empirical research, his work encouraged the systematic study of plant morphology; his recognition of the basic unity of organisms in form and function by defining the cell in terms of cytoplasm enveloped by a flexible membrane constitutes perhaps his most important contribution." He was the brother-in-law of Louis Agassiz.
  • braunton'ii: named for Ernest Braunton (1867-1954), a landscape architect and horticulturist who introduced the selling of macadamia nut seedling trees into California. He was born in London, England, in 1868 and immigrated with his parents to Iowa in 1872. He moved to Los Angeles, California, in 1887 and married Addie M. Kirkpatrick two years later. They had five children together. He was an expert in the regional flora of Southern California and secretary of the Southern California Horticultural Society. He became associated in the nursery business with W.S. Lyon, and in 1915 published The Garden Beautiful in California: A Practical Manual for All Who Garden.
  • Bray'a: named for Franz Gabriel von Bray (1765-1832), Franco-German botanist, politician and diplomat who was
      born in Rouen. He was initially in the service of the Order of Malta and came to the Reichstag in Regensburg in 1788 as French legation secretary. As a result of the revolutionary upheaval in France, he finally entered the Bavarian service in 1799 and became a close friend and advisor to Maximilian von Montgelas. His diplomatic duties took him to Berlin, London and St. Petersburg several times. In Berlin he also met his wife Sophie von Löwenstern, whom he married in 1805. This brought him into closer contact with the Livonian nobility and was therefore able to write a
    scientific history of Livonia for the first time. In 1811 he acquired the castle and brewery of Irlbach near Straubing, became a privy councilor, and in 1812 was raised from chevalier to count and became imperial councilor in 1819. From 1820 he was ambassador in Paris and from 1827 in Vienna. In 1831 he retired. While he was in Regensburg, Bray came into contact with David Heinrich Hoppe and, together with his friend Charles Jeunet Duval, immediately became an active member of the Regensburg Botanical Society, founded in 1790, of which he became president in 1811. Bray also succeeded in arousing the interest of Kaspar Maria von Sternberg, a friend of Goethe, in botany. Bray became an honorary member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in 1808 and of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg in 1822. The alpine cress, which Hoppe discovered in the Großglockner area, was given the name Braya alpina in Bray's honor. He was a knight of the Order of St. Hubert and the Order of Malta. Bray's son Otto von Bray-Steinburg also became a professional politician and rose to the position of Foreign Minister and Prime Minister of Bavaria.He died in Irlbach, Germany. The genus Braya was published by Caspar Sternberg and David Heinrich Hoppe in 1815.
  • Brayulin'ea: a composite name for two students of the family Amaranthaceae in North America: (1) William L. Bray
       (1865–1953), an American botanist, biogeographer, plant ecologist and university professorm whose areas of speciality were phytogeography, forest resources in Texas and New York, plant adaptive strategies, pest species, and plant ecology. He was born in Burnside, Illinois, and was educated at Cornell University, then received a BA degree from Indiana University in 1893 and an MA from Lake Forest University in Lake Forest, Illinois. At some point he was a high school teacher in Iowa and Missouri. From 1895 to 1897 he was assistant professor of biology at Lake
    Forest University and during this time he also studied for a year under Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler at the Royal Botanical Garden in Berlin. In 1898 he earned a PhD from the University of Chicago. From 1897 to 1907 he was at the University of Texas, first as an instructor in botany, then assistant, associate and full professor, and became an expert on the flora of western Texas. His own professional works then followed in quick succession: "The Ecological Relations of the Vegetation of Western Texas" (1901), Forest Resources of Texas (1904), The Timber of the Edwards Plateau of Texas (1904), "Vegetation of the Sotol Country in Texas" (1905), Distribution and Adaptation of the Vegetation of Texas (1906), and The Mistletoe Pest in the Southwest (1910). On December 28, 1899, he married Alice Weston, and they had three children. From 1907 to 1911 he was a professor of biology at Syracuse University, teaching the university’s first course in forestry. He was the first dean of the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University, from 1911 to 1912. While as a botanist at Syracuse University, he had particular interest in forest ecology and dendrology. In 1911 he organized the agricultural division at the university. He was the head of the botany department and first dean of the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Dr. Bray was an associate of Gifford Pinchot. Bray published The Development of the Vegetation of New York State in 1915. The same year, he became one of the founding members—along with Raphael Zon and James W. Toumey—of the Ecological Society of America. In 1950, the 1917 "activist wing" of that Society formed today's The Nature Conservancy. Bray remained at Syracuse University until 1943, as chair of botany and later as dean of the graduate school. He died in Syracuse, New York, on May 25, 1953; and (2) Edwin Burton Uline (1867-1933), botanist and New York high school principal, student of the Amaranthaceae, about whom I have no further information. The genus Brayulinea was published in 1903 by John Kunkel Small.
  • brecciar'um: I have been unable so far to get a certain meaning of this name. I am assuming that it has some relation to the words "breccia" (a rock consisting of sharp fragments embedded in a fine-grained matrix such as sand or clay) and/or "brecciate" (to form or break rock into breccia or fragments), and it may be a reference to the type of soil that a species having this name prefers or was found in. Argus gilia does grow in sandy places, and my indefatigable source David Hollombe notes that the man responsible for naming that species (Jones) did have an interest in geology and gave the name 'brecciarum' to at least one other species. He also wrote geological and mining articles for "Mining Review" in 1900-1903. The type specimen of Gilia brecciarum was collected in Contact, Nevada where there are still a few families living and acting as caretakers for the town.
  • Bree'a: named for Robert Francis Bree (1775-1842), clergyman, botanist and plant collector. He was curate of St. Giles, Camberwell, and a fellow of the Linnean Society. The genus Breea was published in 1832 by Christian Frtiedrich Lessing.
  • breedlov'ei: named for Dennis Eugene Breedlove (1939- ), who did his graduate work at Stanford under the direction of Peter Raven. In addition to doing valuable work in Kern County and the Piute Mountain region, Breedlove is a botanist and collector of plants, did extensive work in ethnobotany in the Chiapas region of Mexico, and was curator of the California Academy of Sciences herbarium. He also chaired the botany department and is now curator emeritus and a lifetime fellow of the California Academy of Sciences. He was co-author with Peter Raven of Principles of Tzeltal Plant Classification: An Introduction to the Botanical Ethnography of a Mayan-Speaking People of Highland Chiapas (1974) and with Robert Laughlin of The Flowering of Man: A Tzotzil Botany of Zinacantán (2000). He also authored in 1981 Introduction to the Flora of Chiapas. Breedlove is author or co-author of more than 40 botanical names, and of articles in scientific journals such as Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Brittonia, Novon and Systematic Botany. He did research work on California and Nevada plants especially in the Sweetwater Mountains. He has collected specimens of plants that are now considered either rare or extinct in the wild, and has also collected herpetological specimens.
  • Breidler'ia: named for Johann Breidler (1828-1913), Austrian mason and architect from Leoben (Steiermark). He was an amateur botanist known mainly for work in bryology. After completing elementary school, he completed a bricklayer apprenticeship, and then attended a technical school to study architecture and engineering in Berlin. After working for the Viennese architect Ludwig Christian Friedrich Forster and then receiving an inheritance, he retired into private life and devoted himself to botany. He attended lectures at the University of Vienna on the morphology and systematics of cryptogams. He had a particular affinity for alpine plants and became an expert in alpine bryoflora. He conducted numerous alpine expeditions and published a number of botanical works. In 1896 he moved from Vienna to Graz where his wife worked on his collections. He died in 1913. The genus Breidleria was published by Leopold Loeske in 1910.
  • Breitung'ia/breitung'ii: named for August Johann Julius Breitung (1913-1987), Canadian botanist and aerospace draftsman interested in the flora of Saskatchewan. The following is quoted from the JSTOR website: "The son of immigrant German parents, August Breitung was born in Muenster, Saskatchewan, and attended various schools in the Tisdale area. During the late 1940s he took night classes in English literature and composition at Carleton University in Ottawa. Breitung became an assistant to the botanist A.E. Porsild and conducted collecting expeditions on the Canol (Canadian Oil) Road in Yukon Territory (1944), Banff National Park (1945) and Jasper National Park (1946). Employed as an assistant technician at the Canadian Department of Agriculture's herbarium in Ottawa between 1946 and 1952 he collected privately around the Waterton Lakes National Park in 1953. Following this Breitung had a change of career, taking a course in applied aerodynamics at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, and from 1954 until around 1982 he worked as a draftsman in the aerospace industry in California. Largely self-trained as a botanist, Breitung was responsible for the collection of some 10,000 specimens from east-central Saskatchewan as well as several thousand from Cypress Hills and Waterton Lakes National Park. His work as a taxonomist resulted in a number of new varieties and forms and his major publications include Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Flora of Saskatchewan (1957) and The Agaves (1968). Breitung was married to Mathilde Presch but they had no children and he died in Lakewood, California, in 1987. The genus Breitungia was published in 1985 by Áskell Löve and Doris Benta Maria Löve.
  • brevi-: a prefix indicating the characteristic of being short, same as brachy-.
  • breviala'tus: short-winged.
  • brevibractea'tum: short-bracted.
  • brevicarina'ta: with a short keel.
  • brevicau'lis: short-stemmed.
  • brevicor'nu: short-horned.
  • brevi'cula/brevi'culus: from the root word for "short" and the diminutive -cula, "little," thus "somewhat short."
  • brevicul'mis: short-stemmed.
  • bre'videns: short-toothed.
  • breviflor'a/breviflor'um/breviflor'us: short-flowered.
  • brevifo'lia/brevifo'lius: with short leaves.
  • brevilo'ba: short-lobed.
  • breviloba'ta: same as previous entry.
  • bre'vior: shorter ("more short").
  • bre'vipes: with a short stalk.
  • breviros'tra/breviros'tris: short-beaked.
  • bre'vis: short, small.
  • brevisca'pus: with a short scape or stem.
  • brevis'simus: very short.
  • brevistamin'ea: with short stamens.
  • brevisty'la/brevisty'lis/brevisty'lum: with a short style.
