L-R: Palafoxia arida var. gigantea (Giant Spanish needles), Coreopsis maritima (Sea dahlia), Castilleja foliolosa (Woolly indian paintbrush), Lupinus concinnus (Bajada lupine), Chlorogalum parviflorum (Soap plant).

     F

       In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear.

  • fa'ba: Latin for the broad bean, Vicia faba, a native of Europe where it is more common due to the wetter and less hot climate, although it is a garden escape in the U.S. (ref. Vicia faba)
  • faba'cea/faba'ceus: resembling the broad bean (ref. Marah fabacea)
  • faba'go: from faba, "bean," and the substantival suffix -ago which is used to indicate a resemblance or property, thus "like a bean" (ref. Zygophyllum fabago)
  • fa'beri: after Ernst Faber (1839-1899), a German missionary, writer on Confucius and plant collector in China, author of An Introduction to Chinese Religious Studies and German Daoism and Historical Nature of Daoism (ref. Setaria faberi)
  • Fago'nia: after Guy-Crescent Fagon (1638-1718), a French chemist, botanist and chief physician to Louis XIV from 1693 until the King's death in 1715.  From 1671 to 1708 he was Professor of Botany at the Paris Jardin du Roi and from 1699 to 1718 its Director (ref. genus Fagonia)
  • Fagopy'rum: from the Latin and Greek for beech wheat, from the beechnut-like, edible fruit (ref. genus Fagopyrum)
  • falca'ta/falca'tum/falca'tus: sickle-shaped (ref. Atriplex gardneri var. falcata, Fritillaria falcata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Juncus falcatus)
  • falcifo'lium: having sickle-shaped leaves (ref. Allium falcifolium
  • Fallo'pia: after the Italian anatomist Gabriele Fallopio (Falloppio) (1523-1562) (ref. genus Fallopia)
  • Fallu'gia: named after Italian botanist Abbot Virgilio Fallugi (Falugi) of Vallombrosa (1627-1707), originally named Filippo Fallugi (ref. genus Fallugia)
  • farino'sa: mealy, powdery (ref Dudleya farinosa, Encelia farinosa)
  • farnesia'na: I have been given several references to the Farnese gardens on the Palatine Hill in Rome, where a man named Tobia Aldini was the curator. The Farnese family had close ties to the Jesuit order, and often obtained from priests returning to Rome from distant lands seeds and specimens of exotic and in some cases rare plants. Many of these plants were avidly sought after and grown in private gardens. Aldini published a book in Rome in 1625 with high-quality engravings describing a number of these plants, including Acacia farnesiana which was collected in San Domingo (ref. Acacia farnesiana)
  • farnsworthia'nus: after Evalyn Lucille Klein Farnsworth (1912-2003). From her obituary in the Porterville Recorder: "Evalyn Lucille Farnsworth, a resident of Porterville, died in Bakersfield, Monday, Sept. 1, 2003. She was 91. Mrs. Farnsworth was a lifelong resident of Porterville. She was a self-employed cattlewomen and rancher for 70 years. She was a lifelong member of the American Hereford Association, National and California Cattlewomen's Association, founding member and first president of the Tulare Cattlewomen's Association, president and director of the Kem County Cattlewomen's Association. A committed naturalist, she ran the family ranch which has been in the family for over 100 years. She graduated from Porterville College with an AA degree.
    Survivors include her daughter, Sandra Southard of Porterville; two grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. Mrs. Farnsworth was preceded in death by her husband, Freeland Farnsworth, in 1972." And from Twisselmann's Flora of Kern County: "Mrs. Freeland Farnsworth, the former Evalyn L. Klein, and her husband are farmers at Glennville who are well known among California livestock people for their outstanding Ace Hi Hereford herd. Mrs. Farnsworth has collected in the Greenhorn Range since September, 1962, primarily on the ranches she and her husband own at Woody, White River, and Glennville; many of her collections are made while doing range riding for the family cattle operations. Her careful botanizing along the drainage of Cedar and Lumreau creeks is an excellent example of the value of intensive collection of a relatively small but critical area; her collections have yielded numerous Kern County and several Sierra Nevada records. Among them is the type material for the remarkable jewel flower Streptanthus farnsworthianus." (ref. Streptanthus farnsworthianus)
  • fascicular'is: see fasciculata below (ref. Asclepias fascicularis, Leptochloa fascicularis)
  • fascicula'ta/fascicula'tum/fasicula'tus: derived from a Latin word meaning "bundles" and describing the way the leaves are attached to the leaf stem in little bunches or 'fascicles' (ref. Ephedra fasciculata, Hemizonia fasciculata, Orobanche fasciculata, Prunus fasciculata, Adenostema fasciculatum, Eriogonum fasciculatum var. fasciculatum, Eriogonum fasciculatum var. foliolosum, Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium, Malacothamnus fasciculatus)
  • fastigia'ta: with upright branches, or erect clusters of twigs or stems (ref. Heterotheca sessiliflora ssp. fastigiata)
  • fastuo'sum: proud (ref. Echium fastuosum, Venidium fastuosum)
  • fat'ua:  foolish, insipid, worthless (ref. Avena fatua)
  • faucibarba'ta: from the Latin fauces, "throat or gullet," and barba, "beard" (ref. Triphysaria versicolor ssp. faucibarbata)
  • fee'i: after Antoine Laurent Apollinaire Fée (1789-1874). "Trained as an apothecary, Fée's first professional situation was as a medical orderly in Napoleon's army in Spain. After the end of the war, he left the army and set up a practice as an apothecary in Paris, where he founded the pharmaceutical association of that city. In 1825 he was appointed instructor at the teaching hospital in Lille, and in 1832 became instructor at the teaching hospital in Strassburg, where he was promoted to M.D. and professor of botany in 1833. After the end of the Franco-Prussian war, during which the Prussians took Strassburg, he went back to Paris. In 1874, shortly before his death, he was elected president of the Société Botanique de France. Fée was a general cryptogamist, doing work on ferns, lichens and fungi. Much of his work was on tropical material and had a medicinal bent." He was the author of Essai sur les Cryptogames de écorces exotiques officinales (Essay on the Cryptogams that grow on Exotic Medicinal Barks) in 7 volumes (Extracted from a website of the Illinois Mycological Association) (ref. Cheilanthes feei)
