L-R: Brickellia frutescens (Shrubby brickellbush), Tiquilia palmeri (Palmer's crinklemat), Chamaesyce arizonica (Arizona spurge), Lessingia glandulifera var tomentosa (Warner Springs lessingia), Chloracantha spinosa (Spiny aster)

In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear. Where no credit is given for photos, they are in public domain mostly from Wikipedia.
  • Cicen'dia: the meaning of this name is uncertain, and I had thought possibly from the Latin cicindela, "glowworm," or from a Latin word meaning "candelabrum," until I was contacted by the former curator of the museum for natural history in Stuttgart, Germany with the information that it was taken by Grisebach (the author) from an old plant name in Toscana (Italy), kikenda, meaning a Gentianaceae (ref. genus Cicendia)
  • ci'cera: from the Latin cicer, a classical Latin name for the chick-pea or garbanzo (ref. Lathyrus cicera)
  • cichoria'cea: like Cichorium (ref. Stephanomeria cichoriacea)
  • Cichor'ium: the Latinized version of an Arabic name for one species of this genus from the Greek kichore, which usually carries a common name of chicory or endive (ref. genus Cichorium)
  • Cicu'ta: an ancient Latin name of poison hemlock (ref. genus Cicuta)
  • cicutar'ia/cicutar'ium: refers to the leaves which resemble the leaves of Cicuta, the ancient Latin name for poison hemlock (ref. Phacelia cicutaria var. hispida, Phacelia cicutaria var. hubbyi, Erodium cicutarium)
  • cienegen'sis: named after Cienega Seca Creek in the San Bernardino Mts, the word "cienaga" meaning meadow or marsh (ref. Acanthoscyphus parishii var. cienegensis)
  • cilianen'sis: thanks to Adolf Ceska of Ceska Geobotanical Consulting for the following: "According to the Intermountain Flora (Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. 1977. Intermountain Flora, Vol. 6, Columbia University Press, New York) page 400, 'Eragrostis cilianensis was described by Carlo Allioni (1725-1804) in his Flora Pedemontana, based on the type specimen collected by Bellardi in "Ciliani" estate, Italy.'" (ref. Eragrostis cilianensis)
  • ciliar'is: edged with hairs (ref. Cenchrus ciliaris, Helianthus ciliaris)
  • cilia'ta/cilia'tum/cilia'tus: name given to indicate a slight fringing like an eyelash that might occur on petals, leaves, petioles or other plant parts (ref. Calandrinia ciliata, Phacelia ciliata, Prionopsis [formerly Haplopappus] ciliata, Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum, Epilobium ciliatum ssp. glandulosum, Haplopappus ciliatus, Linanthus ciliatus)
  • ciliola'tum: fringed on the side (ref. Trifolium ciliolatum)
  • cilio'sa: fringed or ciliate (ref. Plectritis ciliosa)
  • -cillus: a Latin adjectival suffix used as a diminutive
  • cim'ae: one website I found referred to this taxon by the common name Cima milkvetch, and its range is the east desert mountains, so I am assuming that this name refers in some way to Cima Dome or to some other similarly-named geographical feature in the East Mojave (ref. Astragalus cimae)
  • cinerar'ius: pertaining to ashes (ref. Cymopterus cinerarius)
  • cineras'cens: becoming ashy-gray (ref. Selaginella cinerascens)
  • ciner'ea/ciner'eum/ciner'eus: ashy-gray, usually the foliage (ref. Castilleja cinerea, Cryptantha cinerea, Herniaria cinerea, Monardella australis ssp. cinerea, Eriogonum cinereum, Lepidium montanum var. cinereum, Leymus cinereus)
  • cini'cola: from the Latin cinis, "ashes," and the -cola suffix denoting "an inhabitant of," the common name for this taxon in the Jepson Manual being ash beardtongue (ref. Penstemon cinicola)
  • Cin'na: from the Greek kinna, a name for a kind of grass (ref. genus Cinna)
  • Cinnamo'mum: Greek for cinnamon (ref. genus Cinnamomum)
  • Circae'a: after Circe (pronounced sir-see), the enchantress of Greek mythology. According to a website called Characters of Greek Mythology, "Circe is the daughter of Helios, the Sun God, and Perse. She was a powerful witch who had no love for mortals. Initially, she was married to a king and poisoned him in hopes of taking over the kingdom. But, she was banished from the city and went to live on the Island of Dawn, Aeaea. She is best known from The Odyssey where she turned Odysseus' men into animals with a magic potion. Of course, the gods helped Odysseus, and Hermes was sent to give him a herb that would make him immune to Circe's magic. She eventually agreed to turn his men back, but only on the condition that Odysseus sleep with her. Then she warned him of the perils in the next part of his journey. Odysseus and Penelope's son, Telemachus, is said to have married her (ref. genus Circaea)
  • circina'ta/circina'tum: coiled (ref. Acer circinatum)
  • circum-: Latin prefix meaning around, e.g. circumvagum, circumscissa
  • circumscis'sa: from the Latin for "cut around" because the upper half of the fruiting calyx falls away when the nutlets are ripe (ref. Cryptantha circumscissa)
  • circumva'gum: from the Latin circum, "around," and vagum, "wandering," of uncertain derivation and meaning (ref. Chamerion angustifolium ssp. circumvagum)
  • cirra'ta: equipped with tendrils (ref. Parnassia cirrata)
  • cirrho'sa/cirrho'sus: climbing by tendrils (ref. Ruppia cirrhosa)
  • Cir'sium: derived from the Greek kirsion, "a kind of thistle," in turn from kirsos, "a swollen vein or welt," because thistles were often used as a remedy against such things ref. genus Cirsium)
  • cismonta'na: on 'this' side of the mountains, as opposed to the far side (ref. Nolina cismontana)
  • Cistan'the: presumably from the genus name Cistus and the Greek anthos, "flower" (ref. genus Cistanthe)
  • Cis'tus: an ancient Greek name (ref. genus Cistus)
  • citharifor'me: from the Greek kithara, "lyre," and forme, indicating shape or resemblance, thus meaning "lyre-shaped" or "like a lyre" (ref. Eriogonum cithariforme)
  • citra'ta/citra'tus: resembling Citrus (ref. Mentha Xpiperita ssp. citrata)
  • citrigra'cilis: from the roots citron, the citron-tree, and gracilis, "slender, thin". This name may be a combination of the names Madia citriodora and M. gracilis, because this taxon is a derived hybrid of those two taxa (ref. Madia citrigracilis)
  • citrin'a/citrin'um/citrin'us: lemon yellow (ref. Erythronium citrinum, Lupinus citrinus)
  • citriodor'a: lemon-scented (ref. Madia citriodora, Monarda citriodora)
  • citro'leum: I had thought that this was from the root for lemon or the genus Citrus, but it now seems certain that it is from the Latin citra, "on the side of," and oleosus, "oily," the common name for this species being oil nest straw. David Hollombe sent me the following as further confirmation: "J. D. Morefield, in his original account of Stylocline citroleum says 'Stylocline citroleum appears nearly restricted to areas of heavy petroleum production and other developments in the southern San Joaquin Valley and is certainly endangered, if not already extinct. The epithet is derived from the Latin citer, indicating proximity or nearness, and oleum, "oil" ' (ref. Stylocline citroleum)
  • Citrul'lus: the Latin diminutive of Citrus, possessing a similar odor and flavor (ref. genus Citrullus)
  • Cla'dium: from the Greek kladion, "a small branch" (reg. genus Cladium)
  • cladoca'lyx: from the Greek klados, "branch," and kalyx, "the bud cup or calyx of a flower" (ref. Eucalyptus cladocalyx)
  • clandestin'um: hidden, of uncertain application (ref. Pennisetum clandestinum)
  • clar'anus: after Clara Adele Pike Blodgett Hunt (1859-1931), schoolteacher and amateur botanist. The Jepson Manual refers to this taxon as Clara Hunt's milkvetch, and originally spelled as clarianus, but that has been corrected, see here. She was the daughter of Edward P. and [Lucy] Schattuck Pike and was born in Claremont, New Hampshire. She came to California when 12 years old and married her first husband, George Farwell Blodgett, in 1878. He died in 1883. In 1891 she married her second husband, Daniel Otis Hunt and made St. Helena in the Napa Valley her home. Before her marriage she was a successful school teacher in the East bay section. She was a great lover of flowers and had a liberal education in botany. Her particular delight for many years was the study of wildflowers with which our hills and valleys abound and several years the flower shows she gave either at her home or under the auspices of the Women's Improvement Club, attracted a great deal of attention. Mrs. Hunt was a past President of the Women's Improvement Club and in her earlier years took a great deal of interest in civic affairs. Her second husband died in 1914 (Information slightly rewritten from entry in the St. Helena Star, 4/8/32) (ref. Astragalus claranus)
  • clarea'na: after botanist Clare Elizabeth Butterworth Hardham (1918-2010), wife of John Fraser Hardham, see hardhamiae (ref. Phacelia clareana)
  • claria'na: after Marjorie Chappel Davis Clary (1885-1975), wife of Benjamin Little Clary, amateur naturalist who owned, with her husband, the Coral Reef Ranch near Coachella (ref. Ditaxis clariana)
  • Clar'kia: named for William Clark (1770-1838) who with Captain Meriwether Lewis made the first transcon-
      tinental expedition from1804 to 1806. He was born in Virginia and moved with his family in 1784 to an area of Kentucky which was the site of present-day Louisville, where his famous Revolutionary War brother George Rogers Clark had built a fort. He learned about indian warfare at firsthand, and became an ensign at the age of 18. He was the principal military director of the expedition, also the chief mapmaker and artist, and he kept detailed journals on the plant and animal life they encountered. His knowledge of Indian habits and character contributed greatly
    to the success of the mission that had been assigned by President Jefferson. After returning from the West, he resigned from the Army and took the position of indian agent until Congress appointed him brigadier-general for the territory of upper Louisiana. President Madison appointed him governor of the Missouri territory in 1813, and held that office until Missouri was organized as a state, at which time he was a reluctant candidate for the same job and was defeated. In 1822 President Monroe appointed him superintendent of indian affairs in St. Louis and he held that position until his death in 1838 (ref. genus Clarkia)
  • clark'iae: after Mary Rose Clark (c. 1871-1942?). "... born in Nevada to Irish immigrant parents and attended the Normal Department of the University of Nevada, receiving her First Grade Diploma in 1894 and Life Diploma in 1895. She left teaching in 1901 and was a postal clerk until 1904, then was proprietor of a poultry ranch. Unfortunately, she was committed to the state hospital at Sparks, Nevada in 1910 and spent the rest of her life there." (Contributed by David Hollombe) (ref. Dicoria canescens ssp. clarkiae)
  • clarkia'na/clarkia'nus: after Galen Clark (1814-1910), one of Yosemite's earliest explorers and protectors, a
      charter member of the Sierra Club, and author of The Big Trees of California, Their History and Characteristics (1907), Indians of the Yosemite (1904). and The Yosemite Valley (1910). He was born in Canada but met and married Rebecca McCoy in Missouri. After his wife died he moved to California around the time of the Gold Rush. Within a few years at the age of 39 he contracted tuberculosis and his doctors gave him six months to live, so he moved to an area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains called Wawona. Discovering the Mariposa Grove of giant sequoias, he spent
    most of his time exploring and teaching people about the great trees. He involved himself in and largely spearheaded a political campaign to preserve the area that would eventually become Yosemite National Park. To support himself, he ran a small hotel and guide service, but not being a good businessman, he was constantly in debt. Although he wrote three books about Yosemite, he never sought to use his position for monetary gain and did not dwell on his own accomplishments. He was perpetually poor but rich in the spiritual nature of the mountains and the tall trees he loved so much. He died at the home of his daughter in Oakland (ref. Potentilla clarkiana, Senecio clarkianus)
  • Cla'dium: from Greek kladion, "a small branch" (ref. genus Cladium)
  • clava'tum/clava'tus: means "club-shaped," referring to the top of the hairs on the inner side of the petals (ref. Epilobium clavatum, Calochortus clavatus var. gracilis, Calochortus clavatus ssp. pallidus)
  • clavicar'pa: from the Latin clava, "club," and karpos, "fruit," thus with club-shaped fruits (ref. Clarkia cylindrica ssp. clavicarpa)
  • Clayton'ia: named for John Clayton (1694?-1773/1774), Clerk to the County Court of Gloucester County,
    Virginia from 1720 until his death, one of the earliest collectors of plant specimens in that state, and described as the greatest American botanist of his day, who supplied materials for an 18th century flora of Virginia called Flora Virginica (published 1739-1743) by J.F. Gronovius. He conscienciously and systematically took samples of everything he encountered, and sent them to Mark Catesby at Oxford, who in turn sent them to Gronovius in Leiden, Holland, where they were examined by Linnaeus. He was also the attorney general for the colony of Virginia. He did not publish much himself but his specimens were of considerable taxonomic and nomenclatural significance, and Gronovius based his work at least in part on a manuscript by Clayton. Since his were some of the first North American specimens studied by Linnaeus, many were type specimens for Linnaean names. The specimens that were studied by Gronovius were bought by Sir Joseph Banks and subsequently passed to the British Museum (now the Natural History Museum) in London, where they have recently (1988-1990) been separated from the main collection and curated as the Clayton collection. 1686 has often been given as his date of birth rather than 1694, but this is the date used by the John Clayton Herbarium of the Natural History Museum of London (ref. genus Claytonia)
