L-R: Senecio californicus (California groundsel), Lycium californicum (California boxthorn), Abronia umbellata ssp. umbellata (Pink sand verbena), Opuntia occidentalis (Western prickly pear), Antirrhinum nuttallianum ssp. nuttalianum (Violet snapdragon).
     D

       In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear.
  • dacitico'la: dwelling on dacitic soils, dacite being an extrusive igneous rock made up mostly of plagioclase, quartz, pyroxene or hornblende (ref. Arctostaphylos tomentosa ssp. daciticola)
  • dactylif'era: fingerlike, furnished with fingers (ref. Phoenix dactylifera)
  • Dac'tylis: from the Latin dactylis and the Greek daktylos for a kind of grape or grass, the Greek name in turn derived from daktylos, "a finger," referring to the finger-like appearance of the inflorescence (ref. genus Dactylis)
  • Dactylocten'ium: from the Greek daktylos, "finger," and ktenion, "a little comb," alluding to the arrangement of the spikelets (ref. genus Dactyloctenium)
  • dac'tylon: from the Greek daktylos, "a finger or toe," possibly referring to the slender umbel-like inflorescence which is somewhat like the fingers of a hand (ref. Cynodon dactylon)
  • Da'lea: named after Samuel Dale (1659-1739), an English physician, botanist and botanical collector, and gardener who was the author of several botanical works and a treatise on medicinal plants. He was an associate of several major botanical figures in England, notably John Ray, one of the founding figures of British botany and zoology, William Sherard, and Mark Catesby. Catesby sent him samples of specimens that he collected in Virginia, and it was through Dale that Catesby came to the attention of Sherard, who created the first chair in botany at Oxford, and he helped Ray with cataloging of specimens. He also worked with William Sherard and Jacob Bobart the Younger to complete the third section of Robert Morison's Plantarum Historiae Universalis Oxoniensis after Morison's death (ref. genus Dalea [formerly Parosela])
  • dales'iae/dalesia'na: after Ella Dales Miles Cantelow (1875-1964), co-author in 1957 of "Biographical Notes on Persons in Whose Honor Alice Eastwood Named Native Plants" in Leaflets of Western Botany. "Amateur collector and long time member of the Calif. Bot. Club; born in San Francisco, Calif., 12 Sept 1875, now residing in Berkeley, Calif. Long an enthusiastic collector of native plants; was made a life member of the Calif. Acad. Sci. in 1942 in appreciation of plants collected in Ariz., Nev., Wyo., Utah, Idaho, and Colo., and given to the herbarium; donated her private herbarium to the academy in 1947." (from Cantelow and Cantelow) (ref. Lupinus dalesiae, Phacelia dalesiana)
  • dalma'tica: of or from Dalmatia on the Adriatic side of the Balkan Peninsula (ref. Linaria dalmatica ssp. dalmatica)
  • damascen'a: of or from Damascus, Syria (ref. Nigella damascena, Salsola damascena)
  • Damason'ium: a classical Greek name (ref. genus Damasonium)
  • danaen'sis: same as for the following entry (ref. Carex incurviformis var. danaensis)
  • dana'us: after Mt. Dana, second-highest peak in Yosemite National Park (ref. Astragalus kentrophyta var. danaus)
  • Danthon'ia: after Étienne Danthoine, late 18th century/early 19th century French botanist and agrostologist from Marseilles. David Hollombe provided the following: "Etienne Danthoine was born in Manosque in 1739 and died in Grasse in 1794. At the time of his death he was the pharmacist in the military hospital in Grasse. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences of Marseilles and had written articles on grasses, bedstraws and (published posthumously) gall wasps." (ref. genus Danthonia)
  • danthonio'ides: like genus Danthonia (ref. Deschampsia danthonioides)
  • Darlington'ia: after William Darlington (1782-1863), an American botanist. The following is quoted from the website called Virtual American Biographies: "Darlington, William, scientist, born in Birmingham, Pennsylvania, 28 April 1782; died in West Chester, Pennsylvania, 23 April 1863. His parents were Quakers, and his early education was received in the country school. He began the study of medicine at the age of eighteen, and was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1804. He studied languages and botany two years, and in 1806 went to India as a ship's surgeon, for which (joining a military organization) he was disowned by the Society of Friends. A sketch of his voyage, under the title of "Letters from Calcutta," was published in the "' Analectic Magazine." He returned to the United States in 1807, and for several years practiced medicine in West Chester. Here he entered into politics, wrote in defense of the policy of President Madison, and at the beginning of the war of 1812 aided in raising an armed corps in his neighborhood, and, after the destruction of Washington in 1814, was chosen major of a volunteer regiment. He founded an athenaeum, and a society of natural history, of which he became the president. In 1813 he began a descriptive catalogue of plants growing around West Chester, with the title Florula Cestrica (1826), afterward enlarged as the Flora Cestrica (1837; new ed., 1853), containing a complete description and classification of every plant known in the county. He was a member of congress from 4 December 1815, till 3 March 1817, and from 6 December 1819, till 3 March, 1823. In 1843 he edited the correspondence of his friend, Dr. William Baldwin, with a memoir, entitling the work Reliquiae Baldwiniana. In 1853 the name of Darlingtonica california was given in his honor to a new and remarkable variety of pitcher plant found in California, in addition to which a number of rare plants were named in his honor by naturalists in Switzerland and America. The degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Yale in 1848, and in 1855 that of Doctor of Physical Science, by Dickinson College. He was a member of forty learned societies in America and Europe. In addition to the works noted above, he published Mutual Influence of Habits and Disease (1804) and Agricultural Botany (Philadelphia, 1847)" (ref. genus Darlingtonia)
  • Dar'mera: after Karl Darmer (1843-1918), German horticulturist in Berlin (ref. genus Darmera)
  • dasy-: from the Greek dasys, "shaggy, thick, hairy, rough"
  • dasyan'themum: same as next entry (ref. Eriogonum dasyanthemum)
  • dasyan'thum: shaggy-flowered
  • dasycar'pa/dasycar'pum: with woolly or hairy seed heads or fruits (ref. Vicia dasycarpa, Lomatium dasycarpum)
  • Dasyochlo'a: from the Greek dasys, "shaggy, thick, hairy, rough" and chloa, "a blade of grass"
  • dasyphyl'lum: with woolly or hairy leaves
  • Datis'ca: Umberto Quattrocchi says: "Perhaps from the Greek dateomai, 'divide among themselves, cut in two,' possibly referring to the ornamental foliage" (ref. genus Datisca)
  • Datur'a: from the Hindu vernacular name Dhatūrā meaning 'thorn-apple' (ref. genus Datura)
  • daucifo'lia: carrot-like (ref. Horkelia daucifolia, Soliva daucifolia)
  • Dau'cus: an ancient Greek name (ref. genus Daucus)
  • david'ii: after David L. Anderson (1938- ), a grasslands ecologist in Argentina (ref. Euphorbia davidii)
  • david'ii: after missionary priest and zoologist Pere Armand David (1826-1900). "Père Armand David was a Lazarist missionary in the Franciscan order who was to travel to China and convert the populace to Roman Catholicism, but soon found a greater calling in the nature of this vast country. Born in Espelette near Bayonne in the French Pyrenees, Jean Pierre was one of three boys in a successful local family. His father Fructueux was a magistrate and doctor who had a strong love of nature and an inquisitive mind, traits that Jean Pierre inherited and embraced. Which was a good thing, since his older brother inherited everything else. Younger sons of established families would often seek a career in the clergy, and this is where young David turned. In his day there would appear to be no conflict in a career in the church and pursuit of the natural sciences, so his great affinity for all living things was embraced by his new order, St. Vincent de Paul. While many of his brother missionaries were sent to locations as far afield as South America, Ethiopia, Africa, Persia and China, Père David was sent to teach at a school in Italy. He taught science at Savona College on the Italian Riviera for ten years, and during that time became one of the most popular teachers there. He made his classes interesting by actually involving his students, by imbuing them with his own enthusiasm