  • Feijo'a: after Don de Silva, a 19th-century Brazilian botanist (ref. genus Feijoa)
  • felipen'se: of or from the San Felipe Valley in San Diego Co. (ref. Lepidium flavum var. felipense)
  • fe'lix: from Latin felix, "fruitful, productive" (ref. Calystegia felix)
  • Fendlerel'la: see fendleri below (ref. genus Fendlerella)
  • fend'leri: for August(us) Fendler (1813-1883), a German plant collector in North and Central America.  Acting on a request by Professor Asa Gray, George Engelmann chose Fendler to join a contingent of American soldiers heading for Santa Fe, New Mexico in 1846 to fight against the Mexicans.  Thinking the area somewhat barren when he first arrived in September, he soon altered his opinion and managed to collect more than a thousand specimens over the next year, all within a day's walk from Santa Fe.  Asa Gray had been interested in procuring plants from the alpine reaches of the Sangre de Cristo Range, but Indian depradations and the limited  blooming season at high altitudes prevented Fendler from satisfying Gray's desires.  He died at the age of 70 while travelling in South America, but his name has been attached to many southwestern plants (ref. Chamaesyce fendleri, Thalictrum fendleri var. fendleri, Thalictrum fendleri var. polycarpum)
  • fendleria'na: see fendleri above (ref. Aristida purpurea var. fendleriana, Poa fendleriana ssp. longiligula)
  • fenestra'tus: from the Latin fenestra, "a window," and the suffix -atus which is added to noun stems to form adjectives meaning "provided with," hence "pierced with openings like windows" (ref. Streptanthus fenestratus)
  • -fera: bearing something, e.g. nucifera, "nut-bearing" or mellifera, "honey-bearing" or glandulifera, "gland bearing"
  • fergusoniae: after Margaret Clay Ferguson (1863-1951), plant physiologist who earned her Ph.D. at Cornell University (1901) and taught at Wellesley College from 1893 to 1932. In 1929, she was elected president of the Botanical Society of America, the first woman to hold that office.(ref. Cryptantha barbigera var. fergusoniae)
  • fernaldia'na: after Merritt Lyndon Fernald (1873-1950). "Merritt Lyndon Fernald was born in Orono, Maine on Oct. 5, 1873. His father taught and was for a while president of the Maine State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, which later became the University of Maine. Fernald began his college studies at the State College in 1890; in February, 1891, Sereno Watson offered him a position at the Gray Herbarium that would allow him to work and study part-time at Harvard. Fernald accepted in March, 1891, and enrolled in Harvard's Lawrence Scientific School the following fall. He graduated with an S.B. in 1897 and remained at the Gray Herbarium in one capacity or another for the rest of his life. He worked as an assistant in the herbarium from 1891 to 1902; as an instructor of botany from 1902 to 1905; as an assistant professor from 1905 to 1915; and as Fisher Professor of Natural History from 1915 to 1947. He was also curator of the Gray Herbarium, 1935-37, and director, 1937-1947. Fernald is known for his work on phytogeography. He combined extensive field work with his herbarium work, concentrating on the flora of eastern North America. He did much exploring in Quebec in his younger years; when older, he worked in Virginia. With Benjamin Lincoln Robinson he produced the 7th revision of Gray's Manual, which appeared in 1907. He wrote Edible Wild Plants of Eastern North America with Alfred C. Kinsey, published in 1943. His major work was the 8th revision of Gray's Manual, published in 1950. Before his death, he was planning "a large work on plant distribution." (A.S. Pease) During his lifetime he produced over 750 papers and memoirs. He was active in the New England Botanical Club, serving as editor-in-chief of Rhodora for many years. Fernald married Margaret Howard Grant in 1907. They had three children, one of whom died young. Fernald died on Sept. 22, 1950." (Quoted from a website of the Harvard University Herbaria) (ref. Arabis fernaldiana)
  • fernal'dii: see previous entry (ref. Iris fernaldii)
  • fernandin'a: of or from the San Fernando Valley (ref. Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina)
  • Ferocac'tus: from the Latin ferus, "fierce," and cactus, referring to its heavy spines (ref. genus Ferocactus)
  • ferocis'simum: the Dave's Garden Botanary site gives "most fierce, spiniest" for this name (ref. Lycium ferocissimum)
  • fero'cula: from fero, "fierce, wild," and the diminutive -cula, "little, somewhat" (ref. Pectocarya linearis ssp. ferocula)
  • fer'ox: ferocious, very thorny (ref. Datura ferox)
  • ferris'iae/fer'risiae: after Roxana Judkins (Stinchfield) Ferris (1895-1978), an early staff member of the Dudley Herbarium of Stanford University, author of Native Shrubs of the San Francisco Bay Region (1968), Flowers of the Point Reyes National Seashore (1970), Death Valley Wildflowers (1983), and co-author with LeRoy Abrams of Flora of the Pacific States, Vol. IV. The following is quoted from Sara Timby, "The Dudley Herbarium" in Sandstone and Tile, the journal of the Stanford Historical Society, Vol. 22, No. 4: "Ferris was the mainstay of the herbarium. Her official, full-time job lasted forty-seven years, but she was a student assistant three additional years,and she continued her connection with the herbarium in many capacities after her retirement. John Thomas, her colleague and staunch admirer, wrote 'Although the titular curators came and went, Roxy ran the place.' That is not to say she was always there; she did a tremendous amount of fieldwork, collecting some 14,000 specimens, often with many duplicates that were traded with other herbaria. Ferris received her A.B. degree from Stanford in 1915 and her A.M. in the following year with a thesis on the "birds beaks," the genus Cordylanthus. Her husband, Gordon Floyd Ferris, was an entomolgist who studied the scale and sucking insects such as lice and aphids. They married in 1916, when both started working for Stanford. They had one daughter, Beth, born in 1917. Roxy's mother lived with them and cared for Beth. Roxy's professional titles did not come as quickly as the men around her, but eventually she did become Assistant Curator, Associate Curator, Curator, and finally Curator Emeritus. Ferris officially retired in 1963, and shortly thereafter had a heart attack. But she kept working at the herbarium until the early seventies and died at age eighty-three in 1978" (ref. Arenaria macradenia ssp. ferrisiae, Astragalus tener var. ferrisiae, Ceanothus ferrisiae, Lasthenia ferrisiae)