  • cleisto'gamum: from the Greek kleistos, "that which can be closed," and possibly gamos, "a marriage"(?), the same root as for the word gamete. The word cleistogamous refers to flowers that self-fertilize without opening (ref. Epilobium cleistogamum)
  • Clem'atis: in Greek means "long, lithe branches" and is an ancient name for some climbing plant (ref. genus Clematis)
  • clementi'na/clementi'nus: of San Clemente Island, where these species are located (ref. Triteleia clementina, Malacothamnus clementinus)
  • clemen'tis: mild, gentle, merciful (ref. Galium clementis, Oreonana clementis, Trichophorum [formerly Scirpus] clementis)
  • Cleo'me: an ancient name of some mustard-like plant (ref. genus Cleome)
  • Cleomel'la: a diminutive form of Cleome (ref. genus Cleomella)
  • cleve'landii: after Daniel Cleveland (1838-1929), an authority on ferns, lawyer, and botanical collector, who
      during the course of his collecting, rediscovered all the plants of the San Diego area that had been found only once.  He was one of the founding members of the San Diego Natural History Society, founded the herbarium of the San Diego Natural History Museum, and was author of "The Best Way of Collecting and Preserving Specimens," "The Ferns of San Diego County," and "Bee Range and Honey and Pollen Producing Plants of San Diego County".  He also donated a collection of minerals to the San Diego Natural History Museum. He was born in Poughkeepsie, New York,
    was at one time Mayor of San Antonio, Texas, and is remembered by having his name on a number of Southern California plants. Contrary to what is sometimes thought, the Cleveland National Forest was not named after Daniel Cleveland, but rather after President Grover Cleveland (ref. Bloomeria clevelandii, Cheilanthes clevelandii, Chorizanthe clevelandii, Cryptantha clevelandii, Dodecatheon clevelandii ssp. clevelandii, Dodecatheon clevelandii ssp. insulare, Horkelia clevelandii, Malacothrix clevelandii, Mimulus clevelandii, Nicotiana clevelandii, Penstemon clevelandii, Salvia clevelandii)
  • clif'tonii: after botanist Glenn Lee Clifton (1943- ), with William Dean Taylor the discoverer of this taxon in eastern Shasta County in 1992, and like Taylor a worker at the Santa Cruz-based botany consulting firm Biosystems Analysis, Inc. (ref. Neviusia cliftonii)
  • cliftonsmith'ii: after Clifton F. Smith (1920-2000), Santa Barbara County’s most renowned field botanist for
      over 50 years, senior botanist at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden (in whose honor the herbarium there is named) and author of A Flora of the Santa Barbara Region, California. He joined the staff of the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History as a Part Time Assistant in 1947 and made his first collecting trip to Santa Rosa Island two years later, followed by visits to Santa Cruz, Anacapa and San Miguel islands. He is a member of the exclusive All Eight Club of people who have visited all eight of the Channel islands. Galium cliftonsmithii was published by Lauramay Tinsley
    Dempster (Photo credit: Islapedia) (ref. Galium cliftonsmithii)
  • Clinopo'dium: possibly from the Greek klino, "to slope or recline," and podos or podios, "a foot," but the Jepson Manual gives the meaning as "savory," which is one of the common names for members of this genus, formerly Satureja (ref. genus Clinopodium)
  • Clinton'ia: after De Witt Clinton (1769-1828), a naturalist and governor of New York. Known chiefly for his
      role in the construction of the Erie Canal, also known as "Clinton's Ditch," he was also a keen naturalist and is credited with having discovered a native American wheat species. He was extremely interested in humanitarian and philanthropic causes, as is demonstrated by his role as the primary organizer of the Public School Society of New York City, the chief patron of the New York Orphan Asylum and the New York City Hospital, the founder of the New York Historical Society, a founding member of the Literature and Philosophy Society, the second president of the
    American Academy of Art, and the vice president of the American Bible Society and the Educational Society of the Presbyterian Church. He was introduced to politics as the secretary for his uncle George Clinton who was then the Governor of New York. He went on to being a member of the New York State Assembly, and then was elected to the State Senate before being appointed to the U. S. Senate in 1802 to fill a vacancy. He resigned this office in 1803 to become mayor of New York City, a position which he held from 1803 to 1807, from 1809 to 1810, and again from 1811 to 1815. In between terms as Governor, he was Canal Commissioner and oversaw the design and eventual construction of the 363-mile long Erie Canal which provided easier access than was then possible for Eastern commerce from the Atlantic to inland areas such as Ohio, Illinois and Indiana, and was of strategic importance during the French and Indian War, the Revolution War and the War of 1812. He was elected Governor of New York four times and ran once unsuccessfully for President in the election of 1812 (ref. genus Clintonia)
  • Clitor'ia: from the Greek kleitoris, "clitoris" (ref. genus Clitoria)
  • clivo'rum: of the hills (ref. Gilia clivorum)
  • clo'keyi:after Ira Waddell Clokey (1878-1950), who collected plants in Clark County, Nevada in the 1930's
      and completed the impressive Flora of the Charleston Mountains published just after his death. He was born in Decatur, Illinois, and attended Illinois University and Harvard, gaining a B.S. in mining engineering. After his main interest had shifted from engineering to his boyhood love of botany, he got an M.S. in plant pathology at Iowa State. He had worked as a mining engineer in Mexico and Colorado from 1903 until 1920, having moved to Colorado in 1915. He collected plant specimens in Mexico but many were lost in a fire in 1912. For seven years beginning in 1935
    he collected extensively in the Charleston Mountains of Nevada. His personal herbarium included over 100,000 specimens which were deposited in the herbarium of the University of California and became the property of the herbarium at the time of his death.  JSTOR adds: “Clokey's particular area of interest was the genus Carex and he collected a lot of material which was exchanged with many of the country's leading caricologists. He also studied genetics and undertook research into maize at the California Institute of Technology and published numerous other papers on various botanical topics.” (ref. Allium howellii var. clokeyi, Erigeron clokeyi, Gilia clokeyi, Solanum clokeyi) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • clusia'na: after Carolus Clusius (Charles de l'Ecluse) (1526-1609), Flemish botanist, horticulturist and traveller
      who became a professor at the University of Leiden. The following is quoted from Wikipedia: "He studied at Montpellier with the famous medical professor Guillaume Rondelet, though he never practiced medicine. In 1573 he was appointed prefect of the imperial medical garden in Vienna by Maximilian II and made Gentleman of the Imperial Chamber, but he was discharged from the imperial court shortly after the accession of Rudolf II. After leaving Vienna in the late 1580's he established himself in Frankfurt am Main, before his appointment as professor at the University
    of Leiden in 1594. He helped create one of the earliest formal botanical gardens of Europe at Leyden, the Hortus Academicus, and his detailed planting lists have made it possible to recreate his garden near where it originally lay. In the history of gardening he is remembered not only for his scholarship but also for his observations on tulips "breaking" — a phenomenon discovered in the late 19th century to be due to a virus — causing the many different flamed and feathered varieties, which led to the speculative tulip mania of the 1630s. Clusius laid the foundations of Dutch tulip breeding and the bulb industry today. His first publication was a French translation of Rembert Dodoens's herbal, published in Antwerp in 1557 by van der Loë. His Rariorum aliquot stirpium per Hispanias observatarum historia (1576)—one of the earliest books on Spanish flora—initiated his fruitful collaboration with the renowned Plantin printing press at Antwerp, which permitted him to issue late-breaking discoveries in natural history and to ornament his texts with elaborate engravings. Clusius, as he was known to his contemporaries, published two major original works: his Rariorum plantarum historia (1601) is the first record for approximately 100 new species and his collaborative work Exoticorum libri decem (1605) is an important survey of exotic flora, both still often consulted. He contributed as well to Abraham Ortelius's map of Spain. Clusius translated several contemporary works in natural science. Clusius was also among the first to study the flora of Austria, under the auspices of Emperor Maximilian II. He was the first botanist to climb the Ötscher and the Schneeberg in Lower Austria, which was also the first documented ascent of the latter. His contribution to the study of alpine plants has led to many of them being named in his honour, such as Gentiana clusii, Potentilla clusiana and Primula clusiana. The genus Clusia (whence the family Clusiaceae) also honours Clusius." (ref. Tulipa clusiana)
  • Cneorid'ium: a diminutive of Cneorum, spurge olive, from the Greek kneoron, for some shrub resembling the olive (ref. genus Cneoridium)
  • Cni'cus: a Latin name of the safflower, from Greek cnecos (ref. genus Cnicus)
  • coachel'lae: presumably named after the Coachella Valley where it grows (ref. Astragalus lentiginosus var. coachellae)
  • cobren'sis: unknown derivation (ref. Arabis cobrensis)
  • coccin'ea/coccin'eus: scarlet or bright, deep pink (ref. Ammannia coccinea, Boerhavia coccinea, Mirabilis coccinea, Astragalus coccineus)
  • cochinchinen'sis: I presume this name means of or from Cochinchina, which was the southern part of Vietnam (ref. Rottboellia cochinchinensis)
  • Cochlea'ria: from the Greek kochlarion and the Latin cochlear, meaning "a spoon," from the shape of the basal leaves (ref. genus Cochlearia)
  • coerul'ea: blue (ref. Phacelia coerulea)
  • coerules'cens: bluish, becoming blue
  • cochisen'sis: from the type locality in Cochise County, Arizona (ref. Astrolepis cochisensis)
  • cogna'ta/cogna'tus: closely related to (ref. Xylorhiza cognata, Plagiobothrys cognatus)
  • Coin'cya: named for Auguste Henri Cornut de la Fontaine de Coincy (1837-1903), French botanist who specialized in the Spanish flora. He was the author of Ecloga plantarum hispanicarum, a five-part series on Spanish flora published from 1893 to 1901, and several papers involving the botanical genus Echium. An award issued by the Société botanique de France for excellence in taxonomic research was established in his name, along with the genus Coincya published in 1891 by French botanist Georges Rouy (ref. genus Coincya)
  • Co'ix: from the classical Greek name used by Theophrastus for a species of Egyptian palm (ref. genus Coix)
  • -cola/colus: a suffix signifying "an inhabitant of or dweller in," from Latin incola, "an inhabitant", e.g. deserticola, "dwelling in the desert"; monticola, "dwelling in the mountains"; saxicola, "growing among rocks"; serpentinicola, "living on serpentine soils"
  • Colden'ia: named after Cadwallader Colden (1688-1776), Irish-born physician, natural scientist, and corres-
      pondent of Linnaeus. His parents were Scottish and he attended the Royal High School in Edinburgh and Edinburgh University to become a minister. He continued his studies in medicine, anatomy, physics, chemistry, and botany in London then went to Philadelphia to begin a practice in medicine. In 1717, he was invited by Governor Robert Hunter to relocate to New York, and in 1720 he became a surveyor general of New York. His political career began in 1720 when he joined the provincial council, then served several terms as Lieutenant-Governor and Acting
    Governor for the Province of  New York between 1760 and 1771. He was the first colonial representative to the Iroquois Confederacy and was the author of The History of the Five Indian Nations (1727). He was involved in one of the early protest demonstrations against the Stamp Act and his coach was seized and burned. Colden retired from public life as America entered the Revolutionary period. He wrote and published essays about yellow fever highlighting the relationship of living conditions and high rates of disease which prompted improvements in public health. Colden wrote a taxonomy of the flora near his Orange County, New York home, which he rendered in Latin and sent to the Swedish patriarch of plant science and Latin nomenclature, Carl Linnaeus, who duly published the work and named the genus Coldenia in the family Boraginaceae, a genus which is now placed in Tiquilia.