and love of nature, and he was deeply missed when he was finally given the assignment he had wanted for so many years - China." (from PlantExplorers.com, http://www.plantexplorers.com/Explorers/Biographies/French_Missionaries/Pere_David.htm)  "Ordained in 1862, he was shortly afterwards sent to Peking, and began there a collection of material for a museum of natural history, mainly zoological, but in which botany and geology and palæontology were also well represented. At the request of the French Government important specimens from his collection were sent to Paris and aroused the greatest interest. The Jardin des Plantes commissioned him to undertake scientific journeys through China to make further collections. He succeeded in obtaining many specimens of hitherto unknown animals and plants, and the value of his comprehensive collections for the advance of systematic zoology and especially for the advancement of animal geography received universal recognition from the scientific world. He himself summed up his labours in an address delivered before the International Scientific Congress of Catholics at Paris in April, 1888. He had found in China altogether 200 species of wild animals, of which 63 were hitherto unknown to zoologists; 807 species of birds, 65 of which had not been described before. Besides, a large collection of reptiles, batrachians, and fishes was made and handed over to specialists for further study, also a large number of moths and insects, many of them hitherto unknown, were brought to the museum of the Jardin des Plantes. What Father David's scientific journeys meant for botany may be inferred from the fact that among the rhododendrons which he collected no less than fifty-two new species were found and among the primulæ about forty, while the Western Mountains of China furnished an even greater number of hitherto unknown species of gentian. The most remarkable of hitherto unknown animals found by David was a species of bear (ursus melanoleucus, the black-white bear) which is a connecting link between the cats and bears. Another remarkable animal found by him received the scientific name of elaphurus davidianus. Of this animal the Chinese say that it has the horns of the stag, the neck of the camel, the foot of the cow, and the tail of the ass. It had disappeared with the exception of a few preserved in the gardens of the Emperor of China, but David succeeded in securing a specimen and sent it to Europe. In the midst of his work as a naturalist Father David did not neglect his missionary labours, and was noted for his careful devotion to his religious duties and for his obedience to every detail of his rules." (from the Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04641a.htm) (ref. Buddleja davidii)
  • davidson'ii: named after Anstruther Davidson, a Scottish botanist who like so many others came to the fields of botany and natural science from a medical background. The following assessment of Davidson is by Joseph Ewan (died 1999) and is quoted from Madrono Volume 2: "'He is a man of interest - not 'shelved,' nor cynical, nor disappointed with life, but a trifle melancholy and above all full of sifted wisdom.' This is my recorded appraisal upon returning home from my last visit with Dr. Davidson just two months before his death on April 3rd, 1932. 'He sat in his easy rocker - the old cherry-wood sort, with stationary base, and between draughts on his made-as-needed cigarettes, foiled rather carelessly and twisted in the manner of taffy wrappers, he told of other days and California botany. His terse phrases concerning Hasse, Greata, Parish and others were flavored with personal understanding and accented with measured strokes of his goatee. His face is slender and sharp-featured, but set with eyes full of brightness.' Anstruther Davidson was born at Watten, Scotland, on February 19, 1860, being the son of George and Ann (Macadam) Davidson. He graduated in medicine from the University of Glasgow with the degrees of M(edicinae) B(accalaureus) and C(hirurgiae) M(agister) at the age of twenty-one. Six years later he obtained his M.D. (1887). He emigrated to America two years later and in the same year began the practice of medicine in Los Angeles which was carried on practically continuously until his death. A dermatologist in the medical field, he was at one time assistant professor of that subject at the University of Southern California. He was a fellow of the American Medical Association. His skill in his chosen field was the basis of the regular visits made to the Good Samaritan hospital of Los Angeles, when no longer in active practice, a consulting dermatologist, a schedule continued up to his last brief illness. During the preceding January Dr. Davidson was struck by an automobile and thrown forward to the pavement, suffering internal injuries, doubtless of a more serious nature than early recognized, which were the almost certain cause of his death some three months later at the age of seventy-two. In the fields of systematic botany and entomology Anstruther Davidson will certainly be permanently remembered for the early studies he carried out in these subjects in Southern California... Davidson's botanical activities were carried out principally through the Southern California Academy of Sciences and through the medium of its Bulletin. He served as the second president of the society, from 1892 to 1894, being re-elected for a second term. He was among the founders of the society and served as treasurer, as a member of the board of directors and of the publication board. In short he was an active associate for forty-one years."  He was the author in 1923 along with George Moxley of Flora of Southern California (ref. Collinsia bartsiifolia var. davidsonii, Eriogonum davidsonii, Lotus nevadensis var. davidsonii, Malacothamnus davidsonii) [See also following entry]
  • davidson'ii: named after Dr. George Davidson (1825-1911), an English-born American geographer and astronomer who collected plants in Yosemite and elsewhere in California. Quoted from The Columbia Encyclopedia: "From 1845 to 1895 he was on the staff of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. He charted (1850-1860) the U.S. Pacific coast for navigation purposes and recorded the results in the Pacific Coast Pilot. From 1860 to 1866, Davidson surveyed the Delaware River and mapped the district around Philadelphia for fortifications. His survey (1867) of the Alaskan coast resulted in the government publication Coast Pilot of Alaska (1869 and later editions). From 1867 to 1887, Davidson was charged with work along the coast of W United States... In San Francisco he built (1879) the first observatory on the Pacific coast. He also headed U.S. expeditions to observe solar eclipses and the transits of Venus and Mercury. His writings include The Tracks and Landfalls of Bering and Chirikof (1901), The Discovery of San Francisco Bay (1907), and Francis Drake on the Northwest Coast (1908)." Dr. Davidson was Honorary Professor of astronomy and geodesy at the University of California and a Regent of the University from 1877 to 1885, Professor of Geography from 1898 to 1905, and President of the California Academy of Sciences for 16 years and of the Pacific Geographical Society from 1881 on. He was born in Nottingham, England and emigrated to the U.S. with his parents in 1832, where they settled in Philadelphia. Davidson was a student under Alexander Dallas Bache before Bache's appointment as the second Superintendent of the Coast Survey. Thus was much of his life's work determined at an early age. His early work on the West Coast involved the establishment of accurate latitude and longitude for the prominent points along the coast, dangerous work due to the small boat landings in rough seas often including swamped or overturned boats, not to mention the hostility of local natives. He chose sites for many of today's lighthouses and wrote Directory for the Pacific Coast which evolved into the Coast Pilot series for all of the U.S. "His 1889 edition of the "Coast Pilot of California, Oregon and Washington" became the authoritative list of sailing directions for the west coast mariner, traced the origin of many of the names of features on our west coast, delineated the tracks of early explorers and navigators, and contained over 400 sketches of pristine coastal views prior to the encroachment of civilization. This document is considered one of the great historic works detailing the geography and early exploration of our Pacific margin. Many consider Davidson's crowning achievement to have been the measurement of the Yolo Baseline in the Sacramento Valley and the Los Angeles Baseline in southern California to the then unprecedented accuracy of better than one part in a million. The baselines approached 11 miles in length and were the longest baselines for geodetic survey work completed to that time. These lines served as the starting point for the great geometric figures ever after known as the "Davidson Quadrilaterals" upon which the primary triangulation of the Pacific Coast states was based... In 1867 he headed the party making a geographical reconnaissance of Alaska and his report helped sway the United States Government to purchase "Russian America." In 1872 he was appointed one of three Commissioners of Irrigation of California and became recognized as a world authority on irrigation problems. He was instrumental in helping establish the Lick Observatory. He survived the San Francisco earthquake in 1906, and became the first President of the Pacific Seismological Society founded in 1906." (From an announcement by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration honoring George Davidson with the naming of a ship).  