  • ferris'sii/fer'rissii: after James Henry Ferriss (1849-1926), a journalist, editor of the Joliet (IL) News, a prolific author who published many articles on the molluscs, and with only a high school degree became "the foremost of American land-shell collectors." He moved to Kansas at the age of 20 to start a business and worked as a farmer, freighter and storekeeper. He began working as a reporter in Illinois in 1872 and became the editor of several papers, including the Phoenix and the Joliet News, which he later purchased. His primary interests were land snails, fossils, ferns and cacti. He made annual trips to the Alleghenies from 1896-1902 and travelled extensively through southwestern Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. "Apparently had a 'rivalry' of sorts with landshell collectors Annie Law and Mary Andrews (nee Lathrop). According to [H.A.] Pilsbry, "Ferriss thought that if women could discover such splendid species, a man ought to find one as "as big as a teacup, with spines." To drive in an auto with Ferriss was according to Pilsbry "an education for the nerves. Very few large stones were missed." The ultimate field biologist, he "had great endurance, an unfailing optimism, and an exhaustless store of entertaining talk. The prospector or cattle man who chanced to drop into camp often stayed, swapping reminiscences around the fire far into the night -- tales of the Indian times, of Apache Kid, Cochise Stronghold, and of course, of the search for lost mines. Jailed in 1877 for an unpopular editorial which apparently offended a local political boss. A fiery prohibitionist, his paper was the terror of grafters and saloon keepers. National Chairman of the Populist Party Convention in 1904." (The foregoing was from an article by H.A. Pilsbry in a 1926 issue of Nautilus.) Ferriss was also President of the American Fern Society from 1905 to 1908 (ref. Equisetum Xferrissii)
  • ferrugin'ea: rusty red (ref. Menziesia ferruginea, Saxifraga ferruginea)
  • Festu'ca: from the Latin festuca, "a grass stalk or straw" (ref. Festuca arundinacea)
  • fe'ta: this specific epithet was not explained in the original publication, but the Latin fetus means either "pregnant, productive" or "breeding, bearing, producing" (ref. Carex feta)
    (ref. Carex feta)
  • feu'dgei: after John Byron Feudge (1871-1949). Information contributed by David Hollombe from a San Bernardino Tribune obituary: Born on a ranch in the Warm Springs area east of San Bernardino of parents who were early pioneer residents of the valley, as a young man he entered the railway mail service and remained until retirement, after which he studied native western plants and was for several years President of the Samuel B. Parish Botanical Society. He was a member of the San Bernardino Mineralogical Society and was also interested in avian fauna. He was a source of help for local school children on questions of natural history, and although not professionally trained he was consulted by teachers and even professional scientists (ref. Orobanche californica ssp. feudgei)
  • fibrillo'sa/fibrillo'sus: composed of fibers (ref. Cheilanthes fibrillosa, Potamogeton foliosus var. fibrillosus)
  • Fi'cus: a Latin name for the fig (ref. genus Ficus)
  • fi'cus-in'dica: Indian fig (ref. Opuntia ficus-indica)
  • filagin'ea/filagin'eus: having woolly threads (ref. Stylocline filaginea, Ancistrocarphus filagineus)
  • filaginifo'lia: with leaves like those of Filago, referring to the white, woolly threads on the leaf surfaces (ref. Lessingia filaginifolia)
  • filaginoides: resembling genus Filago (ref. Logfia filaginoides)
  • Fila'go: from the Latin filum, "thread," referring to the hairs (ref. genus Filago)
  • Fi'laree: a corruption of the Spanish name Alfilerilla, "a needle," in reference to the needle-like seed pod
  • filicau'lis: with a thread-like stem (ref. Githopsis filicaulis)
  • filiculo'ides: I believe this means fern-like or looking like a fern, from the Latin felix or filicis, "a fern." From David Hollombe: "Azolla filiculoides was described by Lamarck as having the aspect of a very small fern and also describes the branching as filiciform (fern-shaped) bouquets or rosettes." (ref. Azolla filiculoides)
  • filif'era: composed of or bearing thread-like structures (ref. Washingtonia filifera)
  • filifo'lia/filifo'lium/filifo'lius: refers to the thread-like foliage (ref. Brodiaea filifolia, Sibara filifolia, Eriastrum filifolium, Cordylanthus filifolius, Hymenopappus filifolius)
  • filifor'me/filifor'mis: thread-like (ref. Leptochloa filiformis, Linanthus filiformis, Muhlenbergia filiformis, Phaseolus filiformis, Potamogeton filiformis)
  • fil'ipes: from the prefix fili- meaning "threadlike" and pes, Latin for "foot," hence "with threadlike stalks" (compare brevipes or "short-stalked," crassipes or "thick-stalked," gracilipes or "slender-stalked," trichopes or "hairy-stalked", and planipes or "flat-stalked") (ref. Antirrhinum filipes, Astragalus filipes, Holozonia filipes)
  • fi'lix-fem'ina: from the Latin filix, "a fern," and femina, "feminine," this taxa is called lady fern from the sporangia which are enclosed or hidden in a manner which is deemed to be feminine (ref. Athyrium filix-femina)
  • fimbria'ta/fimbria'tum/fimbria'tus: fringed (ref. Chorizanthe fimbriata var. fimbriata, Chorizanthe fimbriata var. laciniata, Woodwardia fimbriata, Allium fimbriatum, Alternanthera fimbriatus, Amaranthus fimbriatus, Calochortus fimbriatus)
  • fimbriola'ta: fringed with very fine hairs (ref. Pleuricospora fimbriolata)
  • Fimbristy'lis: from the Latin fimbriae, "shreds, fringe," and stilus, "style," in reference to the ciliate style (ref. genus Fimbristylis)