    (ref. genus Coldenia)
  • Coleo'gyne: from the Greek koleos, "sheath," and gune, "ovary" (ref. genus Coleogyne)
  • colliga'ta: from the Latin colligatus, "fastened together" (ref. Crassula colligata)
  • colli'na/colli'num/colli'nus: pertaining to hills (ref. Calystegia collina ssp. venusta, Gnaphalium collinum, Lupinus albifrons var. collinus, Plagiobothrys collinus var. fulvescens)
  • Collin'sia: named for Zaccheus Collins (1764-1831), a minerologist and botanist, Vice-President of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and an authority on the lower plants. He was a correspondent of John Torrey, Thomas Nuttall, Alexander von Humboldt and Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz. He was also Director of the Library Company of Philadelphia founded by Benjamin Franklin (ref. genus Collinsia)
  • Collo'mia: from the Greek kolla, "glue," referring to the sticky secretion around the seeds (ref. genus Collomia)
  • colocyn'this: from the Greek kolokunthis, "round gourd" (ref. Citrullus colocynthis)
  • colo'na: possibly relates to or derives from the Latin colonus for "farmer or colonist," of unknown application (ref. Echinochloa colona)
  • coloraden'sis/coloradoen'sis: of or from Colorado (ref. Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis, Eleocharis coloradoensis)
  • Colubri'na: snakelike, shaped like a snake, alluding to the stems or to the stamens (ref. genus Colubrina)
  • columbar'iae: one reference states that this plant reminded its namer, George Bentham, of Scabiosa columbaria, and possibly derives from Latin columbarius meaning "of or pertaining to doves or appearing dove-like." It's interesting that despite the fact that there are at least eight past or present taxa which use 'columbaria' as a species name, there is so little information about what it means (ref. Salvia columbariae)
  • colum'biae: of or from the Columbia River region, specifically along the Columbia River in the Columbia Basin east of the Cascade Mountains and within the Columbia Gorge west of the Cascade Mountain Crest (ref. Rorippa columbiae)
  • columbia'na/columbia'num/columbia'nus: of western North America (ref. Arctostaphylos columbiana, Lewisia columbiana, Wolffia columbiana, Aconitum columbianum, Lupinus latifolius var. columbianus)
  • columnar'is: columnar, in the shape of a column
  • columnif'era: bearing columns, in reference to the tall cylindrical flower heads (ref. Ratidiba columnifera)
  • colusan'a: of or from Colusa County, California (ref. Neostapfia colusana)
  • Colu'tea: from the Greek name kolutea which was applied to these shrubs (bladder senna) (ref. genus Colutea)
  • -coma: suffix meaning "hair" or "a tuft of hair," as in the names Anisocoma, argyrocoma, Isocoma, Pyrrocoma, leptocoma
  • Coman'dra: from the Greek kome, "hair," and ander, "man," referring to the hairy attachment of the stamens (ref. genus Comandra)
  • Comarostaph'ylis: from the Greek komaros, a name for Arbutus unedo, the strawberry tree, and staphule, "a cluster of grapes" because of the similarity of this shrub to Arbutus and its clustered fruit (ref. genus Comarostaphylis)
  • Comasto'ma: from the Greek for hair, mouth, from fringes on corolla lobes (ref. genus Comastoma)
  • coma'ta: furnished with a tuft, sometimes of hair (ref. Hesperostipa comata, Mirabilis comata)
  • Commeli'na: after the two Dutch botanists Jan Commelin (1629-1692) and his nephew Caspar Commelin (1667-
      1731), known to Charles Plumier, a French Franciscan monk, botanist and traveler, and Carl Linnaeus who named the genus Commelina. Jan Commelin was the son of book publisher and historian Isaac Commelin and Cornelia Bouwer. In 1641 the family moved to Amsterdam. Jan Commelin (or Johannes Commelijn) was a doctor, commercial plant trader and the director of botany at the Hortus Medicus (Medical Garden) in Amsterdam, who worked with many tropical plants that had been collected in Asia and sent back to Holland. He was the author of the “Horti Medici Amstelodamensis Rariorum,” published in Amsterdam in 1697. As an independent merchant, Jan ran a wholesale business for medicinal plants which he delivered to hospitals and pharmacies in Amsterdam and elsewhere. He was elected to the city council in 1672. He was also the author of Nederlantze Hesperides (1676) which dealt with the cultivation of citrus fruits, Catalogus plantarum indigenarum Hollandiae (1683) which was the first flora of the Netherlands, and for fourteen years he edited eleven of the twelve volumes of the Hortus Indicus Malabaricus
    by Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede tot Draakenstein. His major work was the Catalogus plantorum horti medici Amstelodamensis rariorum which was partially finished and published posthumously, the remainder being completed by his nephew Caspar. The Municipal Council of Amsterdam commissioned alderman Jan Commelin and burgomaster Johan Huydecoper van Maarsseveen to build and direct a botanical garden for medicinal plants originally called the Hortus Medicus but eventually the Hortus Botanicus. Caspar Commelin was also a botanist and Jan’s nephew who after Jan’s death continued his work and completed his books. He graduated with a degree in medicine at Leiden and settled in Amsterdam. In 1696 Caspar was appointed to the post of botanist at the Hortus and eventually succeeded his uncle Jan. Between Jan and Caspar, they described hundreds of species from Africa, the Americas, and Asia. The Commelins are considered among the most important of the early botanists. In 1703, he published a work on the systematics of rare exotic plants, and in 1706 was appointed as professor at the Athenaeum Illustre school in Amsterdam. The story is that Linnaeus who established this genus decided to commemorate the Commelins because the dayflower has two large petals (for Jan and Caspar) and a third small petal (for another Commelijn who died young before he could accomplish anything in botany), but this may well be an apocryphal though convenient explanation (ref. genus Commelina)
  • com'munis: in Latin "common, general" and means growing in communities (ref. Lapsana communis, Pyrus communis, Ricinus communis)
  • commuta'ta: changeable, changed or changing; used for a species that is very similar to one already known (ref. Malacothrix saxatalis var. commutata)
  • como'sa/como'sum: tufted, furnished with a tuft of some kind (ref. Carex comosa, Luzula comosa, Tetradymia comosa, Veronica comosa)
  • compac'ta/compac'tum/compac'tus: growing in compact form (ref. Ayenia compacta, Trichostema austromontanum ssp. compactum, Erigeron compactus)
  • complana'tum: flattened, levelled (ref. Thelypodium integrifolium ssp. complanatum)
  • comple'xa: encircled, embraced, complex (ref. Muehlenbeckia complexa)
  • compos'itus: composite, having many parts (ref. Erigeron compositus)
  • compres'sa: compressed, flattened (ref. Poa compressa)
  • conchulif'erus: from the Greek konche, "a shell or shellfish," the suffix -ule, which is used as a diminutive, and the suffix -iferus, from the Latin fero, "to bear," so that this basically means "bearing or having a small shell," referring to the distinctive clam-like fruits, which are cupped with a deeply-lobed margin. This species is sometimes called cupped fringe-pod and is basically restricted to Santa Cruz Island and a few locations in the Santa Monicas (ref. Thysanocarpus conchuliferus)
  • concin'na/concin'num/concin'nus: neat, well-made, elegant (ref. Clarkia concinna, Triglochin concinna, Hypericum concinnum, Erigeron concinnus, Linanthus concinnus, Lupinus concinnus)
  • concinno'ides: same as previous entry? (ref. Carex concinnoides)
  • con'color: of the same color, as in the leaf surfaces (ref. Abies concolor, Calochortus concolor, Collinsia concolor, Downingia concolor)
  • Conda'lia: after Antonio Condal (1745-1804), a Spanish physician and botanist from Barcelona who explored in South America and was a member of Pehr Loefling's expedition of 1754-1756 up the Orinoco River. The genus Condalia was published in 1799 by Spanish taxonomist Antonio José Cavanilles (ref. genus Condalia)
  • Conde'a: David Hollombe provided the following: “The name goes back to  'Condaea frutescens, satureia foliis; flore albo,' a name given by Jean-Baptiste René Poupée-Desportes in an unpublished manuscript. Jussieu adapted this as 'Satureia condaea' not published by Jussieu, but both cited as a synonyms by Lamarck. If Poupée-Desportes explained the name in his manuscript, I don't know that anyone has quoted his etymology in any published work.” However Tropicos lists the name as having been authored by French botanist Michel Adanson in 1763, and the Jepson Manual’s etymology says: “Name used by Adanson without explanation.” David further stated that: “Poupe-Desportes died in 1748, before the 1753 foundation of the binomial system, so he is not credited as the author, but he was the first to use a form of the name for the type species of the genus.” The name Condea emoryi in the Lamiaceae was published by Raymond Mervyn Harley and J.F.B. Pastore in 2012 after the taxa was initially published as Hyptis emoryi by John Torrey. Other species of Condea are resident in Mexico. (ref. genus Condea)
  • condensa'ta/condensa'tus: crowded together, forming dense mats  (ref. Eremothera boothii ssp. condensata, Phlox condensata, Leymus condensatus)
  • confertiflor'a/confertiflor'um: with crowded flowers (ref. Ambrosia confertiflora, Arctostaphylos confertiflora, Cryptantha confertiflora, Mohavea confertiflora, Eriophyllum confertiflorum)
  • confertifo'lia: with crowded leaves (ref. Atriplex confertifolia)
  • confer'tus: crowded (ref. Lupinus lepidus var. confertus)