Davidson apparently collected the first specimen of this species in Kern County and was honored by Asa Gray in having it named after him (ref. Penstemon davidsonii, Phacelia davidsonii) [See also previous entry]
  • davis'iae: after Nancy Jane Davis (1833-1921). The following was provided by David Hollombe and was written by Willis Jepson in his series 'California Botanical Explorers' in Madrono Vol. 2, and is here reproduced with only a few minor changes: "In the northern Sierra Nevada one of the more unusual and peculiar shrubs is Leucothoe Davisiae. This name was published by Asa Gray in the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, volume 7, page 400, in 1867. It was based on a manuscript name by John Torrey and the specific description rested on material collected near Eureka in Nevada County by Miss N. J. Davis, the discoverer. During this entire period since 1867, it does not appear to have been known in California whether Miss Davis was a local collector or a chance traveller. At any rate this was a collector concerning whom the writer never had the faintest clue. One evening in August, 1926, a small group of botanists, engaged in cheerful talk, were seated on a garden lawn above Lake Cayuga, in the state of New York. One of them, Professor J. H. Faull, then of the Toronto university, very incidentally and very casually to other matters, spoke the name Nancy Davis. The writer of this article had never before heard the name, but some impulse caused him to make one query after another and it soon developed that Nancy Davis of Birmingham, Pennsylvania, and miss N. J. Davis, the discoverer of the rare shrub, Leucothoe Davisiae of California, were one and the same. Through the interest of Dr. and Mrs. J. H. Faull were obtained the printed memorials of Miss Davis from which are derived the following facts as to her life: Nancy Jane Davis was born in the Kishacoquillas Valley near Lewiston, Pennsylvania, on December 20, 1833. She died at Birmingham, Pennsylvania, on June 18, 1921. At that place she had been in 1853 one of the founders of the Birmingham School (now called the Grier School) and for over sixty years its principal. On the sixtieth anniversary of the school, Mount Holyoak (Holyoke?) College, of which she was an early graduate, honored her with the degree of Doctor of Humane Letters. In 1863 she came to California by way of Panama and made in the district of Nevada County, says Dr. Gray, 'a fine and beautifully prepared collection of plants.' She visited California again in 1893 and yet again in 1915. The name Miss Davis is enshrined in many a memorial at or hard by Birmingham School. It is pleasant to make more definitely known the name of another plant lover, noble in mind and generous in purpose, who belongs to the roster of California field botanists. Her plants, it is to be said, went mainly to Asa Gray, and towards Cambridge she bent her steps for several summers in order to carry on botanical work. Amongst other things she also collected a sub-alpine Polygonum in northern California which was named for her as Polygonum Davisiae by W. H. Brewer in 1872 (Proc. Am. Acad. 8:399)." (ref. Allium lacunosum var. davisiae, Leucothoe davisiae, Polygonum davisiae)
  • da'vyi: after Joseph Burtt Davy (1870-1940), British botanist, agriculturist and ecologist, eminent student of the flora of California and South Africa, and founder of the Praetoria National Herbarium in 1903. He was the first government agronomist of the Transvaal and made the first thorough study of cycads there, publishing in 1926 A Manual of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Transaal. He was the first Curator of the Forest Herbarium at Oxford. Under Davy there began a sysematic approach to forest botany which included the identification and naming of timber trees, particularly tropical ones which were not well known. At its peak, accessions to the Forest Herbarium reached a total of 13,425 in 1929-1930, most of which was either African or from Trinidad, Sri Lanka, Belize and Malaysia. At the Jepson Herbarium, along with Willis Lynn Jepson and Harvey Monroe Hall, Davy was responsible for the vascular plant collection. He studied range grasses and forage plants, publishing in 1902 Stock Ranges of N.W. California: Notes on the Grasses and Forage Plants and Range Conditions. He interviewed original white settlers who described how native perennial bunch grasses were being replaced by introduced exotics. He had a hard time finding examples of native prairies even in 1901. After he retired in 1939, he returned to work without pay because of a wartime staff shortage and because he still had much writing and research he wished to do. He died only a few months after his official retirement (ref. Gilia latiflora ssp. davyi, Grindelia hirsutula var. davyi)
  • dealba'ta: whitened (ref. Acacia dealbata, Whitneya dealbata)
  • dean'ei: after George Clement Deane (1853-1930) (ref. Stephanomeria exigua ssp. deanei)
  • debil'is: weak, frail (ref. Lasthenia debilis)
  • decip'iens: deceptive, in some sense not what it appears to be (ref. Cryptantha decipiens, Gayophytum decipiens, Stebbinsoseris decipiens)
  • decor'ticans: with peeling bark (ref. Eremothera boothii ssp. decorticans)
  • decor'um/decor'us: attractive, comely, becoming (ref. Delphinium decorum, Linanthus aureus ssp. decorus)
  • decum'bens: prostrate (ref. Arctostaphylos stanforiana ssp. decumbens, Fremontodendron californicum ssp. decumbens, Isocoma menziesii var. decumbens, Minuartia decumbens, Sagina decumbens ssp. occidentalis)
  • decur'rens: with the leaf margins running gradually into the stem, that is, having a wing-like or ridge-like extension beyond the actual or apparent point of attachment, like a leaf base that seems to continue down the stem (ref. Acacia decurrens, Calocedrus decurrens, Eriogonum nudum var. decurrens)
  • decurta'ta: from the Latin decurto, "to cut short," decurtatus, "mutilated" (ref. Piperia elegans ssp. decurtata)
  • decussa'ta: with the leaves in pairs, and one pair at right angles to the next, i.e. cross-shaped
  • Dedeck'era/dedeck'erae: after Mary Caroline Foster DeDecker (1909-2000), a lifelong California botanist, conservationist and collector, and specialist on the flora of the Northern Mojave Desert (ref. genus Dedeckera, also Trifolium macilentum var. dedeckerae)
  • deduc'tum: from the Latin deductus, "led apart, split, separated" (ref. Eriogonum nudum var. deductum)
  • defic'iens: lacking in some necessary quality or element, defective (ref. Erigeron lassenianus var. deficiens)
  • defla'tum: deflated (ref. Eriogonum inflatum var. deflatum)
  • deflex'a/deflex'um/deflex'us: bent, or turned abruptly downward at a sharp angle as the buds and sepals are (ref. Clarkia deflexa, Eriogonum deflexum, Alternanthera deflexus, Amaranthus deflexus)
  • defoliatum: presumably means something like leafless, and the leaves of this taxon are often withering by flowering time (ref. Symphyotrichum defoliatum)
  • Deinan'dra: from the Greek deinos, "wondrous, fearful, terrible," and and aner, andros, "man, stamen" (info from Umberto Quattrocchi) (ref. genus Deinandra)
  • Delair'ea: after Eugene Delaire (1810-1856), head gardener at the botanical gardens in Orleans from 1837 to 1856 (ref. genus Delairea)
  • delica'ta: delicate, tender (ref. Clarkia delicata)