  • fish'iae: after Fanny Emily Fish Irving Trollope (1829-1905), who apparently discovered this taxon near Todos-Santos Bay, Lower California. The following is excerpted from an article by David Hollombe: "Fanny Emily Fish was born June 17, 1829, just north of present-day Birmingham, Michigan. 'She was a very popular young lady and unusually well-educated for those times. Though she would have liked very much to have been able to attend college her mother's poor health kept her at home.' Sometime after her father's death, which occurred in 1861, her younger brother, William, married and moved to Ovid, Mich., in 1865, and Fanny, her mother and her nephews Spencer and Charles (sons of her brother Henry, who died in the Civil War) joined him there a few years later. William brought his wife and daughter to Santa Barbara, California, in 1874, coming by way of the Isthmus of Panama, and in 1876 they moved to El Sauzal, near Ensenada. As Williams's daughter, Anna Roberts, later recalled, 'They carried not only a deck load of lumber for a ranch house, but chickens and pigs.' Meanwhile, about 1878, Spencer moved to Hillsboro, Illinois, and then bought a farm nearby in Butler. Fanny went with him and stayed a while, but then travelled to California, visiting cousins in Martinez, and then joined William at El Sauzal in July, 1879. On April 10, 1882, a party of Americans arrived at El Sauzal on a botanizing expedition and were welcomed by the family. The group consisted of Marcus Eugene Jones, Dr. Charles Christopher Parry, Cyrus Guernsey Pringle and Pringle's assistant. They had also hired a driver and cook in San Diego, a nurseryman's son named Charles Russell Orcutt who was later to become an enthusiastic botanist. (Later in the expedition, Jones quarrelled with the others over which had first discovered a new rose, and then 'held up' Orcutt at gunpoint! (A fascinating and detailed account, written by Dr. Lee Lenz appeared in Aliso Vol. 10, no 2, in 1982.) Some weeks later Dr. Parry, remembering that Fanny had shown an interest in botany, wrote offering to send her books and paper in exchange for fruiting specimens of the plants the botanists had collected in flower. She enthusiastically agreed. Hoping to insure her continued interest, he named a plant after her, Polygala fishiae, which she had collected at El Sauzal, near the southern limit of its distribution. Parry also returned the following winter in person, with the same purpose in mind. Fanny's interest in botany did not fail but, alas, the ranch did. Frequent and severe drought limited the ranch's productivity, and there was no demand locally for what the ranch did produce. In 1883 the Fish family returned to Alta California [as opposed to Baja California], settling this time at Tecolote Canyon, just north of San Diego. Fanny Fish continued to botanize at San Diego. She corresponded with her botanical acquaintances and was visited by other local naturalists. She especially liked young Charles Orcutt, to whom she sold most of her botanical collections. She even wrote up a few random thoughts about watching ants at work, and Orcutt published them in his journal, West American Scientist. On April 8, 1886, she left San Diego by train, and arrived in Hillsboro, Illinois, where her brother Edmund lived, three days later. After only a few days she went on to her nephew Charles' house in Butler, and stayed with his family until late October, when she left to visit her brother Charles in Elkhart, Indiana. Her diary ends with Thanksgiving day, 1887. Soon after, she returned to Birmingham, Michigan, where on May 23, 1888, she married Hugh Irving, a retired hardware merchant. 'After Mr. Irving's death she met again her childhood sweetheart, Mr. Albert Trollope, of Detroit, after a separation of fifty years, and they were married in November, 1901. Her death occurred July 5, 1905, not far from the spot where she was born.' (ref. Polygala cornuta var. fishiae)
  • fissurico'la: from the Latin fissura, "a split, chink, fissure," and the -cola suffix indicating "a dweller of" (ref. Carex fissuricola)
  • fistulo'sus: hollow or tubular, usually referring to the stalks (ref. Asphodelus fistulosus)
  • fitch'ii: after the Reverend Augustus Fitch (1794-1874), an Episcopal clergyman on the West Coast (ref. Centromadia [formerly Hemizonia] fitchii)
  • flabellar'is: from the Latin flabellum for "a small fan," and the -aris suffix meaning "belonging or pertaining to" which is used after word stems ending in 'l' such as fascicularis, pilularis or axillaris (ref. Ranunculus flabellaris)
  • flabellifo'lia: bearing fan-shaped leaves (ref. Potentilla flabellifolia)
  • flabellifor'mis: shaped like a small fan (ref. Potentilla gracilis var. flabelliformis)
  • flac'cida/flac'cidum/flac'cidus: flaccid (ref. Cryptantha flaccida, Galium californicum ssp. flaccidum, Senecio flaccidus)
  • flagellar'is: whiplike (ref. Antennaria flagellaris)
  • flam'mea: flame-colored
  • flam'mula: meaning "a small flame" and uncertain as to its application but possibly alluding to a burning taste of some species with this name (ref. Ranunculus flammula)
  • Flaver'ia: from the Latin flavus for "pure yellow" (ref. genus Flaveria)
  • flaves'cens: becoming yellow, yellowish (ref. Garrya flavescens, Trisetum flavescens)
  • flavico'mus: yellow-haired (ref. Cyperus flavicomus)
  • flav'idum: yellowish (ref. Sedum laxum ssp. flavidum)
  • flavocaula'tus: yellow-stemmed (ref. Lupinus flavocaulatus)
  • flavocula'ta/flavocula'tus: from the Latin flavus, "yellow," and oculus, "eye," thus "yellow-eyed" (ref. Cryptantha flavoculata, Lupinus flavoculatus)
  • flavovir'ide: yellow-green (ref. Eriogonum fasciculatum var. flavoviride)
  • fla'vum: yellow (ref. Glaucium flavum, Lepidium flavum)
  • flem'ingii/fleming'ii: after Guy Lowd Fleming (1884-1960). The following is quoted from Carl Heilbron's History of San Diego County (1936): "Guy L. Fleming has long been interested in the preservation and development of the natural beauties of Southern California. Coming to San Diego in January 1909, his first job was with the newly founded Little Landers Colony at San Ysidro. He was associated with this organization for about two years. Here he met George P. Hall, formerly one of San Diego County's first horticultural commissioners, but at the time retired from active work. Inspired and encouraged by Mr. Hall he became interested in the study of horticulture. In February 1911 he started work in the nursery of the first San Diego Exposition and ultimately became foreman of one of the landscape divisions. He worked for the Exposition until 1916, during which time he carried on an intensive study of the horticulture of the Southwest, making a specialty of the native trees and shrubs. In 1914 he was elected a member of the San