  • confin'is: related (ref. Poa confinis, Solidago confinis)
  • confu'sa/confu'sus: uncertain, might be taken for another species (ref. Arenaria confusa, Camissoniopsis confusa, Penstemon confusus)
  • cong'donii: after Joseph Whipple Congdon (1834-1919), American lawyer and botanist who moved to California from Rhode Island in 1880. In addition to collecting in California, he was well known in Europe for his work, and a collection of plants he made there and in the East was presented to Stanford University. At the time of his death he had a herbarium of about 10,000 specimens (ref. Eriophyllum congdonii, Garrya congdonii, Lembertia congdonii, Lomatium congdonii, Mimulus congdonii)
  • cong'donis: see previous entry (ref. Horkeliella congdonis)
  • conges'ta/conges'tum/conges'tus: arranged very closely together, very crowded (ref. Ipomopsis congesta, Mentzelia congesta, Plectritis congesta, Hemitomes congestum, Juncus bufonius var. congestus)
  • conglomera'tus: crowded together, conglomerate (ref. Rumex conglomeratus)
  • Conico'sia: from the Greek konicos, which means "cone-shaped or conical" (ref. genus Conicosia)
  • coniflor'a: with flowers like cones (?) (ref. Silene coniflora)
  • con'jugens: joined, united (ref. Hemizonia conjugens, Lasthenia conjugens)
  • conjugia'lis: joined in pairs, wedded, from the Latin conjugatus, "united" (ref. Lonicera conjugialis)
  • coniflor'a: with cone-shaped flowers (ref. Silene coniflora)
  • Conioselin'um: a name derived by combining the generic names Conium and Selinum (ref. genus Conioselinum)
  • Co'nium: derived from the ancient Greek name coneion for hemlock (ref. genus Conium)
  • conna'ta/conna'tus: united, having opposite leaves joined together at their base (ref. Crassula connata, Penstemon clevelandii var. connatus)
  • conoi'dea: cone-like (ref. Silene conoidea)
  • Conrin'gia: named after Hermann Conring (1606-1681), a German polymath, journalist, jurist, antiquary,
      professor and noted intellectual at the University of Helmstedt, Germany, whose primary disciplines were physics and medicine, who was one of the first of the early German political scientists who used the term "statistics" (although they meant it in the sense of the study of states), who lectured on the political constitutions of states and was considered the founding father of the history of German law, and whose historical critique of Roman law helped emancipate Germany from its medieval past. He was also physician to Queen Christina of Sweden. Conring was the
    author of New Discourse on the Roman-German Emperor. The genus Conringia was published in 1759 by Philipp Conrad Fabricius (ref. genus Conringia)
  • consanguin'ea: related (ref. Baccharis pilularis ssp. consanguinea)
  • Consol'ida/consol'idus: solid, stable, from the Latin consolido, "to make firm" (ref. genus Consolida)
  • conspe'rsus: scattered
  • conspic'uum: conspicuous (ref. Allium obtusum var. conspicuum)
  • Constancea: see following entry (ref. genus Constancea)
  • constan'cei: after Lincoln Constance (1909-2001), patriarch of botany at Berkeley. The following is quoted
      from a UC Berkeley press release 6/15/2001: "Lincoln Constance, a much respected botanist and administrative leader at the University of California, Berkeley, died of respiratory failure after a brief illness on Monday, June 11, at Alta Bates Medical Center in Berkeley. He was 92. Constance was professor emeritus of botany and an expert on plants of the parsley family - the Umbelliferae, an economically important group that includes carrots, parsley, fennel and poison hemlock. During his six-decade career, he served as director of UC Berkeley's University Herbarium and as
    president of the California Academy of Sciences. Just as important were his years as an administrator at UC Berkeley. He held the post of dean of the College of Letters & Science - UC Berkeley's largest college - from 1955 to 1962, and served as vice chancellor for academic affairs from 1962 to 1965. His tenure as vice chancellor coincided with the turbulent free speech years. He served as acting chancellor at various times, including a brief period before Roger Heyns became chancellor in 1965. He retired in 1976. 'Lincoln was the patriarch of botany at UC Berkeley,' said Brent Mishler, professor of integrative biology and current director of the University and Jepson Herbaria. 'He was immensely influential in shaping the modern history of the university and of systematic botany on a worldwide level. In addition to his numerous professional accomplishments, Lincoln was a true gentleman and an exceptionally generous colleague, mentor and friend.' Clark Kerr, who was UC Berkeley's first chancellor from 1952 until 1958, recalled in 1988 that Constance was one of the faculty responsible for bolstering UC Berkeley's academic reputation. As a member of the campus budget committee and later dean, he bore much of the responsibility for weeding out unproductive or ineffective members of the faculty and hiring academics who were strong both in teaching and research. By 1964, a national study placed all UC Berkeley departments surveyed in the top six nationwide and called the campus 'the best balanced distinguished university' in the country. Because of the pivotal role Constance played, Kerr presented him in 1988 with the Clark Kerr Award, an honor given yearly by the Academic Senate. Paul Licht, current dean of the biological sciences at UC Berkeley, remembers him as very dedicated, to the point of helping keep the campus clean. 'He would never pass a piece of trash without picking it up and throwing it in a trash bin,' Licht said. 'He deeply cared about every aspect of the campus that he loved so much.' Born in Eugene, Oregon, on Feb. 16, 1909, Constance graduated from the University of Oregon in 1930 and entered UC Berkeley as a graduate student in botany. He studied under Willis Linn Jepson, the author of the first systematic survey of California plants. After obtaining his PhD in botany in 1934, Constance spent three years at Washington State College (now Washington State University) as director of their herbarium before returning to UC Berkeley as an assistant professor in 1937. He subsequently became curator of seed plants in the University Herbarium, then chair of the department of botany from 1954 to 1955, and finally director of the University Herbarium for 12 years, from 1963 to 1975. He was trustee of the Jepson Herbarium, founded in 1950 for the study and collection of California flora, from 1960 until his death, and helped oversee the editing of a new edition of Jepson's 1925 Manual of the Flowering Plants of California, which was published in 1993 as The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. During World War II, he left to become a geobotanist and eventually a research analyst at the Office of Strategic Services in Washington. During his career, he contributed as a parsley family expert to numerous plant manuals, including compendia of the plants of Nevada, Arizona, Texas, Panama, Venezuela and Peru. Many of these contributions were in collaboration with long-time colleague Mildred E. Mathias, late professor emeritus of botany at UCLA. Constance applied to the parsley family a new way of classification called biosystematics, which takes account of all characteristics of a plant, from habitat to chromosome number, in determining relationships. 'He made modern sense out of a very diverse and complicated group,' the Umbelliferae or Apiaceae, Mishler said. 'He was one of the top plant systematists of his generation.' In 1986, he received the Asa Gray Award of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists for 'outstanding contributions to systematic botany.' He remained active after his retirement, among other things chairing for 23 years, until 1998, the Academic Senate's Committee on Memorial Resolutions, which compiles memoria for deceased faculty. Constance was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the California Academy of Sciences, and a foreign member of the Linnaen Society of London and the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. He served as president of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the California Botanical Society and the Botanical Society of America. He is survived by his son, William, of Berkeley and a niece, Nancy Constance Doornink, of Springfield, Ore. His wife, Sara (Sally) Luten Constance of Oregon, died in 1991." (ref. Arabis constancei, Eryngium constancei, Lupinus constancei)
  • constric'tus: constricted, drawn together, contracted (ref. Mimulus constrictus)
  • contig'uum: near together close enough to touch each other, or closely related (ref. Eriogonum contiguum)
  • continenta'lis/continen'tis: continental, widespread (ref. Phacelia insularis var. continentis)
  • contor'ta/contor'tus: twisted (ref. Epilobium contorta, Pinus contorta, Heteropogon contortus)
  • contra-/contro-: Latin prefix meaning against
  • contrac'ta/contrac'tus: drawn together, contracted (ref. Eriochloa contracta, Sporobolus contractus)
  • convallario'ides: resembling genus Convallaria, lily-of-the-valley, from the Latin convallis, "a valley" (ref. Listera convallarioides)
  • convolvula'ceum: twining (ref. Heliotropium convolvulaceum)
  • Convol'vulus: from the Latin convolvere, "to twine around" (ref. genus Convolvulus and family Convolvulaceae, also Polygonum convolvulus)
  • Cony'za: derived from the Greek word for flea konops, and used by Pliny as a name for some kind of a fleabane (ref. genus Conyza)
  • cook'ei: after William Bridge Cooke (1908-1991), naturalist, major mycologist and prolific author on fungi.