  • delicio'sum: delicious (ref. Vaccinum deliciosum)
  • delnorten'sis: same as next entry (ref. Salix delnortensis)
  • delnor'ticus: of or from Del Norte County, California (ref. Lathyrus delnorticus)
  • Delosper'ma: from the Greek delos, "evident, visible" and sperma, "seed," referring to the seeds which are exposed in the unenclosed chamber of the capsule (ref. genus Delosperma)
  • Delphin'ium: the Greek name delphinion for the larkspur derived from delphinos or delphis for "dolphin" because of the flower shape in some species (ref. genus Delphinium)
  • deltoid'ea/delto'ides: triangular, like the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet, delta (ref. Balsamorhiza deltoidea, Oenothera deltoides)
  • demer'sum: living under water, submerged (ref. Ceratophyllum demersum)
  • deminu'ta: from the Latin deminutus, "small, diminutive" (ref. Navarretia myersii ssp. deminuta)
  • demis'sa/demis'sum/demis'sus: "hanging down, weak" from Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names, from Latin demissus, "let down, fallen, past participle of demitto, "to let down," from Jaeger's A Source-book of Biological Names and Terms, "hanging down, low, weak, dwarf" from Gledhill's The Names of Plants, "hanging, drooping" from Plant Names Explained, "drooping, lowly, humble" from Hyam and Pankhurst's Plants and Their Names, "low, weak" from L.H. Bailey's How Plants Get Their Names (ref. Nama demissum var. demissum, Linanthus demissus)
  • dendroi'dea/dendroi'deus: treelike (ref. Oxytheca dendroidea, Lotus dendroideus ssp. dendroideus, Lotus dendroideus var. veatchii)
  • Dendrome'con: from the Greek dendron, "tree," and mekon, "poppy," thus literally meaning "tree poppy" (ref genus Dendromecon)
  • -dendron: tree
  • Dennstaedtia'ceae: after August William Dennstedt (1776-1826), German physician and botanist, burgomaster of Magdala, director of the Belvedere garden near Weimar, and author of a work entitled Hortus Belvedereanus, a compilation of some 1500 plants. I have no information as to why the family name is spelled differently than his name (ref. family Dennstaedtiaceae)
  • den'sa/den'sum/den'sus: compact, dense (ref. Brayulinea densa, Carex densa, Phoradendron densum, Mimulus densus)
  • densiflor'a/densiflor'um/densiflor'us: densely flowered (ref. Castilleja densiflora ssp. gracilis, Dudleya densiflora, Hoffmanseggia densiflora, Pedicularis densiflora, Sorghum densiflora, Spirea densiflora, Epilobium densiflorum, Lepidium densiflorum, Lithocarpus densiflorus, Lupinus densiflorus, Malacothamnus densiflorus)
  • densifo'lium: densely leaved (ref. Eriastrum densifolium)
  • densispin'a: densely spiny
  • denta'ta: toothed like a saw (Oenothera dentata, Pyrola dentata)
  • denticula'ta/denticula'tus: finely-toothed (ref. Cryptantha muricata var. denticulata, Cuscuta denticulata, Meconella denticulata, Lotus denticulatus)
  • denuda'ta/denuda'tus: naked, denuded (ref. Nemacaulis denudata, Hibiscus denudatus)
  • depaupera'ta/depaupera'tum: starved, dwarved, depauperate (ref. Arabis depauperata, Delphinium depauperatum, Osmorhiza depauperata, Trifolium depauperatum var. truncatum)
  • depres'sa/depres'sum/depres'sus: appearing to be pressed down flat (ref. Logfia depressa, Ipomopsis depressa, Suaeda depressa, Hordeum depressum, Nama depressum, Polycarpon depressum, Chrysothamnus depressus)
  • Deschamp'sia: after French botanist Louis Auguste Deschamps (1766-1842). A website of the National Herbarium of the Netherlands offers this information: "Surgeon-Naturalist of the expedition of the ‘Recherche’ in search of [the explorer Jean-François de Galaup, Comte de la Perouse] 1791-1793. When the expedition stranded in Java he was interned for a short interval, but Governor van Overstraten offered him to stay in Java to make natural history investigations for which he would get facilities to extend his research into the interior of the island. Deschamps accepted, as he says, in the interest of science, and took leave of his travel companions. In the subsequent years this Frenchman made numerous trips, and he certainly has been the first to make botanical collections on several of the mountains and in many remote localities of Java. It is a pity that evidently none of his botanical specimens are preserved, as his diary, drawings and MS. papers are such, that we might have expected extremely valuable material. During his travels he was partly accompanied by some young assistants who were to help him with the description and drawing of plants and animals (he collected fishes too!). Afterwards he settled at Batavia as a physician until 1802, in which year he sailed for Mauritius. Later he settled at St. Omer in France" (ref. genus Deschampsia)
  • Descurain'ia: in honor of Francois Descourain (1658-1740), a French pharmacist and botanist (ref. genus Descurainia)
  • deser'ti: of or from the desert (ref. Agave deserti, Escobaria vivipara var. deserti, Sibara deserti)
  • desertico'la: dwelling in the desert (ref. Cymopterus deserticola, Eriogonum deserticola)
  • deser'ticum: of or from the desert (ref. Arctostaphylos parryana ssp. deserticum)
  • desertor'um: of the deserts (ref. Brickellia desertorum, Eremothera boothii ssp. desertorum, Mentzelia desertorum, Scrophularia desertorum)
  • desicca'tum: dry, desiccated (ref. Chenopodium desiccatum)
  • Desmazer'ia: after Jean Baptiste Henri Joseph Desmazières (1786-1862), independently wealthy French botanist from Lille and expert on cryptogams, author of Plantes cryptogames du Nord de la France (Cryptogamic plants of Northern France, 1825-1851) and Plantes cryptogames de France (Cryptogamic plants of France, 1853-1861), editor of the journals Annales des sciences naturelles and the Bulletin de la société des sciences de Lille (ref. genus Desmazeria)
  • desvaux'ii: after Augustine Nicaise Desvaux (1784-1856), Professor of Botany at Angers in 1816 and director of the botanical garden until 1838. He was particularly interested in minerology and many of his published works related to that subject. He was also the author of Flore de l'Anjou in 1827 (ref. Enneapogon desvauxii)
  • detling'ii: after botanist Leroy Ellsworth Detling (1898-1976), from 1937 until his death the curator of the herbarium at the University of Oregon (ref. Microseris laciniata ssp. detlingii)
  • deton'sa/deton'sus: bare, shorn (ref. Hazardia detonsa)
  • deus'tus: burned (ref. Penstemon deustus)
  • deweyan'a: after Chester Dewey (1784-1867), professor of chemistry and natural history at the University of Rochester. The following is from a website of the University of Rochester Libraries (http://www.lib.rochester.edu/index.cfm?page=3014): "Chester Dewey was a Congregational minister, educator, and scientist. He was internationally recognized as a botanist and served as the University's first professor of natural science from 1850 until his death in 1867. For Dewey, education was moral as well as academic, and teaching was an invigorating mission: 'I have lived my life with the young, and for them I have labored. By their influence I have felt obliged to keep up with the times in valuable knowledge and benevolent effort, and my life has seemed to be renewed among them.' Dewey Hall was dedicated in 1930 as one of the original River Campus buildings." and from his alma mater, Williams College (http://www.williams.edu/resources/sciencecenter/center/HistSci00/chapter2.html): "Professor Chester Dewey was directly responsible for the commencement of meteorological observation. A Berkshire County native (Sheffield, Mass.), Dewey graduated from Williams in 1806 and then spent two years studying for the Congregational ministry. After earning his license to preach in 1807, Dewey returned to Williams in 1808 in the role of tutor. In 1810, he was promoted to Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. In December, 1812, Dewey went to Yale to learn about chemistry from Benjamin Silliman, much as Silliman, in a similar position, had gone to Philadelphia 10 years earlier to learn chemistry from Robert Hare. At Yale, Dewey obtained chemical apparatus for the college, its first, and on his return in 1813, established a chemical laboratory." His botanical studies were mainly concentrated on grasses, but he was wide published in a number of natural history disciplines (ref. Carex deweyana)
  • diabolen'se: after the Diablo Range, one of the Coast Ranges which forms the west wall of the Central Valley from Mt. Diablo to Kern County. This name was originally listed in the Jepson Manual as "diabloense" but corrected to "diabolense" because this is the way it was originally published in Plant Life (ref. Allium diabolense)