  • brevivex'illus: related to the root word vexillaris, "having a standard or banner, as in the large petal of a pea flower," thus with brevi- or "short" meaning short-bannered.
  • Brevoort'ia: named for James Carson Brevoort (1818-1887), American collector of rare books and coins, president of the Long Island Historical Society and superintendent of the Astor Library in New York. He was born in Bloomingdale, New York and died in Brooklyn. Wikipedia says: “He received his early education at home, in France, and at Hofwyl, near Berne, Switzerland. He then studied at the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in Paris, and was graduated with the diploma of a civil engineer. On returning to the United States, he accompanied his uncle, James Renwick, one of the commissioners on the northeastern boundary survey. In 1838 he went abroad as private secretary to Washington Irving, U. S. Minister to Spain. After serving a year in this capacity, he spent several years in European travel, and returned home in 1843. Two years later he married the daughter of Judge Leffert Lefferts, of Brooklyn, where he afterward resided, serving on the board of education, and as one of the constructing board of water commissioners. He became a regent of the University of New York in 1861, and the same year received the degree of LL.D. from Williams College. For ten years, beginning in 1863, he was president of the Long Island Historical Society. In 1868, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. For two years, March, 1876 to February, 1878, he was superintendent of the Astor Library in New York City, of which he had been a trustee since 1852. He oversaw the beginning of a card catalog for the Astor collection. He resigned as a trustee in September, 1878. He was a member of the New York Historical Society, the Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Geographical Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Pennsylvania Historical Society, and numerous other scientific, literary, and artistic associations, in which he was always actively involved. From his father, Henry Brevoort, he inherited about 6,000 volumes, mostly Americana, which were collected in Europe during the turbulent years from 1810 until 1832. To this library, Brevoort made large additions, until in 1875 it comprised about 10,000 volumes, many of them very rare and costly. In addition to rare books and coins, he also collected medals and manuscripts. About 1875 he began to bestow many of his treasures upon various institutions. His collections also embraced entomology and ichthyology (books and specimens). Brevoort removed, in early life, to Yonkers, but returned to New York and was a member of the Common Council for many years. Brevoort married Elizabeth Dorothea Lefferts in 1845, and they had one child, Henry L. Brevoort (1849-1895). In 1852 he moved to Rye, where he resided until his death." The genus Brevoortia was published in 1867 by Alphonso Wood.
  • brew'eri/breweria'num: named for William Henry Brewer (1828-1910), an American botanist and professor. "William
      H. Brewer was the first chair of agriculture at the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale University and a botanical explorer of California and the Pacific Coast.  He was principal assistant in charge of botany on the pioneering Geological Survey of California, 1860-1864.  His recommendations about Alaska led to its purchase by the United States in 1867.  Brewer was born on a farm at Poughkeepsie, New York on September 14, 1828.  Shortly thereafter the family moved to Enfield, near Ithaca, New York.  In 1848 Brewer entered Yale University to study agricultural chemistry
    under Professors Benjamin Silliman, Jr. and John Pitkin Norton. At Yale he was one of the first members of the Berzelius Society (a secret society at Yale named for the Swedish scientist Jöns Jakob Berzelius, considered one of the founding fathers of modern chemistry). After two years at Yale, Brewer returned to Enfield and began his teaching career at Ithaca Academy.  In 1852 he returned to Yale where he received a bachelor of philosophy degree from the Sheffield Scientific School. From 1852 to 1855 he taught at the Ovid Academy in Ovid, New York. In 1855 he traveled to Heidelberg, where he studied natural sciences under Professor Bunsen, and also travelled to Munich where he studied under Professor Liebig. In the summer of 1856, he undertook a 600 mile botanical exploration of Switzerland.  Before returning to Ovid in 1857, he attended Michel Eugène Chevreul's lectures on chemistry in Paris.  In 1858, he was appointed professor of chemistry at Washington College (now Washington and Jefferson College) at Washington, Pa. That year he married his first wife, Angelina Jameson.  In 1860, after the deaths of his wife and newborn son, Brewer was invited to participate in the Geological Survey of California, directed by Josiah Dwight Whitney. This survey would set the standards for all future geological surveys undertaken in the United States. His primary task was leading field parties and maintaining records of botanical collections. [Particularly interested in alpine flora, he collected 1,368 specimens for the University of California and the Jepson Herbarium. The journal of his explorations was entitled Up and Down California in 1860-1864] Classifications were not undertaken until after the survey was completed. Although no longer employed by the survey, Brewer brought his specimens to Harvard where he was advised by Asa Gray on their determinations. The first volume of the botany portion of the Geological Survey of California [called The Botany of California] was not published until 1876. The second volume appeared in 1880 under the authorship of Sereno Watson (1826-1892). [During 1863-1864 he was professor of chemistry at the University of California.]  In 1864, Brewer left the California survey to occupy the chair of agriculture at the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale. He remained at this post until 1903, retiring as professor emeritus. He was active in Connecticut government, establishing agricultural experiment stations and organizing the Connecticut and New Haven Boards of Health. He was a special agent in the 1880 census, reporting on the production of cereals in the US and he chaired the committee appointed by the National Academy of Sciences [to which he had been elected in 1880] in 1903 to make recommendations for a scientific survey of the Philippine Islands.  Other botanical explorations he participated included: the Rocky Mountains of Colorado (1869), Greenland (1894), and the Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899). He was awarded an honorary degree by the University of California in 1910. A diarist and letter writer, his writings are preserved in the History of Technology Collection at the University of California, Berkeley archives. They were most recently edited by Frances P. Farquhar in 1966. Brewer had remarried in 1868 to Georgiana Robinson at Exeter, New Hampshire. They had four children: Nora, Henry, Arthur, and Carl. William H. Brewer died at New Haven in 1910." (Extracted from a website of the New York Botanical Garden)
  • Brewer'ia: named for Samuel Brewer (1670-1743). an English botanist, bryologist, plant collector and contemporary of Dr. Richard Richardson. He came from Trowbridge in Wiltshire, from a family of affluent textile merchants, but he seems to have been unsuccessful in business and had troubled family relationships. He botanized in northern Wales with Johann Jakob Dillen (Dillenius), a German botanist who moved to England and who became Sherardian professor of potany at Oxford University. Brewer also provided him with some plants for the third edition of John Ray’s Synopsis Methodica Stirpium Britannicarum published in 1724. In 1726 he travelled from Trowbridge to the Mendips, a range of limestone hills to the south of Bristol and Bath in Somerset, England, and from there to Bristol, passing onward to North Wales and Anglesey. Brewer remained in Bangor for more than a year, botanizing with Rev. W. Green and W. Jones, and sending dried plants to Dillenius, particularly mosses, thus clearing up many doubtful points. In the autumn of 1727 he went to Yorkshire, living at Bingley, and afterwards at Bierley, near Dr. Richard Richardson, who befriended him. Although unfortunate in business, he was a good collector of plants, insects, and birds; the botanical genus Breweria was founded by Robert Brown in his honor, and a species of rock-rose, a native of North Wales, discovered by him, bears the name of Helianthemum breweri. At some point he became head gardener to the duke of Beaufort at Badminton. The genus Breweria was published in 1810 by Robert Brown.
  • Brickel'lia: named for Dr. John Brickell (1749-1809), early naturalist and physician of Georgia who came to the US in 1770, having been born in County Louth, Ireland. This Brickell is not to be confused with another John Brickell (1710-1745) from Ireland who came to the United States around 1729, was coincidentally also a naturalist and physician, and wrote The Natural History of North Carolina, published in Dublin in 1737, and Catalogue of American Trees and Plants which will Bear the Climate of England, published in London in 1737 or 1739. The John Brickell of Brickellia fame was very likely the John Brickell who entered King's College (now Columbia University), New York, in 1774, but had not completed the course when the activities of the institution were suspended for obvious reasons in 1776. Shortly afterward, during the Revolution, he settled in Georgia, and practiced medicine for many years at Savannah. He was recognized as an accomplished scholar and a sincere patriot. Outside of his professional work, his chief interest was in the science of botany. He was a correspondent of Muhlenberg; and, of his five papers contributed to the earlier volumes (1798–1809) of the Medical Respository, two were devoted to descriptions of plants found by him near Savannah. Brickellia, a genus of the Asteraceae, was dedicated to his memory by Stephen Elliott, an amateur botanist and later professor of botany, legislator, banker, and writer, in 1823. He died at Savannah, Georgia.
  • brickellio'ides: bearing a likeness to the genus Brickellia.
  • bridges'ii: named for Thomas Charles Bridges (1807-1865), English botanist and plant collector who in 1858 wrote to William J. Hooker: "I can scarcely describe to you how pleasing and gratifying it has been to me to learn that in my collections you have found some new and rare plants--I was partially under the impression that from the labours of Douglas, Hartweg, Jeffrey, Lobb and other travelers from Europe with the many United States Exploring Expeditions that little or nothing remained to be discovered and only gleanings were left to those of us of the present day." David Hollombe sent me the following from San Francisco as a Mecca for Nineteenth Century Naturalists by Joseph Ewan: "Thomas Bridges, British naturalist and horticultural collector, a fellow of the Linnaean and Zoological societies of London, had been in South America before coming to San Francisco in November, 1856. There is substantial evidence that he was an enthusiastic collector and he proved to be California's first resident ornithologist. One obituary noted that 'few, if any more useful lives have passed away as martyrs to science during the present century.' Bridges' principal field of collecting was the Sierra Nevada. There he collected seventy-five bulbs of the lily, Lilium washingtonianum, for his English employer but the steamer Central America, which carried them, was lost at sea. He wrote W. J. Hooker that he was going to make an effort to replace them. Evidently visited the Academy often, and in 1858 he wrote Hooker of his pleasure at finding [The Botany of] Beechey's Voyage [a work by Hooker], Torrey's works, and other works in the Academy's library. He lived in 'Chinese House' on Eleventh Street between Market and Madison streets, and may have associated with William Lobb, then a resident of the city, but of that friendship we have no hint. One of Bridges' most profitable trips was to the mining town of Silver Mountain on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada near Ebbets Pass in 1863. There he met William H. Brewer and Brewer wrote: 'It was a relief to meet Mr. Bridges, an old rambler and botanical collector, well known to all botanists... It was a relief to meet him and talk botany; yet, even he is affected--he has dropped botany and is here speculating in mines. 'Mining fever' is a terrible epidemic; when it is really in a community, lucky is the man who is not affected by it. Yet a few become immensely rich.' In April, 1865, Bridges set out on a collecting trip to Nicaragua but was stricken with malaria and died at sea, September 9, 1865, en route back to San Francisco on the steamer Moses Taylor. Captain Blethen, Bridges' friend, brought the body back to San Francisco and he was carried to the ultima thule of the city, Lone Mountain Cemetery."