      He received a B.S. in botany from the University of Cincinnati in 1932, an M.S. in 1939 from Oregon State University, and a Ph.D. from Washington State University in 1950. Among his works were The Fungi of our Mouldy Earth (1986), The Ecology of the Fungi (1958), Fungi of Mt. Shasta (1955), and On the Flora of the Cascade Mountains (1962). He donated more than 2100 mushroom collections to the U.C. Berkeley herbarium, more than any other collector. Among his works were The Fungi of our Mouldy Earth (1986), The Ecology of the Fungi (1958), Fungi of
    Mt. Shasta (1955), and On the Flora of the Cascade Mountains (1962). The article about him on the MykoWeb site by Elsa Vellinga adds: "In his ‘real life,’ Cooke worked as a mycologist for the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, part of the U.S. Public Health Service in Cincinnati, and studied fungi in polluted water and sewage until his retirement in 1969." In addition to the five books, he wrote 192 articles. His name is also on Phacelia cookei, a taxon published in 1970 by Lincoln Constance and Lawrence Ray Heckard, and on Glyceria cookei published by Jason Richard Swallen in 1941 (Photo credit: MykoWeb) (ref. Phacelia cookei)
  • cook'ii: after Fred Lucien Cook (1921-1971) who helped Robert Hoover explore the area where this plant was found. Originally from Tennessee, his family settled in Atascadero where he eventually died (ref. Triteleia ixioides ssp. cookii)
  • cool'eyae: after Grace Emily Cooley (1857-1916), American botanist, author of Impressions of Alaska: with a List of Plants Collected in Alaska and Nanaimo, B.C. (1892). Along with James M. Macoun of the Canadian Geological Survey (1902) she made important early collections of vascular plants and lichens. The following is quoted from Ladies in the Laboratory?: American and British Women in Science 1800-1900, by Mary R. S. Creese: "Grace Cooley taught in the botany department at Wellesley for twenty-one years. She was born in East Hartford, Connecticut, on 26 July 1857. In 1881, at the age of twenty-four, after several years of high school teaching in New Jersey and New York, she enrolled at Wellesley. Although she did not immediately proceed to a degree, she nevertheless held the position of instructor from 1883 to 1896. She carried out summer research at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory, and in 1893 took an A.M. at Brown University, Rhode Island. Among her publications from this period is a detailed account of the flora of southeastern Alaska, which appeared in the 1892 Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Still a paper of general interest, it reported a trip she and Clara Cummings had taken by coastal freighter along the Alaska panhandle the preceding summer. In the alpine meadows above Juneau, Cooley discovered a new species of buttercup that now bears her name, Ranunclus cooleyae. In 1894, following a period of research at the Naples Zoological Station and some time at the University of Zurich, she received a Zurich Ph.D. Her dissertation research on the cellulose content of seeds appeared in the Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History (1895). Although she became associate professor at Wellesley in 1896, she was not promoted further, possibly because she failed to publish again until 1904, when she brought out two papers on the growing of trees. She was especially active on the Missionary Committee of Wellesley's Christian Association. In 1904, at the age of forty-seven, she returned to New Jersey, where her teaching career had begun more than twenty-five years earlier. For eleven more years she taught biology in Newark high schools. The welfare of women schoolteachers was her particular concern, and she took a leading part in the formation of the Association of Women Teachers of the Newark High Schools, serving as the organization's first president. She died in Newark, 27 January 1916, at age fifty-eight." (ref. Stachys cooleyae)
  • coo'perae: after Sarah Paxson Moore, aka Mrs. Ellwood Cooper (1824-1908), botanist and plant collector near Santa Barbara. The Santa Barbara Morning Press of 14 March 1908 reported: “Mrs. Ellwood Cooper Dies; End of Busy, Helpful career. In the passing of Mrs. Ellwood Cooper, earth has lost one of its sweetest flowers. Few could have been more beloved than was this cultivated, noble woman whose life was filled with good works. Surrounded by her family she passed peacefully away, after a long illness, the end coming as a result of heart disease. Mrs. Cooper was born in Pennsylvania and was married in Philadelphia, both she and her husband being members of the Society of Friends, or Quakers. The Coopers went to the West Indies, where they lived ten years and Mr. Cooper amassed a large fortune. They lived five years in Brooklyn and came to Santa Barbara in 1870, being attracted here by the splendid climatic conditions. Mrs. Cooper was always interested in the development of education and soon after their arrival here Mr. and Mrs. Cooper established a n institution of learning of a high order. This school was known as “The College.” The faculty was composed of a number of educators who afterwards distinguished themselves as teachers at various universities. The Coopers’ three children, their son Henry and their daughter Fanny, who have made their home with their parents, and their daughter Helen, now Mrs. Baxley, the wife of I. R. Baxley of Montecito, received part of their education at this institution. Mr. Cooper purchased the beautiful ranch at Elwood and was the first manufacturer of olive oil in this state. Although Mrs. Cooper always took a deep interest in things educational and did much to further them in this city, she was more widely known for her knowledge of plants and helped to collect for the flora of this state. She was well known by most of the botanists in the United States. She had a very large circle of warm friends in this city, among whom she was a social leader, although, owing to ill health, she had led a very quiet life lately.” The book The Gardener's Monthly And Horticulturist V20 by Thomas Meehan states that: "Mr. Ellwood Cooper, brought up in Lancaster county, Pa., after making a fortune in the West India trade, went to Santa Barbara, California, and settled down to the cultivation of a large ranch - 4,000 olive trees, 4,000 English walnuts, 12,500 almond trees, and 50,000 eucalyptus trees constitute a portion of the orchards and forest he has set out. Appreciating the importance of growing large quantities of trees and the especial value of the Eucalyptus, he opened an intercourse with Baron Ferd. Von Muller, Director Botanic Gardens of Melbourne, and received numerous pamphlets of the Baron's writing on Eucalyptus. These he has collected and edited, with matter of his writing, making an important contribution to our works on forest culture." He was also the superintendent of Santa Barbara College and may be more than anyone else responsible for the great number of blue gum eucalyptuses that populate so many of our neighborhoods. Virtual American Biographies on the Virtuology website says: "He was educated in Harmony, after which he engaged in business in Port au Prince, W. I., and later in New York. About 1870 he removed to southern California and settled in Santa Barbara, where he has devoted his attention principally to the cultivation of fruits. On his farm are produced olives, grapes, English walnuts, and European almonds, in crops far exceeding those of the older countries; also oranges, lemons, Japanese persimmons, and other similar fruits. Mr. Cooper was the first in the United States to manufacture olive-oil and put it on the market. In connection with this industry he has invented various forms of machinery for use in the oil-works, and also a machine for hulling English walnuts, grading them as to size and washing them, thus not only effecting a great saving of labor, but making them more satisfactory for sale than can be done by hand. He has been president of the board of directors of Santa Barbara College, for three years was principal of the College, and is now (1886) president of the California state board of horticulture. He has published " Statistics of Trade with Hayti" (New York, 1868); "Forest Culture and Eucalyptus Trees" (San Francisco, 1876); and "A Treatise on Olive Culture" (1882)." His name is also on the large Ellwood oil field, the onshore portion of which was abandoned in 1972, and which is currently still producing oil from at least one offshore oil platform. He died in 1918 (ref. Cheilanthes cooperae)
  • coo'peri: named after Dr. James Graham Cooper (1830-1902), geologist of the Geological Survey of California,
      who collected plants in the Mojave Desert in 1861. He was the son of William Cooper, who was one of the founders of the New York City Museum of Natural History, a friend of John James Audubon, the first American member of the Zoological Society of London, and the person for whom the Cooper's hawk was named. James Graham Cooper graduated from the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1851. He was credited with writing the first book on the birds of California, published in 1870, and made the first published report on the elf owl,
    Micrathene whitneyi, in 1861. In 1863, he described the desert tortoise and named it Gopherus agassizii for Louis Agassiz, to honor him for his work on North American turtles. Cooper published on botany, conchology, ornithology, mammalogy, and paleontology, and with George Suckley was co-author of The Natural History of Washington Territory (1860). "Born and educated in New York City, James G. Cooper (1830-1902) was a naturalist and physician with Isaac Stevens' Pacific Railroad Survey expedition of 1853. One of the first to collect specimens in the Pacific Coast regions, he became an expert on the geological, biological, and zoological aspects of that area. He published material on the natural history of California and Oregon and wrote a chapter on zoology for Natural Wealth of California, edited by T. F. Cronise. After travelling extensively [Oregon and Washington Territories, California, Panama and Cape Hatteras], he practiced medicine and lived in California until his death in 1902. The Cooper Ornithological Society was named in his honor." (Quoted from Smithsonian Institution Archives) (ref. Achyronychia cooperi, Adenophyllum cooperi, Caulanthus cooperi, Ericameria [formerly Haplopappus] cooperi, Hymenoxys cooperi, Lycium cooperi, Orobanche cooperi, Piperia cooperi, Psilostrophe cooperi)
  • cope'landii: after botanist Dr. Edwin Bingham Copeland (1873-1964). He was born in Monroe, Wisconsin,
      30 Sep. 1873, died Chico, California, 1964. [His father was a zoologist and no doubt influenced his early interest in the natural sciences. He did three years of undergraduate work at the University of Wisconsin and then] ... was a graduate of Stanford University with the pioneer class of 1895; botanist of the U. S. Philippine Commission, 1903; Curator of Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley, 1928-32; world authority on ferns and author of Genera Filicum, the Genera of Ferns (1947) (from Cantelow and Cantelow, "Biographical Notes on Persons in Whose Honor
    Alice Eastwood Named Native Plants" in Leaflets of Western Botany, 1957). "A well-known pteridologist who got his education at Stanford University and in Germany, taking his Ph.D degree at Halle in 1896; appointed in the Philippines late 1903; Dean [and Professor of Plant Physiology for eight years of the institution he founded which is now known as the University of the Philippines College of Agriculture at Los Baños, Laguna.]; Professor, University of California, 1928-32; Technical Adviser, Dept of Agriculture and Nat. Resources, Manila, and Director of the Nation. Economic Garden, Los Baños, 1932-35. He wrote A Fern Flora of the Philippines in 3 volumes (1958-60)." (from National Herbarium Nederland). He was a tremendously prolific writer and was the author of numerous papers on pteridophytes, plant pathology and agricultural botany. Earlier in his career he was also a botany professor at the University of Indiana, the State Normal School at Chico, California, and the University of West Virginia. Copeland's personal herbarium was sold to the University of Michigan (ref. Orthocarpus cuspidatus ssp. copelandii)