  • dia'boli/dia'bolis: I'm not sure of the etymology of these name, but in any case they represent taxa that were either unpublished, invalidly published, illegitimate, or rejected (ref. Monardella diaboli, Eriogonum diabolis)
  • dian'dra/dian'drus: furnished with two or twin stamens (ref. Carex diandra, Bromus diandrus)
  • dianthiflor'us: the flowers resembling carnations, which are in the genus Dianthus (ref. Linanthus dianthiflorus)
  • Dian'thus: from the Greek dios, "divine," and anthos, "flower," this was the divine flower or the flower of Zeus (ref. genus Dianthus)
  • Dicen'tra: from the Greek dis, "twice," and centron, "spur," meaning "twice-spurred," in reference to the flower shape (ref. genus Dicentra)
  • dicha-/dicho-: Greek prefix meaning "in two"
  • Dichanthe'lium: from the Greek dicha, "in two or bifid," and anthele, "a type of inflorescence, a little flower," from anthelion, a diminutive of anthos, "flower" (ref. genus Dichanthelium)
  • Dichelostem'ma: derived from two Greek words dicha, "bifid," and stemma, "a garland or crown," and thus meaning "a garland which is twice-parted to the middle," referring to the forked appendages on the stamens (ref. genus Dichelostemma)
  • dichlamyd'eum: from the Greek di, "two," and chlamydos, "cloak, mantle" (ref. Allium dichlamydeum)
  • Dichon'dra: from the Greek di, "two," and chondra, "a lump of grain," hence "double grain" from deeply lobed fruit (ref. Dichondra)
  • dichoto'ma/dichoto'mum/dichoto'mus: forked in pairs, repeatedly dividing into pairs of branches (ref. Silene dichotoma, Lagophylla dichotoma, Montia dichotoma, Cerastium dichotomum, Nama dichotomum, Linanthus dichotomus)
  • dichotomiflor'um: with branching flowers (ref. Panicum dichotomiflorum)
  • dichroceph'alum: with heads of two colors? Gandoger's description of Eriogonum dichrocephalum includes the following: "...flores 5 m. longi ochroleuco-flavescenes cum macula rubra extus ad dorsum..." from which my almost non-existent Latin skills can pick out what seems to be references to two colors, ochroleuco, "yellowish-white," and flavescenes, "becoming yellow," and also macula rubra, "red spots" (ref. Eriogonum umbellatum var. dichrocephalum)
  • diclin'um: from the Greek for "two beds," the word diclinous means having the stamens and pistils in separate flowers (ref. Eriogonum diclinum)
  • Dicor'ia:  from the Greek dis, "twice," and koris, "a bug," thus literally "two bugs" in reference to the two-fruit heads of akenes of the original species (ref. genus Dicoria)
  • Dicranoste'gia: from the Greek dikranon, "pitchfork," or dikranos, "two-headed," and stegos, "a covering," for the two-forked calyx (ref. genus Dicranostegia)
  • dictyo'ta/dictyo'tum: made in net fashion, latticed (ref. Berberis dictyota, Lepidium dictyotum)
  • didymobot'rya: from didymus, "twin," meaning with pairs of grape-like structures (ref. Senna didymobotrya)
  • didymocar'pus: with fruit in pairs (ref. Astragalus didymocarpus var. dispermus)
  • did'ymum/did'ymus: in pairs, double or twin (ref. Lepidium didymum)
  • diegen'sis: of or from San Diego (ref. Gilia diegensis, Stephanomeria diegensis, Stipa diegoensis)
  • diegoen'sis: same as previous entry (ref. Stipa diegoensis)
  • Dieter'ia: according to David Hollombe, Nuttall indicated that he intended the meaning of this name to relate to its biennial habit, and the only possible derivations I can come up with are di-, "two or twice," and etesios, "yearly" (ref. genus Dieteria)
  • diffor'mis: of unusual form compared to the typical form of the genus (ref. Cyperus difformis)
  • diffu'sa/diffus'um/diffus'us: spreading loosely (ref. Acleisanthes diffusa, Githopsis diffusa ssp. candida, Githopsis diffusa ssp. diffusa, Halimolobos diffusa, Phlox diffusa, Eriastrum diffusum, Gayophytum diffusum, Mimulus diffusus)
  • diffusis'simus: very spreading (ref. Juncus diffusissimus)
  • Digita'lis: from the Latin for finger, because of the corolla shape (ref. genus Digitalis)
  • Digitar'ia: from the Latin digitus, "a finger," from the arrangement of the inflorescence branches (ref. genus Digitaria)
  • digita'ta: lobed like fingers (ref. Cucurbita digitata)
  • dig'yna/dig'ynum: with two pistils (ref. Oxyria digyna, Sclerolinon digynum)
  • dilata'ta/dilata'tum: spread out (ref. Platanthera dilatata var. leucostachys, Maianthemum dilatatum, Paspalum dilatatum)
  • dilu'ta/dilu'tus: diluted, weak (ref. Centaurea diluta)
  • Dimeres'ia: from the Greek dimeres, "bipartite," alluding to the two-flowered heads (ref. genus Dimeresia)
  • dimidia'tum: from the Latin dimidiatus, "halved, divided." Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names defines this as "divided into two dissimilar or unequal parts" (ref. Solanum dimidiatum)
  • dimor'pha: from the Greek dis, "twice or two," and morphe, "shape," and thus meaning possessing two different forms of leaf, flower or fruit on the same plant (ref. Antennaria dimorpha)
  • Dimorphothe'ca: from the Greek dimorph, "two forms," and theke, "ovary," thus indicating a plant with two different types of fruit (ref. genus Dimorphotheca)
  • Dio'dia: from the Greek for thoroughfare, from this plants habitats (ref. genus Diodia)
  • dio'ica/dio'icus: dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants (ref. Mammilaria dioica, Urtica dioica, Tetracoccus dioicus)
  • Diospy'ros: from Dios, an appelation or descriptive name for Zeus or Jupiter, dios being Greek for "divine," and pyros, "grain or wheat." Theophrastus used the name diospyron for the fruit of the nettle-tree, Celtis australis, and Pliny and Dioscorides used diospyros as a name for some plant (ref. genus Diospyros)
  • dipet'ala: having two petals (ref. Fraxinus dipetala)
  • diploscy'pha: seemingly from the Greek roots diploos, "double," and skyphos,"a cup" (ref. Sidalcea diploscypha)
  • Diplotax'is: from the Greek diplous, "double," and taxis, "row," because of the double row of seeds in the seed pod (ref. genus Diplotaxis)
  • Dipo'gon: from the Greek di, "two," and pogon, "beard" (ref. genus Dipogon)
  • Dip'sacus: from the Greek dipsa, "thirst," from the connate (joined or attached) leaf bases that in some ssp. hold water (ref. genus Dipsacus)
  • Dir'ca: from the Greek dirke, "a fountain," specifically a fountain northwest of Thebes in Boeotia, referring to its moist habitat (ref. genus Dirca)
  • discoi'dea: without rays, discoid (ref. Arnica discoidea, Layia discoidea, Matricaria discoidea, Petradoria discoidea)
  • dis'color: from the Greek prefix dis- which like the Latin bis- means two or twice, and thus of two or different colors. Note: My friend Bob Allen alerted me to the fact that the prefix dis- can have a different meaning, conveying a sense of negation, thus discolor would mean "without color," which at least in the case of Holodiscus discolor would make more sense since the bloom is all white, but of course the name can refer either to flowers or leaves (ref. Datura discolor, Holodiscus discolor)
  • disep'ala: having two sepals (ref. Lewisia disepala)
  • disjunc'tum: Helen Sharsmith's definitive study of Hesperolinon (1961) states that "Hesperolinon disjunctum, apparently an obligate serpentine dweller, is frequently restricted to remote populations in which marked morphological disjunction accompanies the geographical disjunction." Thanks to David Hollombe for shedding light on this name (ref. Hesperolinon disjunctum)
  • dis'par: unequal, dissimilar to the usual characteristics of the taxon (ref. Arabis dispar)
  • disper'ma/disper'mus: having two seeds (ref. Carex disperma, Vicia disperma, Astragalus didymocarpus var. dispermus)
  • disper'sa: scattered (ref. Mentzelia dispersa)
  • Dispor'um: from the Greek dis, "two or twice," and spora, "seed," referring to the two-seeded fruits (ref. genus Disporum)
  • Dissanthel'ium: from the Greek dissos, "of two kinds, double," and anthelion, a diminutive of anthos, "flower, blossom," from the two small florets (ref. genus Dissanthelium)
  • dissec'ta/dissec'tum: dissected, as in leaves (ref. Amauriopsis dissecta, Geranium dissectum, Lomatium dissectum)
  • dissectifo'lia: with dissected leaves (ref. Cardamine pachystigma var. dissectifolia)
  • dis'sita: lying apart, well-spaced, in reference to the pairs of opposite leaves along the stem (ref. Verbesina dissita)
  • dista'chya/dista'chyus: with two spikes
  • dista'chyon: I am assuming pending further research that this means the same as distachyum (ref. Brachypodium distachyon)