  • bring'hurstii: named for Royce S. Bringhurst (1918-2005). He was born in Bennion, Salt Lake County, Utah, and lived and worked on the family farm while attending Granite High School. He graduated from high school in 1937, and attended Utah State College for two years, interrupting his schooling to serve in the Spanish-American Mission of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from November 1939 to April 1942. Several weeks after his return, he married his high school sweetheart, Pearl Davidson. He departed shortly thereafter to serve in the US Army Air Forces in World War II. He flew 65 combat missions in B-25 bombers over Italy, France and Germany as radioman, bombardier, photographer and navigator. After a six-year absence, he returned to college and graduated with a BS degree in agronomy from Utah State University in 1947. By 1950, he had completed master’s and doctorate degrees in agronomy and genetics from the University of Wisconsin. He took a faculty position at UCLA in 1950 as an avocado geneticist, and subsequently moved to UC Davis in 1953 to become a strawberry geneticist. At UCD he served as chairman of the pomology department for several years beginning in 1970 and retired from the university after 39 years of service in 1989. During his long career he developed some 30 strawberry varieties, which produced more than 75 percent of the nation’s strawberries. His work on day-neutral varieties changed the landscape of the strawberry industry and greatly extended the growing season. He was honored for his work as a fellow in the American Society of Horticultural Science in 1970, and Utah State University awarded him an honorary doctorate at its 100th commencement in 1993. He consulted for the Ford Foundation, US AID, UN FAO, and Argentina, Mexico, Italy, the United Arab Republic and Egypt. He died after a long battle with Parkinson’s disease.
  • britan'nica: of or from Great Britain.
  • britton'iae: named for Elizabeth Gertrude Knight Britton (Mrs. Nathaniel Lord Britton) (1858-1934), American
      botanist, bryologist, and educator, co-founder of the predecessor to the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, and involved in the creation of the New York Botanical Garden. She was born in New York City and spent much of her childhood in the vicinity of Matanzas, Cuba where her family had a furniture factory and a sugar plantation, following which she attended a private school in New York and Normal (later Hunter College) graduating in 1875. After graduation she joined the staff of Normal College. She joined the Torrey Botanical Club in 1879. By 1883 she
    was beginning to specialize in bryology. She married Nathaniel Lord Britton in 1885, an assistant in geology at Columbia, resigned at Normal College, and took charge of moss collections at Columbia. From 1886 to 1888 she was editor of the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, and in 1889 published the first of an eleven-part series of papers titled "Contributions to American Bryology.” After the establishment of the New York Botanical Garden she was named honorary curator of the mosses in 1912, a post which she held until her death. She collected botanical specimens in the Great Dismal Swamp, the Adirondack Mountains and the mountains of North Carolina, the islands of the Caribbean and West Indies including Bermuda and the Bahamas. She co-founded in 1898 the Sullivant Moss Society which later became the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, and served as its president from 1916 to 1919. She was not confined to mosses and published "A Revision of the North American Species of Ophioglossum," and collected the type specimens of Dryopteris brittonae and Ponthieva brittonae. In 1893 Britton was the only woman among the 25 scientists nominated for charter membership in the Botanical Society of America. In 1902 she was elected to the Board of Managers of the Wildflower Preservation Society of America. Other members of the board included Liberty Hyde Bailey, William Trelease, Charles Frederick Millspaugh, and Alice Eastwood, while its president was Frederick Vernon Coville. She published a total of 346 papers, of which 170 were on mosses. The moss genus Bryobrittonia was named in her honor as well as a number of plants. She died in the Bronx following an apoplectic stroke and was survived by four months by her husband. (Photo credit: Geni)
  • brittonia'na/britton'ii: named for American botanist and taxonomist Nathaniel Lord Britton (1859-1934). He was born
      in Staten Island, New York, and though encouraged by his parents to follow a religious career chose instead the natural sciences. He graduated from the Columbia University School of Mines in 1879 and became an assistant in geology at Columbia. He later was a botanist and assistant geologist for the Geological Survey of New Jersey for five years. Although most of his training was in geology and mining, botanical interests dominated his career, and in 1890 he became adjunct professor of botany, and in 1891 was made professor of botany. He visited the Royal
    Botanical Garden in London on his honeymoon in 1888 and wondered along with his wife why there was not some such in the US Plans proceeded apace for the creation of the New York Botanical Garden and in 1896 Britton was formally appointed director in chief. His main interests were in taxonomy and the plants of eastern North America and the West Indies, to which he made frequent visits in the wintertime when the New York weather was inclement.  He was either the founder or co-founder of the Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden in 1896, the garden’s Journal and Memoirs in 1900, and Addisonia in 1916, as well as the North American Flora in 1905. The journal Brittonia was named for him in 1931 as were the plant genera Brittonamra, Brittonastrom, and Brittonella. His wife was Elizabeth Gertrude Knight (1858–1934), herself a botanist of distinction. Best known in her own specialty of bryology, she also was a constant helper in her husband’s work. Britton is also remembered as one of the signatories of the American Code of Botanical Nomenclature that proposed such radical changes to the rules governing nomenclature that a compromise was not reached (and some of the principal American provisions adopted) until nearly 30 years later. He wrote Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions in 3 vols. (1896-1898) with Addison Brown, The Cactaceae with Joseph Nelson Rose, and a number of other works including The Flora of Bermuda (1918), The Flora of the American Virgin Islands (1918), The Bahama Flora (1920), The Sedges of Jamaica (1907) and others. He died at his home in the Bronx after suffering a stroke just two months after the death of his wife of almost fifty years.
  • Bri'za: Gledhill says nodding, an ancient Greek name for rye, and the website of the New Zealand Plant Conservation Network says that Briza comes from the Greek brizo or brazein, "to nod, vibrate" referring to the nodding motion of the spikelets which shake on their stalks in the slightest wind. The genus Briza was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 and is called quaking grass.
  • brizifor'mis: from the Greek briza, a kind of rye-like grain growing in Macedonia.
  • Broc'chia: named for Giovanni Battista Brocchi (1772-1826), Italian naturalist, mineralogist and geologist. He was
      born in Castelfranco Veneto, Italy, educated in classics and literature, and was introduced to the natural world while accompanying his father hunting. He studied jurisprudence at the University of Padova, but soon shifted his attention from law to minerology and botany. He was chosen as a professor of botany in 1802 in the new lyceum of Brescia, but he concentrated mainly on geological researches in the adjacent districts and published a treatise on the iron mines of the Mella traditional region which led to his being selected in 1808 as inspector of mines in the
    recently established kingdom of Italy. His writings over the next several years dealt with the structure of the Apennine Range and the fossils of the Italian Tertiary strata compared with existing species. Encyclopedia.com says: “Brocchi published five major books and contributed about seventy articles to various journals. He wrote upon an amazing range of subjects from antiquities to zoology in carefully documented papers replete with classical references. While at Brescia he published zoological and mineralogical articles; these include observations on the anatomy of insect eyes and on infusoria [minute freshwater life forms including ciliates, euglenoids, protozoa, unicellular algae and small invertebrates]. In 1818 he conducted experiments on “night air” at Rome, in the hope of finding the cause of malaria; the results were negative but duly reported. He also published several articles on recent shells. Brocchi’s most significant contributions, however, were in the field of geology. Early papers such as the memoir on the Val di Fassa consist largely of mineralogical descriptions. Brocchi’s masterpiece is the Conchiologia fossile subappennina (1814). It opens with an eighty-page survey of paleontological studies in Italy—a mine of historical data that has been freely used by Lyell, Zittel, and other writers." At some point he was curator of the Natural History Museum in Milan. In 1822 he sailed to Egypt and travelled up the Nile to Syria and Palestine to investigate the geology and mineral resources of those regions, but in 1826 he fell victim to bubonic plague and died at Khartoum. The genus Brocchia was published in 1836 by Roberto de Visiani. (Photo credit: Wooster Geologists)
  • Brodiae'a: named for James Brodie (1744-1824), Scottish botanist who specialized in algae, ferns and mosses. The
      following is quoted from Joshua Wilson's 'Biographical index to the present House of Commons' (1808): "Mr. Brodie was bred up at the grammar school at Elgin, whence he removed to St. Andrews. He afterwards married Lady Margaret Duff, sister to the present earl of Fife, and had issue by her, two sons and two daughters. In 1786, her ladyship unfortunately perished by the unhappy circumstance of her clothes taking fire. One of his sons, after having resided in a commercial character in Spain, obtained leave to go to the East Indies in the capacity of a free
    merchant. His brother Alexander, formerly M. P. for the Elgin district of boroughs, has returned some years from Asia, where he acquired a considerable fortune. Mr. Brodie, who always had a scientific turn, is a F.R.S. [fellow of the Royal Society] and L.S. [Linnaean Society]. He posesses a taste for botany, and has discovered several nondescript plants in his own grounds. He has now sat in three succeeding parliaments, having been returned in 1796; and is lord lieutenant of the county of Nairn." And from an English website called Botanists of Repute: "James Brodie collected and recorded plants, mainly around Edinburgh but also around Brodie Castle in Moray, towards the end of the eighteenth century. Most of Brodie's herbarium is in the Royal Botanic Gardens in Edinburgh. He was in regular contact with a number of eminent botanists of his time, including Sir William Jackson Hooker who became professor of botany at the University of Glasgow and also a director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, in England." He suffered another tragedy when his eldest son died in a drowning accident. His was a very old family, and the following gives some indication of just how old: "This most ancient family takes its name from the lands of Brodie near Forres in Morayshire. The family lost most of its early charters and other documents when the Gordons burnt the castle in 1645. Shaw suggests that the name itself is derived from the Gaelic word, ‘brothaig’, meaning ‘ditch’ or perhaps simply ‘muddy’. He suggests that they may have shared a common ancestry with the Morays and Inneses who were all settled along the Moray Firth in the twelfth century, pointing to the similarity of their coats of arms, each of which bears three stars." (from MyClan.com). He was a friend of the important British botanist Sir James Edward Smith, author of English Botany. The genus Brodiaea was published by James Edward Smith in 1811.