  • Copros'ma: from the Greek kopros, "dung," and osme, "a smell," alluding to the fetid smell (ref. genus Coprosma)
  • Cop'tis: from the Greek kopto, "to cut," in reference to the deeply-incised leaves (ref. genus Coptis)
  • corallin'us: coral-red
  • Corallorhi'za: from the Greek korallion, "coral," and rhiza, "root," thus meaning having coral-red roots (ref. genus Corallorhiza)
  • corda'ta/corda'tus: heart-shaped (ref. Acanthomintha obovata ssp. cordata, Streptanthus cordatus)
  • cordifo'lia: in Latin means with "heart-shaped leaves" (ref. Aptenia cordifolia, Arnica cordifolia, Keckiella cordifolia)
  • cordula'tus: from the Greek cordul, "a club or swelling," thus meaning shaped like or appearing like that, of uncertain application (ref. Ceanothus cordulatus)
  • Cordylan'thus: from two Greek words cordule, "club," and anthos, "flower" (ref. genus Cordylanthus)
  • Cordyl'ine: from the Greek cordyle, "a club" (ref. genus Cordyline)
  • co're-co're: uncertain, but possibilities here are the Greek koris, “a bed-bug,” kore, “a maiden or girl, doll or puppet,” koris, “a kind of St. John’s wort,” and kore, “a pupil of the eye” (ref. Geranium core-core)
  • Coreop'sis: from the Greek koris, "a bug," and -opsis, indicating a resemblance, therefore meaning bug-like, referring to the achenes which look like ticks (ref. genus Coreopsis)
  • Corethro'gyne: derived from the Greek korethron meaning "a brush for sweeping" and gune, "style," and referring to the brush-like style tips (ref. genus Corethrogyne)
  • coria'cea: from the Latin corium, "leather," and the -acea suffix indicating resemblance, thus "resembling leather, leathery" (ref. Lastarriaea coriacea)
  • Corian'drum: originally from the Greek koriandron, "coriander," a name used by Pliny, and derived from koros, "a bug," in reference to the foetid smell of the leaves (ref. genus Coriandrum)
  • coridifo'lium: with leathery leaves
  • Corisper'mum: (1) Munz says from the Greek coris, "a bedbug," and sperma, "seed" (2) Jepson says, I believe correctly, from the root cori, "leather or leathery," and sperma, "seed," thus "leathery-seeded (ref. genus Corispermum)
  • cornel'ius-mul'leri: after Cornelius (‘Neil’) Herman Muller (originally Müller or Mueller) (1909-1997), a professor
      of botany at UC Santa Barbara, whose major fields were ecology, taxonomy and botanical history. In addition to the California oak Quercus cornelius-mulleri, he had a second oak named for him, a Mexican species, Q. mulleri. The following is quoted or paraphrased from the JSTOR entry on Muller: He grew up in Texas and received his training in botany at the University of Texas, Austin (B.A. 1932, M.A. 1933) and the University of Illinois, Urbana (Ph.D. 1938). He first worked as an assistant botanist for the United States Department of
    Agriculture. He joined the faculty of Santa Barbara College in 1945 as an Assistant Professor of Science, then Assistant Professor of Botany in 1948, Associate Professor of Botany in 1950, full Professor in 1956 and Acting Dean of the Graduate Division (1961-1962). He was one of the first scientists to be involved in the Institute for Tropical Biology in San Jose, Costa Rica (1961-1962). His wife Katherine became director of the Santa Barbara Botanical Garden (1951-1974). As a plant taxonomist, C.H. Muller was a specialist on American oaks, Quercus and published on the genus in Southwestern United States and Mexico, travelling to remote areas on horseback. Plant collections used for his research and to aid teaching plant taxonomy became the founding collections of the UCSB herbarium. His research increasingly concentrated on ecological observations including vegetation dynamics, plant interactions and his classic studies of chemical interactions or allelopathy. He published extensively on both desert and arctic ecosystems, providing his own interpretation of vegetation climaxes, and demonstrated the importance of hybridisation in the systematics of American oaks. In 1975 he was awarded the Eminent Ecologist Award, the highest honour of the Ecological Society of America. He became and Emeritus Professor in 1976 (ref. Quercus cornelius-mulleri) (Photo credit: Herbarium of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium)
  • cornicula'ta/cornicula'tus: horned (ref. Oxalis corniculata, Lotus corniculatus)
  • Cor'nus: a Latin name for dogwood (ref. genus Cornus)
  • cornu'ta: bearing horns or spurs, usually the flowers (ref. Polygala cornuta var. fishiae)
  • corolla'ta: like a corolla (ref. Cryptantha corollata)
  • coronar'ia/coronar'ium: used for or belonging to garlands (ref. Glebionis coronaria, Lasthenia coronaria, Lychnis coronaria, Stephanomeria exigua ssp. coronaria)
  • corona'ta/corona'tum: crowned (ref. Atriplex coronata, Muilla coronata, Stipa coronata)
  • coronen'sis: the 'ensis' ending suggests that this is most likely a geographical reference. The type description includes the following: "The new variety is named for the type locality near the Rams Horn Spring campground, the Latin corona being one possible translation of 'horn.' " The Nevada Natural Heritage website lists the common name of this taxon as the Rams Horn Springs milkvetch, while other sources call it the Modoc Plateau milkvetch. I can find nothing that relates the word corona with 'horn,' which in Latin is cornu, the word corona typically being translated as 'crown.' Latin authorities I have consulted agree that there is no possibility that the two words could be used interchangeably. The taxon author, Stanley L. Welch, very kindly responded to my query by saying that "the name coronensis on page 408 [of Stearns Botanical Latin 3rd Edition revised 1983], in some part indicates the crown achieved by presence of horns, in a metaphorical sense, that [are] seen occasionally by hunters hoping that the animal in their sights has, indeed, horns.  In other words, the animal should have been 'crowned,' and hence the name coronenisis (with apologies)." I wrote him back and suggested that the connection between 'horn' and 'crown' was a very thin basis for an epithet, and a subsequent communication added: "Since deer do not have horns, the reference to the locality is thin indeed, but the 'horns' do indeed 'crown' the head of male deer.  I chose that name on purpose, as a euphonious substitute for 'cornensis'." (ref. Astragalus pulsiferae var. coronensis)
  • Coronil'la: from Latin corona, "a crown," in reference to the flowers (ref. genus Coronilla)
  • coronopifo'lia: having leaves like those of Coronopus, a naturalized European member of the mustard family (ref. Cotula coronopifolia)
  • Corono'pus/corono'pus: from the Greek korone, "crown," and pous, "foot," from the deeply cleft leaves like the points of a crown (ref. genus Coronopus, also Chamaesaracha coronopus, Plantago coronopus)
  • corruga'ta: corrugated, wrinkled (ref. Chorizanthe corrugata, Draba corrugata var. corrugata)
  • Cortader'ia: from cortadera, a native Argentinian word meaning "cutting," because of the leaf margins (ref. genus Cortaderia)
  • Cory'dalis: from the Latin Corydalus and the ancient Greek korydalos or korydos for the crested or tufted lark, korys being "helmet or helm" (ref. genus Corydalis)
  • Cor'ylus: from the Greek korylos and the Latin corylus or corulus, "hazel, " and a Latin name for the hazelnut or filbert (ref. genus Corylus)
  • corymbo'sa: corymbose, that is, provided with corymbs, or flat-topped flower clusters in which the flower stalks emanate from different points on the stem (ref. Antennaria corymbosa, Argemone corymbosa, Collinsia corymbosa, Orobanche corymbosa)
  • corymboso'ides: having a corymbose form (ref. Eriogonum microthecum var. corymbosoides)
  • cory'phaeum: from the Greek koryphaios, "leading" (ref. Eriogonum pyrolifolium var. coryphaeum)
  • Coryphan'tha: from the Greek koryphe, "summit, hilltop, crown, apex," and anthos, "flower" (ref. genus Coryphantha)
  • Cos'mos: from the Greek kosmos, "ornament, decoration" (ref. genus Cosmos)
  • costafo'lia: from the Latin costa, "a rib," and folia, "leaves," thus "rib-leaved" (ref. Dudleya cymosa ssp. costafolia)
  • costa'ta: ribbed (ref. Cryptantha costata)
  • Cotoneas'ter: from the Latin for "quince-like," possibly from the leaf shape (ref. genus Cotoneaster)
  • Cot'ula: from the Greek kotule meaning "a small cup" and referring to a hollow at the base of the amplexicaule leaves (ref. genus Cotula, also Anthemis cotula)
  • cotulifo'lia: with leaves like genus Cotula (ref. Navarretia cotulifolia)
  • Cotyle'don: from the Greek cotule, "a cavity," from the cup-like leaves of some species (ref. genus Cotyledon, also Lewisia cotyledon)
  • coul'teri/coulteria'num: named after Dr. Thomas Coulter (1793-1843), the Irish botanist, physician, explorer and
      great friend of Dr. Romney Robinson (see Romneya), who was in California 1831-32. He studied botany in Switzerland under Augustin de Candolle, discovered the Colorado Desert, first collected the Matilija Poppy and other plants, and was the first botanist to collect in Arizona. He was a doctor in a Mexican mining camp for the Real del Monte Company and was one of the first to collect in Mexico. He collected with David Douglas in California in 1831-32, where he first described the pine that now bears his name. After returning home from the New World, he made a
    gift of 50,000 herbarium specimens to Trinity College in Dublin. He was a member of the Royal Irish Academy, and a Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, where he founded the college's herbarium of which he became the curator. E. Charles Nelson published a biography of him in 1994 called A Man Who Can Speak of Plants (ref. Atriplex coulteri, Boerhavia coulteri, Laennecia coulteri, Lyrocarpa coulteri, Malacothrix coulteri, Pinus coulteri, Romneya coulteri, Sphaeralcea coulteri, Antirrhinum coulterianum)
  • coul'teri: after John Merle Coulter (1851-1928). The following is quoted from the Virtual American Biographies
      website: "...botanist, born in Ningpo, China, 20 November, 1851. He was graduated at Hanover College, Indiana, in 1870, and during 1872-'3 was botanist to the United States geological survey of the territories in the Rocky mountain system. In 1874 he became professor of natural sciences in Hanover College, where he remained until 1879, when he was appointed to the chair of biology at Wabash. Prof. Coulter is editor of the "Botanical Gazette," published in Crawfordsville, Indiana, and is the author, in part, of "Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado" (Washington, 1874); "Manual of
    Rocky Mountain Botany" (New York, 1885); and in part of "HandBook of Plant Dissection" (New York, 1886) (ref. Atriplex coulteri, Caulanthus coulteri, Erigeron coulteri, Laennecia coulteri) (Photo credit: Wikisource)
  • coves'ii: after Elliot Coues (1842-1899), naturalist, army doctor and frontier historian, best known as the
      author of the pioneering Key to North American Birds, one of America's most renowned ornithologists and the co-founder and first President of the American Ornithological Union. Coues began his career as a surgeon in the U.S. Army, serving on the Union side during the Civil War. He had been greatly interested in ornithology since boyhood, after the War, he published several important monographs on the subject, including Key to North American Birds (1872), Birds of the Northwest (1874) and Birds of the Colorado Valley (1878). Although known primarily as an