  • dis'tans: separated, apart, widely-spaced, in reference to the long, exserted stamens, which are apart from each other (ref. Phacelia distans, Puccinellia distans)
  • distantiflor'us: with widely-separated flowers (ref. Plagiobothrys distantiflorus)
  • dis'ticha/dis'tichum: in two ranks (ref. Castilleja disticha, Paspalum distichum)
  • Distich'lis: from the Greek distichos, "two-ranked," in reference to the arrangement of the leaves (ref. genus Distichlis)
  • distichophyl'la: with leaves in two ranks (ref. Chloris distichophylla)
  • Ditax'is: from the Greek dis, "two," and taxis, "rank," referring to the stamens which are in two whorls (ref. genus Ditaxis)
  • Dithyr'ea: from the Greek dis, "two or twice," and thureos, "shield," thus meaning "two shields" and referring to the double, spectacle-like seed pods (ref. genus Dithyrea)
  • Dittrich'ia: named for the German botanist Manfred Dittrich (1934- ), a specialist in Asteraceae at the Herbarium of the Geneva, Switzerland, Conservatory and Botanical Garden and later Director of the Herbarium of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem (ref. genus Dittrichia)
  • divaricar'pa: from the Latin divarico, "to spread apart," and carpa, "fruit"
  • divarica'ta/divarica'tum: spreading out, growing in a straggly manner (ref. Aristida divaricata, Luzula divaricata, Navarretia divaricata, Phacelia divericata, Allophyllum divaricatum, Arceuthobium divaricatum, Ribes divaricatum)
  • diver'gens: spreading out widely from the center (ref. Erigeron divergens)
  • diversifo'lia/diversifo'lius: with differently shaped leaves (ref. Comarostaphylos diversifolia, Ceanothus diversifolius, Potamogeton diversifolius)
  • diversilo'bum: diversely-lobed (ref. Toxicodendron diversilobum)
  • di'ves: rich (Carex aquatilis var. dives)
  • Dodecahe'ma: from the Greek words dodeka, "twelve," and hema, "dart, javelin," referring to the number of awns on the involucre (ref. genus Dodecahema)
  • dodecan'dra: having twelve stamens (ref. Polanisia dodecandra ssp. trachysperma)
  • Dodecath'eon: from the Greek dodeka, "twelve," and thios, "god(s)."  One source implies that it was considered to be powerful medicine and under the care of the twelve leading gods, and another suggests that because the flowers sometimes appear in clusters of twelve, the Roman naturalist Pliny bestowed this name because he thought the flowers represented the twelve Olympian gods (ref. genus Dodecatheon)
  • dolichan'tha: from the Greek dolichos, "long," and anthos, "flower"  (ref. Phlox dolichantha)
  • Dol'ichos: a Latin and Greek name used by Theophrastus and Pliny for the kidney bean (ref. genus Dolichos)
  • dolo'sa/dolo'sum/dolo'sus: deceitful, appearing like some other plant, from Latin dolosus, "cunning, false," in turn from the Greek dolos, "fraud or deceit" (ref. Sidalcea malviflora ssp. dolosa)
  • domes'tica/domes'ticum: just what it sounds like, cultivated (ref. Pelargonium Xdomesticum)
  • domingen'sis: I'm not sure of the derivation of this name, but most of the plants that have it seem to be associated with the Dominican Republic, the capital of which is Santo Domingo, and since Typha domingensis is a species of primarily warm, tropical latitudes, I assume some connection with that country (ref. Typha domingensis)
  • do'nax: a Greek name for a kind of weed (ref. Arundo donax)
  • donellia'na: after the Argentinian botanist Carlos Alberto O'Donell (1912-1954) who studied the genus Dichondra (ref. Dichondra donelliana)
  • Dopa'trium: Umberto Quattrocchi says: "Possibly from the Hindi dopatta, a name for a silk scarf with golden threads," referred to in John Lindley's Edwards' Botanical Register (1835) (ref. genus Dopatrium)
  • dor'ei: after William George Dore (1912-1996), a Canadian botanist and prolific author on a variety of subjects. The following is exerpted from the Canadian Field-Naturalist, the official publication of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club: "An Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club field trip with Bill Dore as leader is an experience not soon to be forgotten. His tremendous knowledge of plants, of early settlement in the Ottawa Valley and of the history of Indian travel and village sites, are imparted with typical Dorean enthusiasm. Since he joined the Club in 1944 he has enlivened many evenings with his unique lectures on various natural history topics. Bill Dore's career as a professional botanist of world-wide reputation may not be as well-known to local members. He served as Associate Editor of the Canadian Field-Naturalist for many years. His studies of Canadian grasses have taken him from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and he has written numerous scientific and popular papers. Local naturalists know him best for his "Grasses of the Ottawa District" and his bulletin on Wild Rice." (ref. Achnatherum nelsonii ssp. dorei)
  • dor'is-niles'iae: after Dr. Doris Niles (1903?-1995), who "attended Eureka Junior College from 1920 to 1922 when she passed her teacher's examination. In 1926 she earned a degree in biological science from Stanford University. This was followed by a master's degree in 1927, and finally a Ph. D. in botany in 1930. Doris taught first at Dobyn Creek School, then at Humboldt Normal School where she taught biology from 1927 to 1929. From 1930 to 1950 she taught biological science at Humboldt State part-time. In the years from 1960 to 1990 Doris became an extension teacher for the University of California at Davis. In the northern California area she taught the natural sciences, consisting of ecology, seashore, wildlife, rocks and fossils, and wild flowers. She was responsible for the Humboldt County Office of Education's Wild Flower Show in May from 1980 to 1989. With a grant from the Humboldt Area Foundation, The Doris K. Niles Humboldt County Science Series, consisting of twenty illustrated booklets, was produced in the years from 1982 to 1990."  Quoted from a website called "Women Making a Difference in Humboldt County" by the American Association of University Women (ref. Madia doris-nilesiae)
  • dor'rii: after Clarendon Herbert Dorr (1816-1887), poet, inventor, and son of the captain of the first American ship to anchor in a California port, who was Ebenezer Dorr of the "Otter", though why he should have had a plant named after him is unknown to me (ref. Salvia dorrii var. dorrii, Salvia dorrii var. pilosa)
  • doug'lasii/douglasia'na: named for David Douglas (1798-1834), Scottish collector who was sent to North America first in 1823 and then two more times by the Horticultural Society of London to collect plants that could grow in English gardens.  He began his professional life at the age of eleven as an apprentice gardener, then attended college near his home in Perth. Later he became associated with the Botanical Gardens in Glasgow where the new Professor Botany who happened to be William Jackson Hooker was impressed by him and took him on collecting field trips. His first trip was to the East Coast, New York, Philadelphia and Canada, meeting such notables as John Torrey and Thomas Nuttall. His second was to the Columbia River area of the Northwest, and his third to California, where he collected 500 specimens of California plants and discovered the Douglas fir.  He also discovered the Sitka spruce, the sugar pine and numerous other conifers, and had the reputation of being a crack shot able to shoot down the cones from the tops of sugar pines.  He died on the slopes of Mauna Kea in Hawaii after ostensibly falling into a pit dug to entrap wild bulls and being gored by a wild bull that had previously fallen in. However, there was considerable evidence that he had actually been murdered by a man whom he had breakfasted on the morning of his death, a man named Ned Gurney who had escaped from Australia's Botany Bay and come to Hawaii where he gained his living as a bullock hunter. Douglas was only 35 years old and had introduced to Europe over 200 new species (ref. Arenaria douglasii, Astragalus douglasii, Carex douglasii, Chaenactis douglasii, Cicuta douglasii, Clinopodium douglasii, Coreopsis douglasii, Cusickiella douglasii, Draba douglasii, Limnanthes douglasii, Microseris douglasii, Minuartia douglasii, Phacelia douglasii, Poa douglasii, Pogogyne douglasii, Polygonum douglasii, Quercus douglasii, Senecio flaccidus var. douglasii, Solanum douglasii, Viola douglasii, Amsinckia douglasiana, Artemisia douglasiana, Iris douglasiana)