  • brod'iei: named for David Arthur Nelson Brodie (1868-1951), an American botanist, agronomist and college football coach. He was born in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada and moved with his family in 1883 to a farm near Silverton, Oregon. He graduated from Oregon State Normal School, now known as Western Oregon University, in 1894, and from Washington Agricultural College in 1898. He became an assistant professor there. Brodie later worked for the United States Department of Agriculture. He moved from Washington, D.C. to Avon Park, Florida around 1939 and died there on December 29, 1951.
  • Bromelea'ceae: named for Olaus Olai Bromelius (Olof Ole Bromell) (1639-1705), Swedish physician and numismatist. He was born in Örebro and studied botany as part of his formal training. After studying medicine at the University of Uppsala, he went to Stockholm in 1669 to become an official herbalist in charge of pharmacies in the city. In 1672 , he went to practice medicine in the Netherlands and became a doctor of medicine at the University of Leiden in 1673 . He returned to Sweden in 1674 . He then practiced medicine in Stockholm, from 1675, then in Gothenburg, from 1691. In 1676 he was also part of a commission to examine witchcraft cases in Stockholm. The work of this commission led to an end to the witchcraft trials then being conducted in the capital of Sweden (at least 8 women were executed there for witchcraft in 1675-1676). He was the author of a number of books, including Chloris Gothica: seu catalogus stirpium circa Gothoburgum nascentium, the first serious study devoted to the flora of the Göteborg region. He died in Göteborg. He is considered one of the best pre-Linnaean Swedish botanists.
  • bromo'ides: like genus Bromus.
  • Bro'mus: from the Greek bromos, an ancient name for the oat. The genus Bromus was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.
  • brongniart'ii: named for Adolphe Theodore Brongniart (1801-1876), son of mineralogist, chemist, geologist and
      paleontologist Alexandre Brongniart. Adolphe was a student of the Rhamnaceae, a pioneer in the study of plant morphology and physiology, author of an important work on fossil plants, and a French botanist whose classifications of fossil plants showed surprisingly accurate relationships between extant and extinct forms. In 1831 he became an assistant to the botanist Rene Desfontaines at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, and took his place two years later, a position he was to hold for the remainder of his life. He is considered one of the founders of modern
    paleobotany, and made substantial contributions to the field of angiosperm morphology also producing a valuable first account of pollen. He founded the Societe botanique de France. The genus Adolphia was first published in 1837 by Carl Daniel Friedrich Meisner and then by Sereno Watson in 1876.
  • brooks'ii: named for Benjamin Brooks (1876-1961). The following is quoted from Cantelow & Cantelow: “Engineer; born in San Francisco, Calif., 26 Nov. 1876, and still a resident of that city. Accompanied Alice Eastwood, together with Pierson Durbrow and Lucien Berry, when she explored the South Fork of Kings River in 1899; the only plants interesting to him were in the form of "good grass and clover for the burros." Mr. Brooks believes Miss Eastwood was the first woman to scale Mt. Stanford. His father, Wm. Brooks, left Brooklyn when four months old and celebrated his first birthday in San Francisco in 1849.” He resigned as a junior assistant engineer in 1910 and according to David Hollombe is listed as an insurance broker in 1930 and 1940.
  • brooks'ii: named for Elisha Brooks (1841-1930). He was born in St. Joseph County, Michigan and travelled with his
      family to California in 1852. He had a twin brother named Elijah Brooks and a younger brother Justus Brooks. The Find-a-Grave entry for him says: “Elisha Brooks enlisted as a private at San Pablo, California, November 15, 1864, and was mustered into Company D, 8th California Infantry, November 30. He was commissioned 2nd Lieutenant January 1, 1865. Lieutenant Brooks was mustered out at the Presidio of San Francisco October 24, 1865. After the war he resided for many years in San Francisco, where he married Ellen Worth on April 20, 1869. He was a member of San
    Francisco's Thomas Post, No. 2, Grand Army of the Republic, and the Society of California Volunteers, both being Union veterans' organizations.”  He died at Ben Lomond, Santa Cruz County, California. His brother Elijah was interested in agriculture and was one of the first men to advocate the planting of citrus fruits in western soil. His father was named George Washington Brooks. I have no further information about Elisha or why he was honored with the name Viola brooksii published by Albert Kellogg in 1878. This epithet does not appear to be a validly recognized one at present. (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • Bross'aea: named for Guy de la Brosse (1586-1641), French botanist, pharmacist and physician to King Louis XIII,
      and founder and first director of the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. He was born presumably in Paris and his father was the court physician to King Henry IV. Little appears to be known of his early life except that he studied medicine, but in 1626 he received royal permission to found a herb garden to cultivate plants useful to medicine to replace those of Montpellier created by Henri IV. The creation of the garden was delayed because the Faculty of Medicine in Paris thought the garden competed with their activities, because La Brosse wished to teach botany and chemistry
    there, but the garden, originally known by the name of Jardin du Roi, and then as Jardin des Plantes medicinales was planted by La Brosse in 1635 and opened to the public in 1640. The King resolved the problem with the University by restricting the Jardin du Roi to having only a single instructor. He devoted his life to the description of plants in the garden, the study of their composition and properties, and the teaching of botany and chemistry. The genus Brossaea was published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus.
  • brownia'num/brown'ii: named for Robert Brown (1773-1858), well-known British botanist. The following is quoted
      from Wikipedia: "Robert Brown (December 21, 1773–June 10, 1858) is acknowledged as the leading British botanist to collect in Australia during the first half of the 19th century. Brown was born in Montrose, Scotland on 21 December 1773. He studied medicine and joined the army as a surgeon in 1795. In December 1800 he accepted an offer of the position of naturalist on board the Investigator under Matthew Flinders, which was about to depart on its historic yovage to chart the coast of Australia. The Investigator arrived in King George Sound in what is now Western
    Australia in December 1801. For 3½ years Brown did intensive botanic research in Australia, collecting about 3400 species, of which about 2000 were previously unknown. A large part of this collection was lost, however, when the Porpoise was wrecked en route to England. Brown remained in Australia until May 1805. He then returned to England where he spent the next four years working on the material he had gathered. He published numerous species descriptions; in Western Australia alone he is the author of nearly 1200 species. In 1810, he published the results of his collecting in his famous Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae, the first systematic account of the Australian flora. That year, he succeeded Jonas C. Dryander as Sir Joseph Banks' librarian, and on Banks' death in 1820 inherited his library and herbarium. This was transferred to the British Museum in 1827, and Brown was appointed Keeper of the Banksian Botanical Collection. In 1827, while examining pollen grains and the spores of mosses and Equisetum suspended in water under a microscope, Brown observed minute particles within vacuoles in the pollen grains executing a jittery motion. He then observed the same motion in particles of dust, enabling him to rule out the hypothesis that the motion was due to pollen being alive. Although he did not himself provide a theory to explain the motion, the phenomenon is now known as Brownian motion in his honor. After the division of the Natural History Department into three sections in 1837, Robert Brown became the first Keeper of the Botanical Department, remaining so until his death at Soho Square in London on June 10 1858. He was succeeded by John Joseph Bennett. Brown's name is commemorated in the Australia herb genus Brunonia, as well as numerous Australian species such as Eucalyptus brownii." (Salix brownii, Paeonia brownii, Tetrodontum brownianum)
  • brown'ii: named for Addison C. Brown (1830-1913), United States district judge, botanist and amateur astronomer.