    ornithologist, he described many of the species in the Southwest, which were then named for him. One of those species was the Coues White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi). Coues was a strong supporter for the rights of Native Americans and women. He is also famous for his role in the Sparrow War which broke out in 1874 between supporters and opponents of the House Sparrow which was becoming a huge pest in Eastern cities. In later years, he turned his attention to editing works on early travel in the West, including the celebrated History of the Expedition of Lewis and Clark (1893) and Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1895). During the 1880s, he became interested in psychical research. During a visit to Europe in 1884 he met Madame Blavatsky and became an ardent theosophist. He founded the Gnostic Branch of the Theosophical Society in Washington, D.C., and was elected president of the American Board of Control of the Theosophical Society. He was also active in the formation of the American Society for Psychical Research. He sought to become head of the American theosophical movement. However, in the late 1880s and early 1890s he broke with the movement, denounced the Theosophical Society, and was threatened with a libel suit by Madame Blavatsky. Blavatsky's death in 1891 brought an end to the suit. In 1899 he accompanied C. Hart Merriam on a two-month voyage on the steamship Elder along the Alaska coast which was funded entirely by Edward H. Harriman. On board were a noted group of scientists including zoologists, geologists, ornithologists, botanists, anthropologists and forestry experts interested in evaluating the health and vigor of the Alaska forests. The expedition collected numerous bird and plant species and made significant advances in the understanding of glaciers, and because Harriman wanted the widest possible dissemination of information regarding the expedition, he included two nature writers, two landscape painters, two photographers and a wildlife artist. The apparent discrepancy between the names Coves and Coues results from the fact that the Romans did not distinguish between 'u' and 'v,' thereby permitting authors when choosing Latin names to use either interchangeably. Some authors apparently had a distaste for long strings of vowels, so 'covesii' may have seemed preferable to 'couesii.' It is also possible that it was a deliberate Latinization of the name, and that just as Bigelow was Latinized to Bigelovius, thus producing 'bigelovii', Coues may have been Latinized to Covesius, thus producing 'covesii.' The referenced species of Senna is sometimes given the common name of Coves' senna and sometimes Coues' senna, although I have also seen Cove's senna, Coves's senna, and Coues's senna. Clearly Coves' and Cove's senna is an inappropriate name because his name was not Cove or Coves (ref. Senna [formerly Cassia] covesii)
  • covillea'na/covillea'num: see covillei below (ref. Cardamine nuttallii var. covilleana, Eriogonum covilleanum)
  • co'villei: after Dr. Frederick Vernon Coville (1867-1937), botanist on the Death Valley Expedition of 1890-91,
      first Director of the United States National Arboretum, chief botanist of the USDA and Honorary Curator of the National Herbarium 1893-1937. He was born in New York and matriculated at Cornell University where he received his B.A. in 1887. He briefly taught botany and then took a position with the USDA as assistant botanist for the Geological Survey of Arkansas in 1888. He remained with the Department of Agriculture for the rest of his life, and published around 170 papers and books. He took part in C. Hart Merriam and T. S. Palmer’s Death Valley Expedition
    and was the author of Botany of the Death Valley Expedition (1893). He was particularly interested in medicinal and desert plants and conducted in 1897-1898 the Medicinal Plants Survey. Wikipedia says: “Coville also participated in and wrote on the 1899 Harriman Alaska Expedition, although he never completed his Flora of Alaska. He was involved with the establishment of the Carnegie Institution's Desert Botanical Laboratory in 1903, the USDA Seed Laboratory, and spearheaded efforts that lead to the foundation of the United States National Arboretum in 1927. Coville was considered the American authority on Juncaceae and Grossulariaceae. After 1910 he began to work on blueberry, and was the first to discover the importance of soil acidity (blueberries need highly acidic soil), that blueberries do not self-pollinate, and the effects of cold on blueberries and other plant. In 1911, he began a program of research in conjunction with Elizabeth White, daughter of the owner of the extensive cranberry bogs at Whitesbog in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. His work doubled the size of some strains' fruit, and by 1916, he had succeeded in cultivating blueberries, making them a valuable crop in the Northeastern United States. For this work he received the George Roberts White Medal of Honor from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. In 1919, Coville played an instrumental role in drawing attention to the threatened state of the only known box huckleberry colony, sparking a revival of interest that led to the discovery of many new specimens of the plant. From 1920 to his death, he was chairman of the National Geographic Society' Research Committee and was very influential in deciding areas of exploration. At the time of his death he was working on a revision of Botany of the Death Valley Expedition as a flora of the Valley.” (ref. Abronia nana ssp. covillei, Amelanchier covillei, Atriplex covillei, Cheilanthes covillei, Enceliopsis covillei, Erigeron breweri var. covillei, Eschscholzia covillei, Juncus covillei, Lupinus covillei, Phlox covillei, Sidalcea covillei)
  • Cowan'ia: named after James Cowan (?-1823), a British amateur botanist (ref. genus Cowania)
  • crac'ca: from the Latin cracca, a name given to a vetch (ref. Vicia cracca)
  • crassicau'le/crassicau'lis: thick-stemmed (ref. Caulanthus crassicaulis, Sanicula crassicaulis)
  • crassifo'lia/crassifo'lium/crassifo'lius: thick-leaved (ref. Physalis crassifolia, Eriodictyon crassifolium, Ceanothus crassifolius, Lotus crassifolius)
  • crass'ipes: with a thick stalk (compare brevipes, planipes, gracilipes, filipes) (ref. Eichhornia crassipes)
  • Cras'sula: from the Latin crassus, "thick," referring to the fleshy leaves (ref. genus Crassula)
  • cras'sus: thick, fleshy (ref. Rumex crassus)
  • Cratae'gus: from an ancient Greek name for a flowering thorn used by Theophrastus (ref. genus Crataegus)
  • craterico'la: from the Greek krater, "a cup, the mouth of a volcano," and the -cola suffix indicating "dweller of" (ref. Allium cratericola)
  • cre'ber: from the Latin creber, "thickly clustered, close, frequent" (ref. Sporobolus creber)
  • crebrifo'lia: from the Latin creber, crebra, crebrum, "thick, crowded, frequent," thus meaning "with thickly clustered leaves" (ref. Dudleya cymosa ssp. crebrifolia)
  • crena'ta: with shallow, rounded teeth
  • crenatoserra'ta: meaning somewhere in between crenate and serrate. Originally written as crenato-serratus, the hyphen was dropped per rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ref. Pyracantha crenatoserrata)
  • Cre'pis: from the Greek krepis, "a sandal," and an ancient plant name (ref. genus Crepis)
  • Cres'sa: a reference to Kressa, a Cretan woman (ref. genus Cressa)
  • cret'ica/cret'icus: of or from Crete (ref. Hedypnois cretica, Lavatera cretica, Cistus creticus)
  • criniflor'um: with hair-like flowers or petals
  • crin'iger: from the Latin crinis, "hair," and thus meaning "having or bearing hairs" (ref. Eleocharis criniger)
  • crin'ita/crin'itum: long-haired, having long hair (ref. Arctostaphylos tomentosa ssp. crinita, Cryptantha crinita)
  • cris'pa/cris'pum/cris'pus: from Latin meaning "curled or wavy" in reference to the leaves (ref. Cryptogramma crispa, Herissantia crispa, Stellaria crispa, Allium crispum, Potamogeton crispus, Rumex crispus)
  • crispifo'lia: with wavy or curly leaves (ref. Malacothrix foliosa ssp. crispifolia)
  • crist'ae: a double meaning: (1) "in reference to the crests or narrow wings that nearly surround the achene" and (2) "the association of the taxon with the Pacific Crest Trail" (ref. Potentilla cristae)
  • crista'ta/crista'tum/crista'tus: crested or comb-like (ref. Anoda cristata, Agropyron cristatum, Cynosurus cristatus)
  • croca'tum: saffron yellow (ref. Eriogonum crocatum)
  • cro'cea: saffron-colored (ref. Bloomeria crocea, Malephora crocea, Rhamnus crocea)
  • Crocid'ium: from the Greek krokidion, diminutive of krokys or krokydos, "a flock or nap on woolen cloth, in turn from kroke or "thread," alluding to the hair in the leaf axils (ref. genus Crocidium)
  • Crocos'mia: from the Greek crocus, "saffron," and osme, "smell," because of the smell of the dried flowers in warm water (ref. genus Crocosmia)
  • crocosmiiflor'a: with flowers like Crocosmia (ref. Crocosmia Xcrocosmiiflora)
  • cros'byae: after Virginia Lee Crosby Pyles (1950- ) who graduated in botany from Oregon State University where a number of her specimens are in the herbarium, and the worked for the Bureau of Land Management and moved to Colorado (ref. Eriogonum crosbyae)
  • Crossoso'ma: from the Greek krossoi, "fringe," and soma, "body," because of the aril, which is an extra seed covering (ref. genus Crossosoma)
  • crotalar'iae: from the Greek krotalon, "a rattle or clapper," with reference to the rattling seeds in the inflated pods, this is one of the species of Astragalus that are often called rattleweed (ref. Astragalus crotalariae)
  • Cro'ton: from the Greek word kroton meaning "a tick" because of the way the seeds look in some members of the family (ref. genus Croton)
  • Crucianel'la: from the Latin crux, "a cross," and the diminutive ending, and according to Umberto Quattrocchi, "referring to the leaves, crosswise, or to the corolla lobes" (ref. genus Crucianella)
  • crucia'ta: in the form of a cross (ref. Draba cruciata)
  • crucifor'mis: in the shape of a cross (ref. Camissonia claviformis ssp. cruciformis)
  • cruen'tum/cruen'tus: blood red (ref. Ribes roezlii var. cruentum, Amaranthus cruentus)
  • Crupi'na: I can't find anything about this name except the note in the Jepson Manual that it is an ancient Latin name (ref. genus Crupina)
  • crus-gal'li: from the Latin crus, "the leg or thigh," and gallus, "a cock," this specific epithet is supposed to mean "cock's spur" (ref. Echinochloa crus-galli)
  • crus-pavon'is: from crus, "leg or thigh," and pavonis, "peacock," see previous entry (ref. Echinochloa crus-pavonis)
  • crusta'cea: having a shell or rind (ref. Arctostaphylos tomentosa ssp. crustacea)
  • crux-mal'tae: name refers to a Maltese cross (ref. Tripterocalyx crux-maltae)
  • cruzen'sis: presumably named for the Arroyo de la Cruz Creek and/or Arroyo de la Cruz Lagoon in San Luis Obispo County (ref. Arctostaphylos cruzensis
  • crymo'phila: from the Greek krymos, "frost, cold, ice," and the suffix -phila which means "loving," this species is called subalpine cryptantha, so it likes cold, icy environments (ref. Cryptantha crymophila)
  • Cryp'sis: from the Greek krypsis, "hiding, suppression, concealment," from the partly hidden inflorescence (ref. genus Crypsis)
  • cryptan'drus: with hidden anthers (ref. Sporobolus cryptandrus)
  • Cryptan'tha: from the Greek krypto, "to hide, hidden," and anthos, "flower," and thus meaning "hidden flower," a reference to the first known species which had small inconspicuous flowers which self-fertilized without opening (ref. genus Cryptantha, also species Phacelia cryptantha)
  • cryptocer'as: from cryptos, "hidden," and keras, "horn or antlers" (ref. Asclepias cryptoceras)