  • Downin'gia:  named for Andrew Jackson Downing (1815-1852), the first great American landscape gardener and horticulturist (ref. genus Downingia)
  • Dra'ba: from the Greek drabe for "sharp" or "acrid" and referring to the burning taste of the leaves which supposedly had a medicinal value as a poultice (ref. genus Draba, also Cardaria draba)
  • dracun'culus: derived from the Greek draconis, "dragon," and -unculus, "little," meaning "a small dragon or serpent," and thus dragon- or serpent-like, from Pliny who said that the name was given for the resemblance of the rhizome to a small snake (ref. Artemisia dracunculus)
  • Draper'ia: after American historian and scientist John William Draper (1811-1882). "Dr. William Draper, an Englishman by birth, was a professor of chemistry at New York University. In 1837, two years in fact before the announcement of the daguerreotype, he had discovered photography. His early achievements include a photograph of the moon, and of objects through a microscope. He began to experiment with the process, making a camera out of a cigar box. One of his first successful portraits was that of his sister Catherine. Constrained by the considerable exposure times necessary, he first tried to overcome this by coating Catherine's face with flour, but this was not satisfactory. He then discovered that by increasing the aperture of the lens and reducing its focal length he could drastically reduce exposure time. In December 1840 he was using a lens with an f1.4 aperture. Draper set up a partnership with Samuel Morse, a colleague at New York University." (From the Columbia Encyclopedia at Bartleby.com, http://www.bartleby.com/65/dr/Draper-J.html) He received his M.D. at the University of Pennsylvania in 1836, was Professor of chemistry and natural philosophy at Hampstead-Sidney College, Virginia, 1836–1838, and became professor of chemistry at the University of the City of New York in 1839. He helped to organize the medical school of the university, became its professor of chemistry and physiology, and in 1850 succeeded as its president. "Draper’s chief contribution to abstract science was research in radiant energy. His work on the spectra of incandescent substances foreshadowed the development of spectrum analysis, in which his son Henry Draper became a pioneer.Most of his papers on radiant energy were republished in his Scientific Memoirs (1878). His Human Physiology (1856) was the leading textbook of the period in its field, and it contained his own admirable micro-photographs, the first ever published. In 1863 his History of the Intellectual Development of Europe was published, and in 1874 his History of the Conflict between Religion and Science, a rationalistic classic that aroused great controversy. His other works include History of the American Civil War in 3 volumes (1867–70) and Thoughts on the Future Civil Policy of America (1865)." (from a website called Infoplease, http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0816074.html) (ref. genus Draperia)
  • drepano'ides: from the Greek drepane or depranon, "a sickle," which combined with the -oides ending indicating resemblance would mean "sickle-like," the common name of this species in the Jepson Manual being "sickle-fruit jewelflower" (ref. Streptanthus drepanoides)
  • Drosanth'emum: from the Greek drosos, meaning "dew," and anthos, "flower, " in reference to the glistening papillae on the flowers or leaves (ref. genus Drosanthemum)
  • Droser'a: from the Greek droseros, "dewy," referring to the gland-tipped hairs on the leaves that make them look moist (ref. genus Drosera)
  • drummondia'na: see next entry (ref. Salix drummondiana)
  • drummond'ii: named after Thomas Drummond (1790-1835), a Scottish naturalist who like his fellow countryman David Douglas made an ill-fated collecting trip to North America.  He was with Sir John Franklin's Canadian Arctic expedition, and returned to become the curator of the Belfast Botanical Garden.  He was sent by Sir William Hooker on a collecting mission to Texas in North America, where everyone travelling with him died of cholera.  Floods and wet weather destroyed a third of the plants he had collected, and he died of fever in Cuba on his return voyage after sending back more than 700 plants and seeds.  Since he did not collect in California, it is not surprising that California botany is not replete with his name (ref. Gaura drummondii, Potentilla drummondii, also Cirsium scariosum formerly drummondii)
  • drupa'cea: bearing fleshy fruits or drupes (ref. Arctostaphylos pringlei ssp. drupacea)
  • drymario'ides: like genus Drymaria (ref. Pterostegia drymarioides)
  • Drymocal'lis: from the Greek drymos, "a forest, oakwood, coppice," and kallos, "beauty," hence a woodland beauty, from which comes the new Jepson common name of woodbeauty.
  • Dryop'teris: from 2 Greek words drys, "oak," and pteris, "fern," possibly referring to the plant's habitat (ref. genus Dryopteris)
  • du'bia/du'bium/du'bius: doubtful, as in the sense of not conforming to a pattern (ref. Heteranthera dubia, Petrorhagia dubia, Ventenata dubia, Trifolium dubium, Juncus dubius, Tragopogon dubius)
  • Duchesn'ea: after Antoine Nicolas Duchesne (1747-1827), pronounced du-SHANE, a French botanist and horticulturist. He was "the first to conduct an in-depth taxonomic study of the genus Cucurbita. This study was based on the results of cross-pollination and was conducted from 1768 until 1774. The results were presented as a reading from a manuscript accompanied by drawings, most of them life-like watercolors, before the French Royal Academy of Sciences in 1779. The original manuscript has been lost but several brief summaries are scattered in various libraries. The drawings, housed at a museum in Paris, France, are mostly of mature fruits. Most are of C. pepo and include the earliest known drawings of cocozelle and straightneck squash whilst several are of C. moschata and C. maxima" (Quoted from a website of the International Society for Horticultural Science, http://www.actahort.org/books/510/510_15.htm) Between 1769 and 1774, Duchesne made 364 drawings, mostly watercolors, of Cucurbita, and these drawings are currently in the Central Library of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (ref. genus Duchesnea)
  • duda'im: David Hollombe says that "While the biblical dudaim is usually identified as the mandrake, that translation was not always accepted." A paper published in 1737 called "A Critical Dissertation on the Mandrake of the Ancients with Some Onservations on the Egyptian, Grecian and Roman Literature, Botany and Medicine" argued that unlike the mandrake, the dudaim was delicious and pleasant-smelling, and those probably referred to the dudaim melon. And the website Botanical.com (A Modern Herbal) (http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/melons30.html#dud) gives Cucumis dudaim (now Cucumis melo var. dudaim) the common names of the dudaim melon and Queen Anne's pocket melon, and states further that dudaim is the Hebrew name of the fruit. Another website (http://www.wuvie.net/veggies.htm) stated: "In days long ago, the melons were carried in the pockets of those who may not have had the facilities needed for proper hygeine. The melons would help to mask body odors when one was not able to bathe, thus the term 'pocket pomander' [or pocket melon] was born. Stories of old tell that Queen Anne herself carried one, which would explain why common names such as Her Majesty's Melon have been used." This taxon is native to Persia. It is considered a noxious weed and is one that is subject to California's weed eradication program. It began to be a problem in the melon fields of the Imperial Valley beginning in the mid-1960's and was declared to be eradicated from the entire state of California in 1998, according to a report of the Cucurbit Working Group of the USDA. Supposedly it is not especially flavorful and is more to be desired because of its sweet smell (ref. Cucumis melo var. dudaim)
  • Dud'leya/dudleya'na: named for William Russel Dudley (1849-1911), first professor of botany and head of the Botany Department at Stanford University (ref. genus Dudleya, also Clarkia dudleyana)
  • dud'leyi: see Dudleya (ref. Triteleia dudleyi)