Diego Society of Natural History, then a small organization of less than thirty members, and became actively interested in its affairs and growth. After the Exposition he engaged in horticulture and landscape work, for a time serving as a horticultural inspector for the county. In the summer of 1916 he, with others, started the movement for the preservation and protection of the rare Torrey Pines, which resulted, in 1921, in his being retained by the late Miss Ellen B. Scripps as Custodian of the Torrey Pines Reserve, an area which included lands belonging to Miss Scripps, on which the finest stands of Torrey Pines are growing, and the original Torrey Pines Park, dedicated in 1899. This position he held until July 1933 when he was appointed District Superintendent of the State Division of Parks. Through a bequest by Miss Scripps he still resides at Torrey Pines Preserve. In 1924 he was instrumental in getting the Soledad Estuary and beach at the northern limits of the City of San Diego and the cliffs and canyons south of the original Torrey Pines Park added to the Preserve, giving to the public a natural park of approximately 1200 acres having a sea frontage of three miles and one of the finest and longest bathing beaches in California. While custodian he carried on botanical and natural history research and became a recognized authority on these subjects. Botanists and scientists from many parts of the world have visited him at Torrey Pines Preserve. In 1928, when the State Park acquisition program was started, he was given permission by Miss Scripps to assist the State Park Commission in its survey and acquisition of State Parks in Southern California. This work led to his appointment as Superintendent when the Southern District was formed. The position is a most important one and involves a great deal of traveling and careful planning and inspection. Mr. Fleming's district includes twenty State Park areas extending from Monterey County to the southern limits of the state. A native of Nebraska, Mr. Fleming was born at Ayr on May 27, 1884, the son of James A. and Georgia (Lowd) Fleming. The father was a contractor and builder and brought his family to the Pacific Coast in 1896, locating in Oregon. Both parents came to La Jolla in 1922, his mother still living there, but his father passed away in 1935. Mr. Fleming's education was received in the schools of Oregon. He is a Fellow of the San Diego Society of Natural History, a member of the Western Society of Naturalists, and actively affiliated as a collaborator with many scientific institutions and organizations. He has three children: John R., Margaret E., and Elizabeth Fleming, by a former marriage. In 1926 he married Margaret Doubleday Eddy." (ref. Mimulus flemingii)
  • flex'ilis: flexible, pliant, limber (ref. Pinus flexilis)
  • flexuo'sum/flexuo'sus: tortuous, zigzag (ref. Thelypodium flexuosum, Calochortus flexuosus, Sporobolus flexuosus)
  • floccif'era: bearing flocks of wool (ref. Malacothrix floccifera)
  • flocco'sa/flocco'sum: woolly (ref. Limnanthes floccosa, Eriogonum heermannii var. floccosum)
  • Floerk'ea: named for the German lichenologist Heinrich Gustav Floerke (1764-1835), professor of botany and author of De Cladoniis Difficillimo Lichenum Genere Commentatio Nova (ref. genus Floerkea)
  • floribun'da/floribun'dus: from floris, "flower," or florere, "to flower," with the Latin adjectival suffix -bundus used in the sense of doing or action accomplished, and thus meaning "profusely flowering, producing or having produced abundant flowers" (ref. Chasmanthe floribunda, Conyza floribunda, Hemizonia floribunda, Phacelia floribunda, Linanthus floribundus ssp. glaber, Linanthus floribundus ssp. hallii, Lyonothamnus floribundus ssp. aspleniifolius, Lyonothamnus floribundus ssp. floribundus, Mimulus floribundus)
  • flor'ida/flor'idum/flor'idus: either (1) free flowering, producing abundant flowers; or (2) bright (ref. Parkinsonia florida, Penstemon floridus var. austinii)
  • florida'na: of or from Florida (ref. Parietaria floridana)
  • -florus: having flowers
  • flu'itans: floating (ref. Glyceria fluitans)
  • fluminen'sis: of or from Flumen Januarii which is the Latin name for the city of Rio de Janeiro (ref. Tradescantia fluminensis)
  • fluviatil'is: growing in a river or running water (ref. Scirpus fluviatilis)
  • foem'ina: female, feminine (ref. Anagallis foemina)
  • foenicula'ceum: resembling fennel (ref. Lomatium foeniculaceum)
  • Foenic'ulum: a diminutive of the Latin word foenum, "hay," because of the smell (ref. genus Foeniculum)
  • foen'um-grae'cum: foenum in Latin means "hay," and graecus means "Grecian, of Greece" (ref. Trigonella foenum-graecum)
  • foetidis'sima: very evil-smelling (ref. Cucurbita foetidissima)
  • folia'ceus: leafy
  • foliolo'sa/foliolo'sum: furnished with leaflets (ref. Castilleja foliolosa)
  • folio'sa/folio'sum/folio'sus: leafy (ref. Calamagrostis foliosa, Castilleja foliosa, Malacothrix foliosa, Spartina foliosa, Eriogonum foliosum, Galium angustifolium ssp. foliosum, Ceanothus foliosus, Erigeron foliosus, Potamogeton foliosus)
  • fol'lettii/follet'tii: after attorneys Wilbur Irving Follett (1901-1992) and Evelyn Etta Browning Follett (1902-1994). The following is from Cantelow & Cantelow's article "Biographical notes on persons in whose honor Alice Eastwood named native plants" and was written before their deaths : "He was born in Newark, N. J., 10 March 1901, she was born in Hemet, California, 26 June 1902 [actually 1897]; they now live in Oakland, Calif., and both practice law there and in the San Francisco Bay area. Mr. Follett has for years been Curator of Ichthyology, California Academy of Sciences, as an avocation [and has written extensively on the subject]. Both have long been interested in native flora and have brought interesting material to University of California and the California Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Follett (Evelyn Follett) is now president of Queen's Bench, an organization of women lawyers and judges, dedicated to educational activities." (ref. Monardella follettii)
  • fonta'na/fonta'num: pertaining to springs or fountains, growing in fast-running water (ref. Montia fontana, Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare)
  • fontina'le/fontina'lis: pertaining to springs or fountains, growing in fast-moving water (ref. Cirsium fontinale, Betula fontinalis)