      He was born in West Newbury, Massachusets, to a shoemaker father who like his mother was descended from Massachusetts’ earliest pigrim settlers. Wikipedia describes his early life this way: “He attended West Newbury's one-room school until he had exhausted its offerings at age 12. In 1843 he began more advanced studies in such areas as Latin, physics, algebra, and philosophy. In 1848 Brown entered Amherst College, intending from the start to transfer to Harvard University in his sophomore year. While at Harvard, Brown earned money as the college organist and spent some
    summer months as a village school teacher. Brown befriended and roomed with his Harvard classmate Horatio Alger and counted Ephraim Whitman Gurney (who became a professor of philosophy and history and dean of the Harvard faculty) as his closest college friend.” He graduated from Harvard in 1852. Years of study had caused his health to deteriorate and he spent the post-graduation summer working on a fishing boat out of Gloucester. Of the three most typical career choices at the time, medicine, the law, and the ministry, he chose the law, entering Harvard Law School in 1853 and receiving a bachelor of laws in late 1854. Over the following years he built a successful law practice and participated in business ventures which acrued him considerable wealth. In 1881 he gained a seat on the US District Court for the Southern District of New York. He had become a member of his local Republican club in the late 1850s and remained active in Republican politics. His 20-year judgeship was regarded as prolific and distinguished,  and he was credited with having written between 1,600 to over 2,000 decisions, many of them concerning admiralty, bankruptcy, and extradition. He resigned from the court in 1901. Wikipedia describes his non-judicial interests: “In 1875, Brown joined the Torrey Botanical Club of Columbia College in New York and was an active member for many years, serving as president from 1893 to 1905. As the club's president, Brown served on the Botanical Garden Committee and became a principal founder of the New York Botanical Garden. Brown cited his role in the Botanical Garden's founding as his most significant public service, aside from his work in the judiciary. He wrote that organization's charter in 1891 and in that year donated the initial $25,000 (which he viewed as 'quite out of proportion to my means at that time') toward the $250,000 in private seed money required pursuant to the New York legislature's authorization for municipal contributions. Brown traveled to collect botanical specimens, maintained an extensive botanical library, wrote many notes for Torrey Botanical Club publications and published the following works:  Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada (three volumes, 1896–98, new edition, 1913, with Nathaniel L. Britton, and The Elgin Botanical Garden and its Relation to Columbia College and the New Hampshire Grants (1908). At age 81, Brown began work on a revised and expanded edition of Illustrated Flora, which contained over 2,000 pages and some 5,000 illustrations. With his co-author Britton, he worked on this for the rest of his life, even as his health failed. Brown died four days after the first bound copies were shipped. At his death, Brown's single largest charitable bequest, 200 shares of United States Steel preferred stock worth $21,750 in 1913. was to the New York Botanical Garden to endow a botanical journal. The periodical was to be named for Brown and to contain color plates illustrating plants of the United States and its territories. This publication, named Addisonia, was issued between 1916 and 1964.” He was also a serious amateur astronomer and a founding member of the New York Academy of Science's astronomy section. His first wife, Mary Chadwick Barrett, died in 1887, and he married Helen Carpenter Gaskin, a botany teacher at the New York Normal College, which later became Hunter College. Stricken with paralysis, Addison Brown died at his Manhattan home on April 9, 1913, at age 83. (Crataegus margarettae var. brownii)
  • brown'ii: named for Horace Edgar Brown (1861-1943). David Hollombe contributed the following: "Horace Edgar Brown was born at Bloody Island, MO, 20 Oct. 1861. His family moved to Colorado, Nebraska, California, eastern Washington and Idaho. In 1896 his widowed mother homesteaded about 3 miles southeast of Forestville, Idaho, and that summer Brown was hired by Amos A. and Emily Heller as a guide on a collecting expedition, and Brown began collecting plant specimens on his own for sale. By November of that year he moved to California and collected in the Berry Creek area of Butte County where his brother-in-law, William W. Williams owned a large ranch. The next summer, he made an expedition to collect on what he apparently thought was Mount Shasta, but it seems, from the plants he brought back, he actually was on Mount Eddy. Brown lived near Santa Rosa for several years, and married there in 1889. He wrote from there to the New York Botanical Garden that year asking for advice on where to take his specimens for identification. He seems to have stopped collecting after 1898, except for the spring of 1902 when he spent two months travelling and collecting from Sonoma County to Butte County and back with Heller. The 1910 census shows Brown working as a real estate agent in Sheridan, Oregon and in 1920 as a sawmill worker in the Coos Bay area where he remained until his death, October 28, 1943." (Lathyrus brownii)
  • brown’ii: named for Joseph R. Brown. David Hollombe has provided the only nugget of information about this individual. “This three-awn grass [Aristida brownii] is known only from Del Norte Mountains; of minor importance for forage except prior to anthesis. Named for Joseph R. Brown who practices good conservation on his Altuda Mountain ranch.” (Aristida brownii)
  • bruce'ae: named for Cornelia Josephine Austin Bruce (Mrs. Charles Clinton Bruce), daughter of Rebecca Merritt Smith Leonard Austin (see austiniae) (1865-1931).
  • Bruch'ia: named for Philipp Bruch (1781-1847), German pharmacist, zoologist, botanist and plant collector. He was born in Zweibrücken in the Palatinate, the son of a pharmacist. He first worked and studied in a pharmacy in Mainz, and then studied in Marburg and Paris. He inherited the pharmacy after his father’s death. Although the details are absent, he clearly must have studied botany and mosses in particular, and he collaborated with Wilhelm Philippe Schimper on the epic Bryologia europaea, a six-volume work on European bryology. He died on his birthday at the age of 66. The genus Bruchia was published in 1824 by Christian Friedrich Schwagrichen.
  • Brugman'sia: named for Sebald Justin Brugmans (1763-1819), Dutch botanist and physician, a professor of natural
      history at Leiden. The following is quoted from Wikipedia: “Brugmans studied philosophy, mathematics and physics at the Universities of Franeker and Groningen, earning his doctorate in 1781. In 1785 he became a professor at Franeker, where he taught classes in physics, astronomy, logic and metaphysics. During the following year, he succeeded David van Royen (1727–1799) as professor of botany at the University of Leiden. At Leiden, he also served as director of the "Hortus Botanicus Leiden." In 1791, he transferred from the faculty of philosophy to that of
    medicine, which from 1795 included the field of chemistry. Brugmans was very interested in the connection that exists between chemistry and medicine. In 1794, when Holland became a refuge for retreating English and Hanoverian armies, he, along with physicians and medical students at Leiden, set up emergency hospital services outside the city. He repeated this activity in 1799 (for English and Russian forces north of present-day IJmuiden), and in 1809 (bombardment of Vlissingen by the British Navy). In 1795, he was put in charge of the military medical service of the newly founded Batavian Republic. His outstanding work as a physician came to the attention of Louis Bonaparte, as well as to his more famous brother, who promoted him to seventh Inspector-general of the Grande Armee. Later on, the first king of the Netherlands, William I, restored Brugmans to his former functions, while giving him additional duties as Inspector-general of the military service, the supervision of the Navy and the Colonies, of the military veterinary service, and of sanitary conditions in prisons and quarantine stations. As a military physician, he was dedicated towards the improvement of hospital and barrack facilities. In these endeavors, he stressed the importance of cleanliness and hygiene, and strove to prevent the spread of contagious disease. He is especially remembered for his expertise in the treatment of gangrene." The genus Brugmansia was published by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1805.
  • bruneau'nis: named for the type locality, which is Bruneau Creek, in Idaho, this taxon is called the Bruneau mariposa lily.
  • Brunier'a: named for Abel Brunier (1573-1663), French doctor and botanist, physician to King Louis XIII. Both
      his father and son were naturalists. He was born in Uzès and became a graduate of the Faculty of Medicine in Montpellier in 1596, and continued his training in Spain (Cordoba and Salamanca) and Italy (Pavia). He was first doctor to the daughters of Henry IV, from 1602, and Gaston of France, from his birth in 1608. He was married in 1618. He became doctor to the Duke of Orleans, a position he held until the Duke’s death in 1660, and in 1636 was appointed director of the botanical garden of the castle of Blois, property of the Duke of Orleans. In 1639 he was appointed
    a State Councilor. He is considered one of the founders of modern botany. The genus Bruniera was published by Adrien René Franchet in 1864.
  • brun'neus: brown.
  • bryanti'ae: named for Susanna Patterson Bixby Bryant (Mrs. Ernest Albert Bryant) (1880-1946), a rancher,
      horticulturist and botanical collector, Her father, John Bixby, came to California at the age of 21, married Susanna Patterson Hathaway in 1873 and settled in Wilmington where his son Fred was born in 1875. His daughter Susanna was born in Long Beach in 1880. Her father died at the age of 39 after a sudden attack of appendicitis. Susanna spent her early years on her family’s Rancho Los Alamitos, and once while sick her father led her pony into the bedroom to visit her. After her father’s death in 1887 the family moved to Berkeley. She was educated at Miss Hersey's School in
    Boston, travelled extensively in Europe and elsewhere, and then returned to California where she met and in 1904 married Dr. Ernest Albert Bryant, personal physician to railroad tycoon Henry Huntington (who was in the early stages of creating his own museum and botanic garden in San Marino). Her mother died in 1906 and Susanna found herself co-proprietor with her brother Fred of their childhood ranch plus another, Rancho Santa Ana. She was very interested in ranch management and planted citrus fruits, walnuts, pears, and pomegranates. She learned about and was impressed by Theodore Payne’s all-native landscape in Exposition Park and began a correspondence with him, which led to her plan to create a botanical garden of native plants on her ranch. In 1927 she started planting a 165-acre section of the ranch following a design by landscape architect Ernest Braunton and a plant list compiled by John Thomas Howell. Conservation of native California flora was her number one concern and she included a herbarium, botanical library, and services for students and scholars. The garden relocated to Claremont in 1951 as the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden and today as the California Botanical Garden houses more than 70,000 plants of some 2,000 species. (Photo credit: Geni)
  • bryantia'na: named for naturalist Harold Child Bryant (1886-1968). He was born in Pasadena, California, and was
      awarded a BS degree from Pomona College with a major in zoology/ornithology and M.S. and PhD degrees in zoology from the University of California, Berkeley, where one of his professors was Joseph Grinnell. From 1910 to 1927 he was associated with the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology first as a field assistant and then as assistant curator of birds and economic ornithologist. From 1914 he worked for the the California Fish and Game Commission, publishing articles on both birds and mammals. Later he was a lecturer and field trip leader for the University of
    California Extension, and was a summer season ranger-naturalist at Yosemite National Park. In 1923 he was appointed as a seasonal park ranger and two years later was named the first director of the Yosemite School of Field Natural History to train naturalists. He was given his first permanent position with the National Park Service as assistant director of the branch of research and education in 1930. A website of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center of USGS says: “In 1938 he served as consultant to the director and assisted in the establishment of Olympic National Park. He was appointed acting superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park in 1939. Harold assisted in the organization of Kings Canyon National Park in 1940, and was appointed superintendent of the Grand Canyon National Park on August 1, 1941, where he served until his retirement on March 31, 1954. Harold had many significant accomplishments, but was most proud of his role in establishing the interpretive programs for the National Park Service. He was a recipient of the Department of the Interior Distinguished Service Award in 1954 and received many other honorary awards and recognitions during his career.” While superintendent at the Grand Canyon, he discovered new species of birds, butterflies and plants. He was elected to the Washington Biologists’ Field Club in 1931. He published papers on ground squirrels, pocket gophers, western meadowlarks, roadrunners and waterfowl. His son was the biologist Herwil Bryant, who participated with Admiral Byrd on his Antarctic expedition. He died in Berkeley.
  • bryo'ides: like moss.