  • Dugald'ia: after Dugald Stewart (1753-1828) who "was [born in and] educated in Edinburgh at the high school and the university, where he read mathematics and moral philosophy under Adam Ferguson. In 1771, in the hope of gaining a Snell exhibition and proceeding to Oxford to study for the English Church, he went to Glasgow, where he attended the classes of Thomas Reid. While he owed to Reid all his theory of morality, he repaid the debt by giving to Reid's views the advantage of his admirable style and academic eloquence. In Glasgow Stewart boarded in the same house with Archibald Alison, author of the Essay on Taste, and a lasting friendship sprang up between them. After a single session in Glasgow, Dugald Stewart, at the age of nineteen, was summoned by his father, whose health was beginning to fail, to conduct the mathematical classes in the university of Edinburgh. After acting three years as his father's substitute he was elected professor of mathematics in conjunction with him in 1775. Three years later Adam Ferguson was appointed secretary to the commissioners sent out to the American colonies, and at his urgent request Stewart lectured as his substitute. Thus during the session 1778 - 1779, in addition to his mathematical work, he delivered an original course of lectures on morals. In 1783 he married Helen Bannatyne, who died in 1787, leaving an only son, Colonel Matthew Stewart. In 1785 he succeeded Ferguson in the chair of moral philosophy, which he filled for twenty-five years, making it a centre of intellectual and moral influence. Young men were attracted by his reputation from England, and even from the Continent and America. Among his pupils were Sir Walter Scott, Francis Jeffrey, Henry Thomas Cockburn, Francis Homer, Sydney Smith, Lord Brougham, Dr Thomas Brown, James Mill, Sir James Mackintosh and Sir Archibald Alison. The course on moral philosophy embraced, besides ethics proper, lectures on political philosophy or the theory of government, and from 1800 onwards a separate course of lectures was delivered on political economy, then almost unknown as a science to the general public. Stewart's enlightened political teaching was sufficient, in the times of reaction succeeding the French Revolution, to draw upon him the undeserved suspicion of disaffection to the constitution. The summers of 1788 and 1789 he spent in France, where he met Suard, Degbrando, Raynal, and learned to sympathize with the revolutionary movement. In 1790 Stewart married a Miss Cranstoun. His second wife was well-born and accomplished, and he was in the habit of submitting to her criticism whatever he wrote. They had a son and a daughter, but the son's death in 1809 was a severe blow to his father, and brought about his retirement from the active duties of his chair. Before that, however, Stewart had not been idle as an author. As a student in Glasgow he wrote an essay on Dreaming. In 1792 he published the first volume of the Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind; the second volume appeared in 1814, the third not till 1827. In 1793 he printed a textbook, Outlines of Moral Philosophy, which went through many editions; and in the same year he read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh his account of the Life and Writings of Adam Smith. Similar memoirs of Robertson the historian and of Reid were afterwards read before the same body and appear in his published works. In 1805 Stewart published pamphlets defending Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Leslie against the charges of unorthodoxy made by the presbytery of Edinburgh. In 1806 he received in lieu of a pension the nominal office of the writership of the Edinburgh Gazette, with a salary of £300. When the shock of his son's death incapacitated him from lecturing during the session of 1809-1810, his place was taken, at his own request, by Dr Thomas Brown, who in 1810 was appointed conjoint professor. On the death of Brown in 1820 Stewart retired altogether from the professorship, which was conferred upon John Wilson, better known as "Christopher North," From 1809 onwards Stewart lived mainly at Kinneil House, Linhithgowshire, which was placed at his disposal by the Duke of Hamilton. In 1810 appeared the Philosophical Essays, in 1814 the second volume of the Elements, in 1811 the first part and in 1821 the second part of the "Dissertation" written for the Encyclopaedia Britannica Supplement, entitled "A General View of the Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy since the Revival of Letters." In 1822 he was struck with paralysis, but recovered a fair degree of health, sufficient to enable him to resume his studies. In 1827 he published the third volume of the Elements, and in 1828, a few weeks before his death, The Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers. He died in Edinburgh, where a monument to his memory was erected on Calton Hill. Stewart's philosophical views are mainly the reproduction of his master Reid. He upheld Reid's psychological method and expounded the "common-sense" doctrine, which was attacked by the two Mills. Unconsciously, however, he fell away from the pure Scottish tradition and made concessions both to moderate empiricism and to the French ideologists (Laromiguière, Cabanis and Destutt de Tracy). It is important to notice the energy of his declaration against the argument of ontology, and also against Condillac's sensationalism. Kant, he confessed, he could not understand. Perhaps his most valuable and original work is his theory of taste--the Philosophical Essays. But his reputation rests rather on his inspiring eloquence and the beauty of his style than on original work. Stewart's works were edited in 11 vols. (1854 - 1858) by Sir William Hamilton and completed with a memoir by John Veitch. Matthew Stewart (his eldest son) wrote a life in Annual Biography and Obituary (1829), republished privately in 1838 (Quoted in full from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dugald_Stewart) (ref. genus Dugaldia)
  • dulcama'ra: from the Latin dulcis, "sweet," this is Latin for "bittersweet" (ref. Solanum dulcamara)
  • dul'cis: sweet (ref. Prunus dulcis)
  • Dulich'ium: Latin name for a kind of sedge, and according to Umberto Quattrocchi, from the Greek Doulikion, an island in the Ionian Sea (ref. genus Dulichium)
  • dumetor'um: of shrubby or bushy places (ref. Cryptantha dumetorum)
  • dumo'sa/dumo'sum: bushy, shrubby (ref. Ambrosia dumosa, Cryptantha dumosa, Quercus dumosa, Cneoridium dumosum)
  • dun'nii: after George Washington Dunn (1814-1905), entomologist and conchologist and collector of plants in the Santa Ynez Mountains (ref. Calochortus dunnii, Lobelia dunnii, Quercus dunnii)
  • dur'a: from Latin durus, "hard" (ref. Sclerochloa dura)
  • duran'ii: after Victor Gershon Duran (1897-1989), a student of botany under Willis Linn Jepson, and explorer and botanical collector from 1926 to 1933 in the White Mountains region of California (ref. Heuchera duranii, Juncus duranii, Lupinus duranii)
  • durantifo'lia: presumably with foliage like genus Duranta (ref. Stemodia durantifolia)
  • dura'ta: hardened, made callous or hardy, from the Latin durateus, "wooden" (ref. Quercus durata ssp. gabrielensis)
  • durius'cula: somewhat hard (ref. Carex duriuscula)
  • dut'tonii: named after Harry Arnold Dutton (1873-1957). The following is quoted from The History of Botanical Collecting in the Santa Cruz Mountains of Central California by John Hunter Thomas, published in Contributions from the Dudley Herbarium, volume 5: "[He] was born in Glenwood, Kansas, attended Stanford University and received his bachelor's degree in botany in 1900. Dutton was in the building supply business, but maintained his interest in botany throughout his life. During his student years he collected extensively in the Woodside serpentine and in September 1949 relocated the stand of Cupressus abramsiana Wolf on Butano Ridge in southern San Mateo County, a stand which had been "lost" for nearly fifty years. His name is commemorated in an endemic member of the mint family, a plant which is now probably extinct, Acanthomintha obovata Jepson var. duttonii Abrams. Dutton was a good friend of Willis L. Jepson. In a biographical sketch of Jepson, Parsons (1947, p. 105) wrote "...Mr. Harry Dutton, himself a botanist by avocation, accompanied Dr. Jepson from 1909 to 1930 on botanizing trips that covered 'every township in California.'" (ref. Acanthomintha duttonii)
  • Dysphan'ia: from the Greek dys, "bad or with difficulty," and phanos, "a torch," from phaneros, "evident, conspicuous, visible," thus meaning "only visible with difficulty" in reference to the tiny flowers (ref. genus Dysphania)
  • Dysso'dia: from the Greek dysodia for "a disagreeable odor" (ref. genus Dyssodia)

Coyote Creek Wash, Anza-Borrego State Park.

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