  • forbes'ii: named for Charles Noyes Forbes (1883-1920), curator of botany at the Bishop Museum in Hawaii (ref. Hesperocyparis forbesii)
  • Forestier'a: The Jepson Manual and other sources such as Umberto Quattrocchi have apparently mistakenly attributed the authorship of this generic name to an early 19th century French physician and naturalist named Charles Le Forestier. However, David Hollombe's researches have indicated otherwise. A communication from him included the following: "There was a botanist Charles Le Forestier (co-author with Lefebure of Album floral des plantes indigènes de France, Paris, 1829) but he was not a doctor and not the person for whom Forestiera was named.  Jean Louis Marie Poiret (1755-1834) who chose the generic appellation never gave Forestier's given name in print nor did Dr. Forestier's two published articles (neither of them on botany).  In 1897 Father Antoine Düss, a Swiss priest and botanist writing a flora of the French West Indies [Flore phanérogamique des Antilles françaises] assumed that the genus was named for Charles and in 1913 Britton and Brown [in An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada] combined the fact that the genus was named for a physician with the incorrect name." André Robert Forestier, the son of Aimé and Marie, and a native of Paris, was a doctor of medicine and a physician of the town hospice of Saint-Quentin, Aisne, which was Poiret's home town, and he was Poiret's first botany teacher. He died at the age of 76 on Oct. 6, 1812, in Saint-Quentin (ref. genus Forestiera)
  • -forme/-formis: from the Latin forma, "shape, figure, appearance, nature," this is a suffix commonly applied to nouns, e.g. fusiforme, "spindle-shaped," cithariforme, "lyre-shaped," filiformis, "thread-like," spiciformis, "spike-shaped," lentiformis, "lens-shaped," claviformis, "club-shaped"
  • formica'ra/formicar'um: said to refer to ant-like 'creeping' of the seed as the awn curls and uncurls, from the Latin formica, "ant" (ref. Nassella formicara)
  • formo'sa/formo'sum/formo'sus: finely formed, handsome, beautiful (ref. Aquilegia formosa, Dicentra formosa, Lupinus formosus)
  • formosan'us: of or from or referring to the country of Taiwan, formerly Formosa
  • formosis'sima/formosis'simus: very handsome or beautiful (ref. Ipomopsis aggregata ssp. formosissima, Lotus formosissimus)
  • Forsel'lesia: named after Jakob Henrik Forselles (1785-1855), a Swedish botanical writer, this genus in California contains a small but highly variable group of species that has undergone taxonomic revision and is now placed by Jepson in the genus Glossopetalon of the family Crossosomataceae, where one of its species, stipulifera, was placed before being moved by Munz into Forsellesia (ref. genus Forsellesia)
  • fosberg'ii/fos'bergii: after Francis Raymond Fosberg (1908-1993), one of the great plant conservationsists who was also interested in ecology, geography, geology and was a botanist for the U.S. Geological Survey and the Smithsonian Institution who specialized in the floras of California, South America and Polynesia and authored Flora of Micronesia (ref. Cylindropuntia fosbergii)
  • fossa'lis: I believe this is from the Latin fossa for "ditch or trench," and -alis, meaning "pertaining to," since ditches appear to be a place where this species may be found (ref. Navarretia fossalis)
  • Fouquier'ia: named for Pierre Éloi Fouquier (1776-1850), a French physician, professor of medicine and naturalist (ref. genus Fouquieria)
  • fow'leri: after the noted Canadian Rev. Dr. James Fowler (1829-1923), an ordained Presbyterian minister, professor of botany at Queen's University in Ontario, the University's first librarian, author of the first complete catalogs of New Brunswick plants (List of New Brunswick Plants - 1879, Additions to the List of New Brunswick Plants - 1880, and List of Plants of New Brunswick - 1885) and curator of the museum that would eventually become the Fowler Herbarium. His work was the standard reference on New Brunswick plants for over forty years (ref. Polygonium fowleri)
  • frac'ta: broken (ref. Carex fracta)
  • Fragar'ia: from the Latin fraga, "strawberry," which derives from fragum, "fragrant," from the fragrance of the fruit (ref. genus Fragaria)
  • fragif'erum: I can only assume that this means "bearing some strawberry-like structure." The distinctive feature is the fruits which are larger than the flower and the sepals (calyx) of which become inflated so that the large pale pink fruiting body is supposed to be a bit like a strawberry (but not much). A website called Wild Plants of the British Isles has the following about T. fragiferum: "The distinctive feature is the fruits which are larger than the flower and the sepals (calyx) of which become inflated so that the large pale pink fruiting body is supposed to be a bit like a strawberry (but not much)." (ref. Trifolium fragiferum)
  • frag'ilis: brittle, fragile (ref. Cystopteris fragilis, Muhlenbergia fragilis)
  • fra'grans: fragrant (ref. Lepechinia fragrans)
  • franchet'ii: after Adrien Rene Franchet (1834-1900), French botanist, based at the Paris Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. He is noted for his extensive work describing the flora of China and Japan, based on the collections made by Armand David, Pierre Jean Marie Delavay, Paul Guillaume Farges and others (ref. Cotoneaster franchetii)
  • francisca'na/francisca'num: of or from San Francisco (ref. Clarkia franciscana, Monardella villosa ssp. franciscana, Erysimum franciscanum)
  • franciscen'sis: see previous entry
  • Fran'gula: CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names says: "Perhaps derived from the Latin frangere, 'to break'." A personal communication from John Kartesz supplied the information that the name refers to its extremely brittle wood. The species alder-buckthorn, Rhamnus frangula, bears a fairly old name, and the bark of that tree contained a glucoside with purgative or laxative qualities that was named frangulin by a chemist named Casselmann (ref. genus Frangula)
  • Franken'ia: after Johan Frankenius (1590-1661), sometimes written as Franke or Franckenius or Franck, professor of anatomy, medicine and botany at Uppsala, Sweden, and the first writer on Swedish plants, author of Speculum botanicum, and a colleague of Linnaeus (ref. genus Frankenia)