  • Bryolawton'ia: named for Elva Lawton (1896-1993), American botanist and bryologist known for her research on ferns and her comprehensive study of the mosses of the western United States. She was born in West Middletown, Pennsylvania, graduated from high school in 1915, and was an elementary school teacher in Pennsylvania from 1915 to 1919. She received a BS degree from the University of Pittsburgh in 1923. Initially intending to major in chemistry and Latin, her interests shifted to biology. From 1923 to 1925 she taught biology and Latin at Crafton High School while completing requirements for a master’s degree. She was a laboratory assistant at the University of Michigan while seeking a PhD from 1925 to 1928, then taught at Hunter College in New York. She finally completed her doctoral degree in 1932. She remained at Hunter until 1959 when she moved to the University of Washington as a Research Associate, curating the herbarium’s bryophyte collection. During this lengthy period she had worked at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, the Michigan Biological Station, and at Lakeside Laboratory in Iowa, so she was well acquainted with laboratory work. She also collected mosses from across the western United States, receiving several grants from the National Science Foundation and the University of Washington’s Anderson Research Fund. She worked almost daily in the Herbarium until she was 90 years old and lived alone in her own house to the age of 95. She was a member of the Torrey Botanical Club, serving as both treasurer and president. In 1971 she published Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest, which was perhaps her most significant contribution to bryology. As she aged, she pursued opera and classical music, gardening, leathercraft and needlepoint, and theater. The genus Bryolawtonia was named in her honor in 1990 by Daniel Howard Norris and Johannes Enroth.
  • Bryo'nia: Latin and Greek name used by Dioscorides and Pliny. The Jepson Manual gives this: "Greek: swelling, from sprouting of tuber each year." The Greek bryo means either "to sprout, grow or swell" or "moss." The genus Bryonia was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.
  • bryophor'a: moss- or lichen-bearing.
  • bucari'ae: part of the epithet louise-bucariae, for Louise Ilene Griset (Mrs. Pat Paul Bucaria) (1908-1966). Louise was born in Los Angeles and grew up in Santa Ana, and earned degrees from the University of Redlands and University of California (in Zoology and education), and taught in the Moreland, Los Gatos and San Jose school districts. Her last position was at Joseph M. McKinnon School for the Mentally Retarded. Her husband's occupation is listed in 1940 as barber. Louise died in Saratoga, Santa Clara County, California.
  • bucar'ii: named for Charles Peter Bucaria (1934- ), son of Louise Griset Bucaria and Pat Paul Bucaria. The 1940 census has him living as a child of 6 in Santa Clara, California. His mother, Louise Bucaria, was a teacher at Joseph M. McKinnon School for the Mentally Retarded. She had received degrees at University of Redlands and University of California at Berkeley. She was born in San Diego and went to Santa Clara in 1933. Charles Peter's father was a barber. Charles Peter is listed as a plant collector in 1950 in the Harvard University Herbaria list of botanists.
  • Buckiel'la: named for William Russel Buck (1950- ), botanist, bryologist and curator of the Institute of Systematic Botany at the New York Botanical Garden. He received a PhD in 1979 at the University of Michigan, and from 1979 to 1986 was associate curator of bryophytes and curator of bryophytes from 1986. He has been the editor or associate editor of Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden, Evansia, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, and North American Flora. He is a member of the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, American Fern Society, American Society of Plant Taxonomists, British Bryological Society, Bryological Society of Japan, Council of Botanical and Horticultural Libraries, International Association of Bryologists, International Association of Plant Taxonomists, Nordic Bryological Society, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Briología, and Torrey Botanical Club. His curriculum vitae on the website of the NYBG says: “Although mosses are often overlooked, or if seen, assumed to have little diversity, they are in fact a large and fascinating group of plants. I am primarily interested in the phylogeny, systematics and floristics of pleurocarpous mosses, those that are mat-forming and produce their capsules laterally along the stems. Although I am most interested in familial and ordinal relationships and inclusions, it is impossible to understand higher categories without first knowing species. To gain this basic knowledge I am involved in floristic studies of the West Indies and Paraguay. In order to see living mosses in the field, and therefore better understand their relationships, I have travelled extensively in the neotropics, from Cuba and Puerto Rico through Ecuador and Venezuela south to Paraguay and southernmost Brazil. For similar purposes I have collected in southern Africa, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji. To date my floristic work in the West Indies, with the final goal of producing a moss flora of the region, has taken me to all of the islands of the Greater Antilles. I anticipate field work in the Lesser Antilles in the upcoming years. My flora not only reflects the species composition of the area but provides a new approach to systematic and geographical relationships.” The genus Buckiella was published in 2001 by Robert Root Ireland, Jr.
  • buckleya'na: named for Samuel Botsford Buckley (1809-1883), American botanist, geologist, and naturalist. He was born on his family’s farm in Torrey, Yates County, New York and graduated from Wesleyan University in 1836. A botany professor was his mentor in college, considering him one of his best students, and he started a herbarium with specimens of plants from New York and Long Island. In 1837-1838 he made botanical collections in Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri and Illinois. From 1839 to 1840 he was principal of Allenton (Alabama) Academy and in 1842 traveled extensively through the south, discovering twenty-four new species of plants and a new genus, Buckleya. He also either found or otherwise obtained a 70'-long skeleton of a Zeuglodon, a type of ancient whale. He was one of the first botanists to investigate the flora of the southern Appalachians. He studied at the College of physicians and surgeons, New York, and in the same year, in an expedition to Florida, he discovered thirteen new species of shells. From 1843 until 1855 he lived and worked on his father’s farm in upstate New York, and seems to have dropped out of the botanical world. In 1856 he moved to Ohio and in 1857 and 1858 began again collecting plants and taking barometric measurements of local mountains including one that bears his name. Antwiki says: “In 1859-'60 he traveled south and west to collect materials for a supplement to Michaux and Nuttall's Sylva. He was assistant geologist and naturalist of the Texas geological survey in 1860-1861, and from 1862 to 1865 was connected with the United States sanitary commission. He was state geologist of Texas from 1866 to 1867, and again from 1874 to 1877, and prepared two geological maps of the state. He showed by his investigations that Texas had deposits of iron and coal of much greater extent than had been supposed. In 1871-1872 he was scientific editor of the State Gazette, Austin, Tex. From 1877 to 1881 he was engaged in preparing a work on the geology and natural history of the state.” He eventually returned to farming. In the last years of his life, between 1878 and 1883, he made a number of collecting trips in northern Mexico. He wrote a number of papers on ants, which seems to have been a particular interest of his, and supposedly a book on the trees and shrubs of the US although I can’t find any reference to it. He was a member of various learned societies, and contributed largely to scientific publications. He also published several valuable reports as state geologist. Other naturalists were not terribly keen on his abilities, Moses Ashley Curtis, Asa Gray and George Engelman all expressed doubts about his competence, and both James J. Audubon and John C. Frémont turned down his requests to join them on expeditions. He was a little unusual in that he was a person who had more wives (4) than children (3). He died in Austin, Texas.
  • buckwestior'um: this taxon is commonly called either Buckwest's clover or Santa Cruz clover, and -orum is a suffix usually given to a personal name to convert it to a substantival commemorative epithet when the epithet refers to two or more men or two or more people of mixed genders, thus Ceanothus hearstiorum, commemorating the Hearst family. In this case the individuals involved were the Santa Cruz County, California, botanists Roy Ernest Buck (1952- ) and James Ambrose West (1944- ). They have collected specimens of local significance within the Scotts Creek Watershed Area of Santa Cruz County and deposited them in the Jepson Herbarium.
  • bud'dii: named for Archibald Charles Budd (1889-1960), self-trained Canadian botanist and author of Wild Plants of the Canadian Prairies,  Poisonous Plants of the Canadian Prairies, and Budd’s Flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. He was born in London, and was able to emigrate to Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1920 thanks to having won a limerick contest.
  • Budd'leja: named for the Reverend Adam Buddle (1662-1715), an English cleric and botanist. Wikipedia has this to say: “Born at Deeping St James, a small village near Peterborough, Buddle was educated at Woodbridge School and St Catharine's College, Cambridge, where he gained a BA in 1681, and an MA four years later. Buddle was eventually ordained into the Church of England, obtaining a living at North Fambridge, near Maldon, Essex, in 1703. His life between graduation and ordination remains obscure, although it is known he lived in or around Hadleigh, Suffolk, that he established a reputation as an authority on bryophytes, and that he married Elizabeth Eveare in 1695, with whom he had two children. Buddle compiled a new English Flora, completed in 1708, but it was never published; the original manuscript is preserved as part of the Sloane collection at the Natural History Museum, London. Appointed Reader at Gray's Inn chapel, Buddle died there in 1715 and was buried at the church of St Andrew, Holborn.” The following is either quoted or extracted from an article on Buddle in a website of the British Bryological Society. Adam Buddle was one of the first Englishmen to study mosses and liverworts as bryology began to be taken seriously in England during the late 17th century. Buddle’s herbarium survives as part of the Sloane collection at the Natural History Museum in London. Johan Jacob Dillenius used Buddle’s herbarium when revising the third edition of Ray’s Synopsis (1724), and the Herbarium at Oxford contains some of Buddle’s botanical specimens. In addition to his herbarium, Buddle also devised his own system for classifying plants. According to James Petiver, Buddle was well versed in mosses by 1687, when he was in his mid-twenties, and was corresponding with Samuel Doody in the mid-1690s. He botanized in and around the metropolis with the apothecaries Doody, James Petiver, and others. Adam Buddle the botanist followed in several of his ancestors’ footsteps when he went up to St. Catherine’s College, Cambridge in 1678. He was a fellow of his college until 1691, but like many others was then ejected after refusing to pledge his oath to the new king, William III. By 1702, Buddle had sworn allegiance to King William, and was ordained into the Church of England at Ely. In 1703 he became Rector of North Fambridge, to the south of Maldon in Essex, and also accepted the post of Reader at the chapel of Gray’s Inn, London. He died there and was buried at St. Andrew’s, Holborn on April 15th, 1715. Buddle collected more than plants in his herbarium. Given that Buddleja is popularly known as the butterfly bush, it is very appropriate that his multi-volume English Flora also contains pressed insects including moths and at least 31 species of butterflies collected around London. It is one of the oldest butterfly collections known. This genus was originally placed in the Logania family, Loganiaceae, but has since been placed by Jepson in a family of its own, the Buddlejaceae. The generic name Buddleja was bestowed on Adam Buddle by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753 at the suggestion of Dr. William Houstoun who sent the first plants to England from the Caribbean about 15 years after Buddle’s death.