  • Cryptogram'ma: from the Greek cryptos, "hidden," and gramme, "line," perhaps because of the concealed or protected lines of sori (ref. genus Cryptogramma)
  • cryptopleur'a: from the Greek cryptos, "hidden," and pleuron, "side, rib, lateral" (ref. Agoseris heterophylla var. cryptopleura)
  • crystallin'um: crystalline, referring to the many ice-like bubbles on the herbage (ref. Mesembryanthemum crystallinum)
  • cuben'se: of or from Cuba (ref. Teucrium cubense)
  • cucullar'ia: hood-like
  • Cucu'mis: from the Greek kykyon, "cucumber" (ref. genus Cucumis)
  • Cucur'bita: a Latin name for the gourd (ref. genus Cucurbita)
  • culbertson'ii: after James Downer Culbertson (1879-1954). David Hollombe has provided the following information: "He was born in Superior, Nebraska, earned a B. A. at Pomona College in the early 1900's, made collections in the southern Sierra Nevada (mostly Tulare County) in 1904 and in Alaska in 1905. He worked most of his life as assistant manager, foreman and manager for the Limoneira Company lemon ranch in Santa Paula." And from the LA Times, "Culbertson collected plants for Charles Fuller Baker. When he collected in the southern Sierra Nevada in 1904 he travelled with Ed. R. Milliken and Ernest M. Johnstone, who apparently were collecting geological specimens for Baker" (ref. Lupinus lepidus var. culbertsonii)
  • culinar'is: culinary, from the Latin culina, "kitchen, food" (ref. Lens culinaris)
  • -cula/-culum/-culus: a Latin suffix used as a diminutive for adjectives or nouns, e.g. arbuscula, "like a small tree," minuscula, "somewhat small," brevicula, "somewhat short," Dracunculus, "small dragon," Cardunculus, "small thistle," Ranunculus, "little frog"
  • cultrifor'mis: shaped like a knife blade (Acacia cultriformis)
  • -cundus: a Latin adjectival suffix intended to impart a sense of aptitude or constant tendency (e.g. verecundus, "bashful, modest," from verecundia, "modesty, shyness"; fecundus, "fecund, fertile," from fecundare, "to fertilize")
  • cuneifo'lia: with leaves tapered to the base (ref. Draba cuneifolia)
  • Cuniculoti'nus: Flora of North America gives the derivation of this as from the Latin cuniculus, "rabbit," and tinus, "shrub" (ref. genus Cuniculotinus)
  • cupania'na: see next entry (ref. Medicago lupulina var. cupaniana)
  • Cupaniop'sis: resembling the genus Cupania, which was named after the Sicilian botanist and Franciscan monk
      Francesco Cupani (1657-1710), an author of books on Sicilian plants. Born in Messina, he undertook medical studies and then pursued a religious vocation, studying philosophy and theology to take a degree in these disciplines and teach courses at Palermo and Verona and elsewhere in Italy. He soon however shifted his main focus to the natural sciences and in particular botany. He was a pupil of another botanist who already had a high reputation, Paulo ‘Silvio’ Boccone, author of Museo di piante rare, and the two became great friends. Boccone was already
    a systematist of note and his influence on Cupani was such that some of the classifications in Boccone’s work prefigured the binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus. Cupani became the first Director of the botanic garden at Misilmeri and established contacts with such highly regarded naturalists as Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Caspar Commelin, William Sherard, James Petiver, Johann Georg Volckamer, Felice Viali and Giovanni Battista Triumfetti. Among his works were the Catalogus plantarum sicularum Noviter adinventarum (1692), Syllabus plantarum Siciliae (1694) and Pamphyton siculum (1713), but the work that made him most famous was the Hortus Catholicus (1696) which was dedicated to the Duke of Misilmeri and included illustrations of the plants present in the botanical garden there. He travelled all over Sicily collecting botanical, mineral and fossil specimens and also included in the garden plants from other parts of the world. He died on 19 January 1710. The genus Cupaniopsis was published by the Bavarian taxonomist Ludwig Adolph Timotheus Radlkofer in 1879 (ref. genus Cupaniopsis)
  • cu'preus: having a coppery color (ref. Lotus oblongifolius var. cupreus)
  • Cupres'sus: the Latin name for the Italian cypress tree Cupressus sempervirens (ref. genus Cupressus)
  • cupula'ta/cupula'tum/cupula'tus: cup-shaped (ref. Eriogonum marifolium var. cupulatum, Myosurus cupulatus)
  • curassavi'ca/curassavi'cum: the -ica suffix indicates that this is a place name from Curacao, an island in the Dutch West Indies where one of the first collections was made (ref. Asclepias curassavica, Heliotropium curassavicum)
  • curtipen'dula: seemingly derived from the Latin curtus, "short, shortened, mutilated," and pendulus, "hanging down or doubtful, uncertain," because of the hanging spikelets (ref. Bouteloua curtipendula)
  • cur'tipes: with shortened 'feet' or stalks (ref. Astragalus curtipes)
  • cur'tum: shortened (ref. Polystichum imbricans ssp. curtum)
  • curvicar'pus: with curved fruit (ref. Astragalus curvicarpus)
  • cur'vipes: with curved 'feet or stalks' (ref. Phacelia curvipes, Thysanocarpus curvipes)
  • curvisili'qua: from curvi for "curved" and siliqua, "a narrow many-seeded capsule of the family Brassicaceae" (ref. Rorippa curvisiliqua)
  • curvispi'na: with curved spines (ref. Opuntia curvispina)
  • cur'vula: from the Latin curvus, "bent, crooked" and the suffix -ula which is a diminutive, so this might mean something like "slightly bent or crooked," referring to the curved leaf blades (ref. Eragrostis curvula)
  • Cuscu'ta: a name of Arabic derivation meaning "dodder" (ref. genus Cuscuta)
  • Cusickiel'la: see cusickii below (ref. genus Cusickiella)
  • cusick'ii: after William Conklin Cusick (1842-1922), a teacher, rancher and plant collector in Oregon. He was
      born in Illinois and moved to Oregon while still a youth. He began botanical collecting and distribution sometime in the 1870s, encouraged by Harvard’s Asa Gray. Most of his plants came from the area of the Wallowa and Blue Mountains. He was profoundly interested in botany, and especially in mountain plants. His collection forms a substantial part of the herbarium collection of the Marion Ownbey Herbarium. In 1913 he sold the bulk of his original collection to Oregon State University, and it is his second major set of collections, which centered on the Wallowa and Blue
    Mountains, which resides in the Marion Ownbey Herbarium. Encouraged by Charles Vancouver Piper, Cusick’s second herbarium project included extensive and exhaustive botanical surveys of the area in the two mountain ranges (Wallowa and Blue Mountains). Unlike his earlier efforts, this second phase did not include large distributions of plants (ref. Plagiobothrys cusickii, Poa cusickii) (Photo credit: Oregon Encyclopedia)
  • cuspida'ta/cuspida'tum/cuspida'tus: tipped with a firm point, usually the leaves (ref. Downingia cuspidata, Frangula californica ssp. cuspidata, Polygonum cuspidatum, Orthocarpus cuspidatus)
  • cuyama'cae: of or from the area of Lake Cuyamaca (ref. Delphinium hesperium ssp. cuyamacae)
  • cuyamen'sis: of or from the Cuyama Valley in Santa Barbara County. The name "Cuyama" comes from an Indian village named for the Chumash word kuyam, meaning "clam" or "freshwater mollusk" (ref. Gilia latiflora ssp. cuyamensis)
  • cyan'eus: blue (ref. Ceanothus cyaneus)
  • cyanocar'pum: blue-fruited (ref. Arceuthobium cyanocarpum)
  • cyan'us: from the Greek kyanos, old name of some dark blue substance or lapis-lazuli (ref. Centaurea cyanus)
  • cyathif'erum: there is a Greek root, kyatheion, meaning "a little cup," so this could mean "bearing some cup-like structure." The involucre for this taxon is described in the Jepson Manual as bowl-shaped (ref. Trifolium cyathiferum)
  • Cycladen'ia: from the Greek kyklos, "ring or circle," and aden, "a gland," referring to the annular disk (ref. genus Cycladenia)
  • Cyclolo'ma: from the Greek cyclos or kyklos, "a ring or circle," and loma, referring to the calyx-wing, so "circular wing" (ref. genus Cycloloma)
  • cy'clops: gigantic, like the mythological Cyclops (ref. Acacia cyclops)
  • cyclop'tera: from Greek kyklos, "circle, ring," and pteron, "wing," and alluding to the fact that the wing of the fruit (a nutlet) completely encircles the nutlet body in this variety (ref. Cryptantha pterocarya var. cycloptera)
  • cyclosor'um: probably has something to do with the sori being in a circle or ring, or at least having appeared that way to the person who originally described it (ref. Athyrium filix-femina var. cyclosorum)
  • Cyclosper'mum: from the Greek kyklos, "circle, ring," and sperma, "seed," referring to the shape of the fruit and its seeds (ref. genus Cyclospermum)
  • cycloste'gia: from the Greek kyklos, "circle, ring," and stegos, "a covering or roof" (ref. Calystegia macrostegia ssp. cyclostegia)
  • Cydon'ia: from the Latin cydonia, "a quince, quince-apple," derived from the town of Cydon (now Khania) on the northwest coast of Crete (ref. genus Cydonia)
  • cygnor'um: possibly "like a swan" (ref. Erodium cygnorum)
  • cylindra'ceus: long and round, cylindrical (ref. Ferocactus cylindraceus var. cylindraceus, Ferocactus cylindraceus var. lecontei)
  • cylin'drica: cylindrical (ref. Aegilops cylindrica, Clarkia cylindrica, Hainardia cylindrica)
  • Cylindropun'tia: from the Greek kylindros, "a cylinder," plus genus Opuntia, this is now the new genus of the so-called 'true chollas' (ref. genus Cylindropuntia)
  • Cymbalar'ia/cymbalar'ia: a name for ivy-leaved toad flax, from the Greek kymbalon and/or the Latin cymbalum for "cymbal," and referring to the rounded leaf shapes of some species (ref. genus Cymbalaria, also Lithophragma cymbalaria, Ranunculus cymbalaria)
  • cymbalario'ides: resembling the genus Cymbalaria (ref. Senecio cymbalarioides)
  • Cymop'terus: from the Greek kuma, "wave," and pteron, "wing," some species having wavy wings (ref. genus Cymopterus)
  • cymo'sa/cymo'sum: bearing cymes, more or less flattened flower heads blooming from the middle out (ref. Dudleya cymosa ssp. crebifolia, Dudleya cymosa ssp. marcescens, Dudleya cymosa ssp. pumila)
  • cynancho'ides: like genus Cynanchum (ref. Funastrum cynanchoides ssp. hartwegii)
  • Cynan'chum: from the Greek kyon or kynos, "dog," and anchein, "to strangle," in reference to its supposed use or capacity as a dog poison (ref. genus Cynanchum)
  • Cynar'a: from the Greek kyon, "dog," the phyllaries likened to dogs' teeth (ref. genus Cynara)
  • Cy'nodon: from the Greek meaning "dog tooth" from the hard tooth-like scales on the rhizomes or stolons (ref. genus Cynodon)
  • Cynoglos'sum: Greek for "dog's tongue" from kynos, "dog," and glossa, "a tongue" (ref. genus Cynoglossum)
  • Cynosur'us: from the Greek kynos or kyon, "a dog," and oura, "a tail," thus dog's tail (ref. genus Cynosurus)
  • cyperin'us: Linnaeus described this taxon as having the overall appearance of a Cyperus, but spikelets like a Scirpus (ref. Scirpus cyperinus)
  • cypero'ides: resembling Cyperus (ref. Juncus cyperoides)
  • Cy'perus: from a Greek word meaning 'sedge' (ref. genus Cyperus)
  • Cypriped'ium: from the Greek Kypris, a name for Aphrodite, and pedilon, "a slipper," alluding to the shape of the flowers (ref. genus Cypripedium)
  • Cypsel'ea: from the Greek kypsele, "beehive, basket, chest, box," in reference to its leaves (ref. genus Cypselea)
  • Cyrto'mium: from the Greek kyrtos, "arch," in reference to the pattern of netted veins (ref. genus Cyrtomium)
  • Cystop'teris: from the Greek cystis or kystis, "bladder," and pteris, "fern," alluding to the subglobose indusium (ref. genus Cystopteris)
  • Cy'tisus: from kutisus, a Greek name for a kind of clover (ref. genus Cytisus)

Fall bloom near Lightning Ridge in the San Gabriel Mts
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