  • Fra'sera: after John Fraser (1750-1811), a well-known Scottish-born nurseryman and collector of North American plants who moved to London in the 1770's. He and his brother James operated two nurseries in the vicinity of Charleston, S.C. at least from 1791 to 1800 where they could grow the plants that were part of their business which imported American plants into England. In 1796 he travelled to Russia and sold a large collection of American plants to Czarina Catherine II, botanized around St. Petersburg, and after Catherine's death continued his botanical entrepreneurship with Maria Federovna, wife of Czar Paul I. In 1800 he and his son John, Jr. were in America again, visiting Thomas Jefferson at Monticello, travelling through Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia, and nearly coming to a bad end in a shipwreck off the coast of Cuba in 1801. Apparently he had been under the impression that he had been hired by Czar Paul to collect plants in America, but after Paul's assassination in 1801 and Fraser's return to Russia, the new ruler, Alexander I, refused to honor whatever arrangement Fraser believed had been made. However he eventually accepted 6000 rubles for his work and plants, and some of his herbarium specimens are currently in the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Financial difficulties had seemed to plague him both before and after these misadventures and he was declared bankrupt at the time of his death. This information is from from Marcus Simpson, Jr., "Biographical Notes on John Fraser," Archives of Natural History (1997) 24 (1): 1-18 (ref. genus Frasera)
  • frax'ino-praten'sis: of ash (Fraxinus) meadows (ref. Grindelia fraxino-pratensis)
  • Frax'inus: a classical Latin name for this genus (ref. genus Fraxinus)
  • Free'sia: after Friedrich Heinrich Theodor Freese (1795?-1876), a German physician-botanist who studied South African plants. He was a friend and pupil of the Danish botanist and professional plant collector Christian Friedrich Ecklon. This plant was first discovered in South Africa (ref. genus Freesia)
  • fre'montii/fremont'ii:  named for John Charles Fremont (1813-1890), "the Pathfinder," Army officer and presidential candidate who collected plants on four hazardous journeys exploring the western United States.  Best known for cartography and exploring, he was intensely interested in all natural sciences.  A member of the 1839 expedition of French explorer Joseph Nicolas Nicolett, he helped to map the region between the upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Nicolett tutored him in geology, topography and astronomy, and with that knowledge he surveyed the Des Moines River in 1841. Subsequently (1842-1845), after taking a quick course in collecting and preserving plant specimens from George Engelmann in St. Louis, he led three expeditions of exploration and survey into the Oregon Territory. His explorations in 1843 led him to the Great Salt Lake area, about which not a great deal was known, and his reports of this expedition have been credited for giving the Mormons their first idea of settling in Utah. He mapped much of the Oregon Trail to the mouth of the Columbia River, crossing the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the middle of winter. He fought in the Mexican War (1846-1848) before becoming a millionaire in the 1848 gold rush and then assisting with the annexation of California, eventually being appointed the civil governor. He became embroiled in a dispute between U.S. Navy Commodore R.F. Stockton and U.S. Army brigadier general Stephen Watts Kearny, refusing to follow the latter's orders, and was arrested and court-martialled. President Polk intervened, changing his sentence from dismissal from the service and allowing him to resign his commission. He was elected one of the first two Senators from California in 1850, taking his seat the day after the admission of California to the Union, and served until 1851, when because of the decline in popularity of the antislavery party in California, he failed to be re-elected. He spent a year in Europe (1852-1853), being received by eminent scientists and politicians in several countries.  In 1856 he became the first Republican Party presidential candidate but was defeated by James Buchanan. He served unsuccessfully as a major general in the Civil War, making his headquarters at St. Louis in July, 1861 and proclaiming marshall law in August. His strong antislavery stance led him to issue a proclamation of emancipation regarding the slaves of Missouri, a position which President Lincoln was not ready to adopt and unsuccessfully urged him to reconsider, and forcing the President to annul. The Secretary of War was pursuaded to investigate many charges of arbitary behavior and inefficient administration against him, and he was finally relieved of his command in 1862, whereupon he returned to St. Louis and was immediately given a new command. Although his army saw action, it was eventually incorporated under the command of General Pope, at which time Fremont once again decided he had effectively been removed from a command position and asked to be relieved, thus ending his Civil War career. In 1864 he was asked to be the nominee for President by a group of Republicans unhappy with Lincoln, and while he at first accepted, he later withdrew for the good of the party. After the war, he became interested in establishing a southern transcontinental railroad route, but agents of his company misrepresented bonds they were trying to sell as guaranteed by the U.S. government and this venture failed. From 1878 to 1883 he served as the appointed governor of the Territory of Arizona. His wife was the daughter of the famous Missouri senator Thomas Hart Benton, the Democratic Party leader in the Senate for three decades, and she helped him turn his expedition notes into highly readable and ultimately very popular reports.  His association with Benton had a great deal to do with his success as a mapmaker and surveyor, and it was Benton who was largely responsible for getting Fremont the leadership of many of his expeditions. Benton was a champion of the expansionist movement known as "Manifest Destiny" and saw Fremont as a talented explorer and promoter of the West. Fremont had a way with words and his beautiful descriptions of western landscapes appealed to the reading public and greatly encouraged settlement there.  