  • buek'ii: named for Heinrich Wilhelm Bük (Buek) (1796-1879), German physician, writer and botanist. He was born in Hamburg the son of an insurance broker. He was at the Ruetesche Preparatory Institution and then the Scholar's School of Johanneum from 1811. It was at this time that he became attracted to botany having inherited this interest from his uncle Johannes Nicolaus Buek, who was a pharmacist and horticulturist in Hamburg, made his first botanical studies and built a herbarium in Johannes Flüggé's botanical garden on the Alster. In 1814 Buek studied anatomical, physiological and surgical questions at the general hospital of Johann Jacob August Ritter and in 1815 he assisted as a surgeon during the campaign against Napoleon. He studied at the University of Halle in 1816 and received a doctorate of medicine and surgery in 1819, returning to Hamburg to work as a doctor. At the same time he devoted himself to botanical studies and privately taught deaf children. This latter occupation led to a position in 1823 at the Freemason Hospital continuing the education of deaf children, and he researched cholera and meteorological issues. He was elected as Landphysicus by the Hamburg Senate in 1833 and organized medical services, the settlement of certified surgeons and midwives, veterinary affairs, and prompted the establishment of pharmacies. His best known work was his index to De Candolle’s Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, published in four parts under the title, Genera, Species et Synonyma Candolleana, and in which Buek published a number of new names for taxa of various families, but his main taxonomic contributions concerned South African Boraginaceae and Campanulaceae and the genus Lobostemon. He apparently did not travel much but thanks to his friendship with Christian Ecklon, Johann Georg Christian Lehmann, and Otto Wilhelm Sonder, he had access to much herbarium material. His own herbarium was destroyed by fire in 1842. He was married in 1824 to Charlotte Adelaide Schiff.
  • bufo'nis: see following entry.
  • bufo'nius: pertaining to toads or the habit of growing in moist places.
  • bulbif'era: bulb-bearing.
  • Bul'bine: from the Greek bolbini or bolbos, "a bulb or onion," an old name used by Pliny for some species of little onion or other bulbed plant. The genus Bulbine was published by Nathanael Matthaeus von Wolf in 1776.
  • bulbo'sa/bulbo'sus: bulbous, swollen.
  • Bulbosty'lis: having a bulb-like style. The genus Bulbostylis was published by Karl Sigismund Kunth in 1837.
  • bullard'ii: named for Frances Emily Schmidt (Mrs. James Hovey Bullard) (1863-1923). The following information
      has been gleaned from a website of the Anaheim Public Library. She was born in Anaheim, California, the daughter of one of the founding families of the Anaheim Colony in 1857, where she grew up among vineyards and wineries. She attended public school in Anaheim until at the age of 12 she was sent to a convent in Freiburg, Germany, to finish her education. She met her future husband first upon her return in 1884. In 1891 she joined her father in New York City. Two years later Dr. Bullard travelled east to attend the Chicago World’s Fair and visit relatives in Boston. He
    also spent some time in New York City and that’s where they met again, and subsequently were married in September 1893, returning to Anaheim two months later. Dr. Bullard continued his successful medical practice there and then in 1895 they relocated to Los Angeles. Frances was a lifelong student of California wildflowers, and she created a garden that contained more than 10,000 specimens. She collaborated with such well-known horticulturists as Theodore Payne and Luther Burbank. She won many awards and prizes for floral displays and was involved in the creation of the succulent gardens at the Henry E. Huntington Estate, now known as The Huntington, in San Marino. She was also an accomplished artist and was close friends with the famous actress Madame Modjeska, for whom her husband had served as personal doctor. She died at the age of 69 following a serious operation.
  • bulla'ta: having a blistered or puckered surface, as in leaves.
  • Bulliar'da: named for French physician and botanist Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard (1752-1793?). He was
      born in Aubepierre-sur-Aube Haute-Marne, and his early interest in the natural sciences was in birds but soon shifted to plants. He attended the Collège of Langres and then continued his field work and demonstrated his drawing skills, later studying in Clairvaux and in Paris. He attended some lectures on medicine and surgery, but concentrated on completing his 5-volume work entitled Flora Parisiensis, ou Description et figures de toutes les plantes qui croissent aux environs de Paris, which included 640 plates. In 1783 he published his Dictionnaire Elémentaire de Botanique
    contributed to the spreading and consolidation of botanical terminology and the Linné system. He was particularly interested in mushrooms and this work was especially useful in the area of mycology. He was a resident of Paris from 1775 until his sudden, mysterious and unresolved death. One source says that he was murdered. The genus Bulliarda was published by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1801.
  • -bundus: a Latin adjectival suffix used to indicate a sense of doing or of action accomplished (e.g. floribundus, "flowering or having already flowered, full of flowers," from florere, "to flower").
  • Bupleur'um: from the Greek bous, "ox," and pleuron, "a rib," describing the shape of the roots, which are the commonly used part of the plant. Ox-rib was an ancient name used by Nicander. The genus Bupleurum was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.
  • burk'ei: named for James Huston Burke (1834-1922), ranch-owner and farmer who moved to California with his family in 1853. He bought land, raised crops and herded cattle and sheep. Although not much is known about his interest in plants, he apparently collected the type specimen of Lasthenia burkei near Ukiah in 1886. It was described first as Baeria burkei by Edward L. Greene in 1887 and he later placed it in the genus Lasthenia. (Lasthenia burkei)
  • burk'ei: named for Joseph Burke (1812-1873), an English botanical collector who worked in South Africa between 1839 and 1843, then descended the Columbia River from Canada into the Pacific Northwest and worked as a botanical collector in eastern Idaho. In 1845 he is recorded as having passed through an area in Utah. One source says that despite his energetic efforts, his results were scanty. The Royal Botanical Gardens of Kew had no list of his specimens and his seeds only produced a solitary juniper which grew to a meager height of 5' in 1884. (Arenaria burkei, Aster foliaceus var. burkei, Lupinus polyphyllus var. burkei)
  • burlew'ii: named for Fred Everts Burlew (1863-1954), an amateur botanist and photographer who was legal advisor to the California Academy of Sciences. From the age of twelve it fell on him to care for and raise his two younger brothers and he saved enough money to put all three through college. Graduating from Grinnell College and Ann Arbor Law School, he was admitted to the bar in San Francisco and then moved to Los Angeles in 1899 where he was hired by John D. Hooker of the Academy of Sciences as his legal advisor. He collected widely, especially in the Mt. Baldy region, and also grew native plants on his home site in Glendale. His collection of wildflower photographs is one of the best in California. He was selected as an honorary life member of the California Academy of Sciences. The species Allium burlewii was named in his honor in 1916 by Anstruther Davidson. (Info from an obituary in the Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences by Theodore Payne).
  • burleya'na: named for David Ellsworth Burley (1849-1920), former general passenger agent of the Oregon Short Line Railroad and namesake of the town of Burley, Idaho. He was born in Amanda, Ohio and died in Salt Lake City.
  • burn'hamii: named for Stewart Henry Burnham (1870-1943), natural history collector who specialized in vascular
      plants, cryptogams and ornithology. He was born at Vaughns in Washington County, New York and studied at local schools. From 1893 to 1895 he attended Stanford University, then finished his undergraduate degree at the University of Michigan, graduating with a BS in 1899. He did further studies at Cornell University from 1904 to 1905 concentrating on mycology. A website of the Bailey Hortorium Herbarium at Cornell says: “Burnham’s professional credits are impressive: museum aid at the New York Botanical Garden (1901-1903); assistant in botany at Cornell (1904-
    1905); assistant state botanist with Charles H. Peck at the New York State Museum in Albany (1905-1913); assistant in botany at Cornell (1920-1922); and assistant curator of the Cornell University Herbarium, with Karl M. Wiegand (1922-ca. 1942). He co-authored a landmark Flora of the Town of Southold, Long Island and Gardiner’s Island that was published in Torreya between 1914 and 1925. This included all the vascular plants, bryophytes, algae, lichens, fungi, and plant galls of this coastal region.” His personal herbarium included about 75,000 specimens that was eventually given to Cornell. He published extensively on both botany and ornithology focusing particularly on the Lake George region of eastern New York.
  • Burriel'ia: named for Andrés Marcos Burriel y Lopez (1719-1762), a Spanish Jesuit historian and essayist. He was born in Buenache de Alarcón and studied at the Colegio Imperial de Madrid before starting his noviciate in 1731. He studied rhetorics, philosophy and theology and was ordained in 1743 and became a grammer school teacher in Toledo. He suffered tuberculosis in 1744 and retired to Buenache de Alarcón to recover. At one point he vowed to San Francisco Javier that if he recovered he would serve the indians of California as a missionary. Although he recovered and became a teacher of philosophy in Madrid, he did not leave for California immediately, but instead continued his academic career, taking up the position of director of a seminary for the aristocracy in Madrid and the post of professor of philosophy for the Jesuit University of Alcalá. Then, 1749, on the verge of leaving for California, he was named director of an investigative commission into the ecclesiastical archives. One thing led to another and he never did go to California. He was the author of Paleografía española (1756), Memorias para la vida del santo rey don Fernando III (1762) and the Informe de la imperial ciudad de Toledo (1758). The genus Burrielia was published by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1836.
  • bur'sa-pastor'is: from the Latin bursa, "purse," and pastor, "shepherd," literally, a shepherd's purse, because of its flat, triangular purse-like fruits.
  • Bur'sera: named for botanist Joachim Burser (1583-1649). "Joachim Burser was born in the city of Kamenz in Saxonia, Germany, in 1583.  He was a medical doctor in Annaberg (Saxonia) until he was appointed a professor in medicine and botany at Ritter-Academy, Sorö, Denmark, in 1625, [a position he held until his death].  He died in Sorö in 1639.  Both before and after he came to Sorö he made extensive travels in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, Switzerland, Italy, France and the Pyrenees and during these travels he collected a considerable amount of plant material which he arranged in a "Hortus Siccus," an herbarium in book form.  It contained 25 volumes and a supplementary volume containing Danish plants.  When Burser died, the herbarium was bought by the Danish "riksråd" [Councilor of the Realm?] J. Seefeldt and included in his library. During the Swedish-Danish war of 1658-60, Seefeldt's library was [seized by Charles X and] brought to Sweden as war booty.  In the beginning of the 1660s, the Burser Herbarium was owned by the Swedish statssekreterare [Junior Minister ?] J.P. Coijet when Olof Rudbeck the elder got to know about it.  Olof Rudbeck asked Coijet to give the herbarium to Uppsala University.  He had plans to edit a big botanical work with pictures of all known plants and in this connection Burser's Hortus Siccus was very useful.  The plants were to be arranged according to Caspar Bauhin's Pinax Theatri botanici and the plates were to be regarded as a plant atlas to accompany Bauhin's book.  Twelve volumes in folio were made and the original drawings were present in the Leuvsta library owned by de Geer at that time.  Rudbeck had in mind to prepare his Campus Elysii from those drawings and started to carve the wooden pieces. Two volumes appeared but the work was interrupted by the big fire in Uppsala in 1702 when most of it was destroyed.  Two volumes of Burser's Hortus Siccus were also destroyed, No. II and No. V. The other 23 volumes plus the Danish plants were preserved in the university library. Burser's Hortus Siccus was used by Carl Linnaeus during the preparation for his Species Plantarum, and the herbarium is now a very important source for the typification of the Linnean names.  It has been since 1854 preserved in the Botanical Museum of Uppsala University. The Herbarium consists of sheets, 20x35 cm in size, bound in 23 volumes in leather.  On every page there is a label handwritten by Burser himself according to Bauhin's Pinax.  Many plants are new and have been named by Burser. Often there is information on the locality especially for the new species.  On some occasions there are additions by Burser in weaker writings, e.g. presence in Denmark or German names of cultured plants. The twenty-three volumes contain 3,189 numbered sheets and to those a number of sheets were added later and marked with "post" or "ante."  For further information on Burser's Hortus siccus see the introduction in O. Juel, Joachim Burser's Hortus Siccus (1936), written in German.  We are now working with computerizing the material. (Dec. 1998)."  This information has been quoted almost exactly from the website of the The Botany Section, Museum of Evolution at Uppsala University, Sweden, and I have made some minor changes to the quote to correct spelling, tenses or punctuation and to make its flow in English better, also to add a couple of brief additional pieces of information from other sources. The genus Bursera was published by Nicolaus (Nicolaas) Joseph von Jacquin in 1762.
  • bursifo'lia: with leaves like genus Bursa.
  • bushia'num/bush'ii: named for Benjamin Franklin Bush (1858-1937), an American botanist and ornithologist, an
      expert on the flora of Jackson County, Missouri, whose lifelong research into the plant life of that area made it into one of the best known botanical regions in the United States. He was born in Columbus, Indiana, and moved with his mother Henrietta Bush to Jackson County, Missouri, in 1865, and that area remained his home for the rest of life. While there, Henrietta Bush met and married Robert B. Tindall, a florist who built and operated the first greenhouse in Independence, Missouri. He acquired a love of nature while exploring the frontier country of post-Civil War
    western Missouri. Wikipedia says: “Within a few miles of his home were prairies, dense woods, rocky glades, and small waterways connected to the Missouri River. Young Bush was particularly taken with the calls and songs of the bird species in the area, and he amassed an important collection of bird eggs from the region. He also tracked the behaviors of passenger pigeons, prairie chickens, and Carolina parakeets [two of which species are now extinct]. But his lifelong interest in birds was always superseded by his interest in plants. Bush's interest in the plant life of Jackson County stemmed in part from receiving a copy of Alphonso Wood's Class-Book of Botany as a young man. Trying to identify native species by using the text, he found only a small portion were mentioned. This led to his own eager cataloging of the new species and a robust correspondence relationship with Asa Gray and George Engelmann for instruction. Bush's first catalog of the flora of Jackson County was published in 1882. In 1886, Samuel Mills Tracy published his Flora of Missouri, which was the first catalog of plant life in the state as a whole. Tracy used Bush's research as the primary source for his information on the plants of Jackson County and the surrounding region. Around this time, Bush also struck up a friendship with Cameron Mann of Kansas City, and the two undertook several botanical excursions together. They also collaborated on a supplement to Bush's Flora of Jackson County in 1885. Later, Bush began a collaboration with Kenneth Kent Mackenzie, and the two of them produced several papers on plants in Missouri and used their collecting experience from expeditions in the state to publish the Manual of the Flora of Jackson County in 1902. Between 1891 and 1892, Bush was employed to help collect and prepare wood specimens for the exhibit on Missouri forestry at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He also was employed by the Missouri Botanical Garden to collect plant specimens from the remote areas in the four corners of Missouri: Clark County, Atchison County, McDonald County, and Dunklin County. Outside of Missouri, he collected extensively in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas for the Arnold Arboretum and the Missouri Botanical Garden. He also developed a passion for ferns and published the first list of fern species in Texas. Bush cultivated relationships with many important botanists, and he spent time collecting with Ernest Jesse Palmer and Arnold Arboretum director Charles Sprague Sargent. In order to support his family, Bush supplemented his income with work outside of botany. He opened a general store near Kansas City in Courtney, Missouri, which he ran for nearly 40 years. He also worked as the postmaster in Courtney during that time. His business was aided by the large number of Mexican and Italian laborers brought into the area by Santa Fe Railway to do maintenance work on the line that ran near Courtney. Through these customers, Bush was able to become conversant in both Spanish and Italian. Bush collected and identified a large number of plants that were new to science in the 19th century. He was also the first to discover corkwood in Missouri. Previously it had only been found in Florida and Texas.” In addition to Flora of Jackson County, he was the author of The Trees, Shrubs and Vines of Missouri (1895), The Lespedezas of Missouri (1902), and several others. The University of North Carolina Herbarium's website has this to say about Bush: "The many thousands of well-prepared sheets of plants collected by him which have found their way into nearly all the herbaria of the world will be a constant reminder of his work; the large number of plants previously unknown to science which he discovered, and many of which he described, as well as those described by others and bearing his name, will remain a monument to him."
  • butanoen'sis: probably from Butano State Park in San Mateo County.
  • but'leri: named for Bertram Theodore Butler (1872-1958), botanist, professor and chairman of the geology department of the City College of New York. He was born at Nashua, Iowa, of French Huguenot ancestry. He began his teaching career in a one-room country school in South Dakota. He received a PhD from Hamline University in St. Paul. Minnesota. He became a science instructor at Montana Wesleyan University and later a superintendent of schools. He was awarded an A.M degree at Columbia University. (Cirsium butleri)
  • but'leri: named for George Dexter Butler (1850-1910), lawyer, teacher, botanist, plant collector, and correspondent
      of George Engelmann. He was born in Morris, Illinois, grew up in Bureau County and attended the University of Iowa. He taught at various schools in Arkansas and the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. He was clearly interested in botany and collected plants, developing a correspondence with George Engelmann. Butler sent him specimens including a species of quillwort, which was new and which Engelmann named Isoetes butleri in his honor. As a result of this discovery he published his most important botanical contribution, The species of Isoetes of Indian Territory, in
    1878. At some point he moved to Siskiyou County, California, where he continued to teach and ran a saw mill, as well as serving in the county office. In 1896 he devoted himself to the law and began to achieve the measure of success that allowed him by 1906 to spend the final years of his life trawling the county for plant specimens, constructing a herbarium in his house, and soon amassing the most complete collection of Siskiyou plants in existence. A sudden stroke killed him in 1910. (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave) (Trifolium eriocephalum var. butleri)
  • Butner'ia: named for David Sigismund August Büttner (1724-1768), Hungarian physician, botanist, biologist and author. He was born in Chemnitz, Hungary, and was appointed professor of medicine and botany in 1756 at the Collegium medico-chirurgicum Berlin. From 1760 to his death in 1768 he was professor of botany and zoology at the University of Göttingen. The genus Butneria was published in 1755 by Henri Louis Duhamel du Monceau, but is now considered invalid.
  • butten'sis: of or from Butte County.
  • butterworthia'num: named for Clare Elizabeth Butterworth Hardham (Mrs. John Fraser Hardhsm) (1918-2010), distinguished American botanist and cattle rancher born in Santa Barbara, California, where her family had a nut farm near Templeton. She grew up in Connecticut and received a BA degree from Vassar College in 1939, did graduate work at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, and received her M.S. in botany from U.C. Santa Barbara. In college, she met long-time Paso Robles physician, John F. Hardham. They married, and after World War II moved to California. She made extensive studies of the flora of the Santa Lucia Range, Sierra Madre Range, and other areas of the Central Coast during the 1950s and 60s. She collaborated with James Reveal on Chorizanthe and related genera. In later years, her other main interest was developing the ranch she inherited from her father to produce top quality polled Hereford cattle. She died at the age of 92 in San Luis Obispo.
  • Buxbaum'ia/buxbaum'ii: named for German botanist Johann Christian Buxbaum (1693-1730), German physician, botanist and entomologist, a scholar from the Russian Academy of Science and professor of botany at St. Petersburg, who produced some of the first scientific works on the flora of Estonia, and author of Plantarum minus cognitarum centuria. He studied medicine at the Universities of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Leiden. He was a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts and Sciences. As a physician he accompanied  a Russian diplomatic mission to Turkey  and travelled to Greece and Asia Minor. He is commemorated in the moss genus Buxbaumia (also the name of a journal on mosses) and in the names of several species (notably the sedge Carex buxbaumii). His most notable works are: Enumeratio plantarum acculatior in argo Halensi vicinisque locis crescentium una cum earum characteribus et viribus (Halle, 1721) and Plantarum minus cognitarum centuria complectens plantas circa Byzantium & in oriente observatas. The genus Buxbaumia was published by Johann Hedwig in 1801.
  • buxifo'lia/buxifo'lium/buxifolius: with leaves like those of the boxwood, genus Buxus.