Ultimately poor business judgement resulted in his losing most of the wealth he had acquired and he was forced to live off his wife's earnings, but few Americans have lived such a turbulent and event-filled life. Although his personality verged at times on the dictatorial, he was probably never happier than when with a group of hardy adventurers he could be free to explore the little-known regions of the vast western territories, risking all and suffering great hardships and difficulties. He contributed greatly to geography and named the Great Basin, of which he was the first to appreciate the immensity and the fact that it had no outlet to the sea, and Fremont Peak in the Wind River Mountains bears his name today.  Despite his apparent accomplishments, were it not for his network of connections and his knack for political expediency, he probably would have been a failure many times over. He had little moral sense and allowed greed and ambition to rule him. A line from an LA Times review of a new biography of Fremont seems to sum him up admirably: "He turned golden promise into the dross of failure." The name of Charles Fremont is well known to California botanists because of the Fremontia and the Fremont cottonwood, in addition to a substantial number of other plants named for him (ref. Amphipappus fremontii, Berberis fremontii, Chaenactis fremontii, Chenopodium fremontii, Garrya fremontii, Gentiana fremontii, Lasthenia fremontii, Layia fremontii, Lepidium fremontii, Lycium fremontii, Malacothamnus fremontii, Mimulus fremontii, Phacelia fremontii, Populus fremontii, Prunus fremontii, Psorothamnus [formerly Dalea] fremontii, Senecio fremontii var. occidentalis, Syntrichopappus fremontii, Zigadenus fremontii, and the genus Fremontodendron)
  • Fremontoden'dron: see fremontii above (ref. genus Fremontodendron)
  • fresnen'sis: or or from Fresno (ref. Ceanothus fresnensis)
  • frig'ida: stiff (ref. Phacelia frigida)
  • Fritillar'ia: derived from the Latin fritillus, meaning "a dicebox," and possibly referring to the shape of the seedpod or the checkered sepals on the flowers (ref. genus Fritillaria)
  • froebel'ii/froe'belii: after Julius Froebel (1805-1893), German mineralogist, educator, and nephew of Friedrich Froebel (the founder of the kindergarten system of education). "Born in Greisheim, Germany, Julius was educated at the universities of Jena, Munich, and Berlin, and in 1833 became a naturalized citizen of Switzerland. He joined the extreme radical party, edited the " Swiss Republican." and issued several scientific works and political pamphlets, many of which were suppressed in Germany. In 1848 he was elected a member of the German parliament that met at Frankfort, and afterward accompanied the radical Robert Blum to Vienna, where he was arrested and condemned to death by the court martial that convicted Blum, but was pardoned before the date fixed for the execution. On the dissolution of the parliament he visited the United States, where he became editor of a German newspaper, lectured in New York City, and in 1850 went to Nicaragua, Santa Fe, and Chihuahua as correspondent of the New York "Tribune." He returned to Germany in 1857, and efforts were made to expel him from Frankfort. but he was protected on the ground of his naturalization as a citizen of the United States. In 1862 he went to Vienna, took an active part in liberal politics, and became a leader of the Federalist party. In 1873 he was appointed consul of the German empire at Smyrna, Asia Minor. His works are "System of Social Politics" (London, 1847); "TheRepublican," an historical drama (1848): "Seven Years' Travel in Central America, Northern Mexico, and the Far West of the United States" (1859); "Theory of Politics" (1861); and "Political Addresses" (1870)." [Information from Virtual American Biographies] His studies of Mayan architecture and linguistics are still used extensively (ref. Mirabilis froebelii)
  • frondo'sa/frondo'sus: leafy (ref. Bidens frondosa, Aster frondosus)
  • frutes'cens: shrubby (ref. Brickellia frutescens, Encelia frutescens, Melica frutescens, Quercus wislizeni var. frutescens)
  • frut'icans: shrubby, bushy (ref. Teucrium fruticans)
  • fruticifor'mis: having the form of fruit (ref. Penstemon fruticiformis var. fruticiformis)
  • frutico'sa/frutico'sum: from the Latin frutex, "a shrub," therefore, shrubby, bushy (ref. Amorpha fruticosa, Phlomis fruticosa, Potentilla fruticosa, Suaeda fruticosa, Osteospermum fruticosum)
  • fruticulo'sa: Harris and Harris's Plant Identification Terminology says that fruticulose means "somewhat shrubby, small and shrubby" and this corresponds with the meaning of the -ulosa suffix in such names as 'strigulosa,' 'lanulosa,' 'spinulosa' and 'tomentulosa' (ref. Atriplex fruticulosa, Brassica fruticulosa)
  • fuca'tum: painted, dyed (ref. Trifolium fucatum)
  • Fu'chsia: after Leonard Fuchs (1501-1566), a German physician and herbalist, and the first modern maker of Latin-form plant names (ref. genus Fuchsia)
  • fue'ginus: of or from Tierra del Fuego (ref. Rumex fueginus)
  • fu'gax: withering or falling quickly, fleeting, from fugere, "to flee," and the Latin adjectival suffix -ax meaning an inclination or tendency to something (ref. Melica fugax)
  • fulcra'ta/fulcra'tus: I can only guess that this name may derive from the word "fulcrum, " (plural: "fulcra") which is an appendage, like a bract, tendril or stipule (ref. Calystegia occidentalis ssp. fulcrata, Lupinus fulcratus)
  • ful'gens: shining (ref. Arnica fulgens)
  • fullon'um: relating to fullers or people who full cloth, a process of shrinking or thickening cloth by moistening, heating and pressing. This species is often referred to as fuller's teasel, although interestingly the Jepson Manual calls it wild teasel and D. sativus as fuller's teasel. The connection to fullers is that it has bristly flower heads used by fullers to raise the nap on cloth (ref. Dipsacus fullonum)
  • ful'va/ful'vus: of a fulvous color, tawny, orange-gray-yellow (ref. Plagiobothrys fulvus)
  • fulves'cens: becoming tawny in color (ref. Plagiobothrys collinus var. fulvescens)
  • ful'vidus: slightly tawny
  • Fumar'ia: from the Latin fumus, "smoke," possibly because of the color or odor of the fresh roots (ref. genus Fumaria)
  • Funast'rum: from funis, "a rope, cord, sheet," and -astrum, "incomplete resemblance" (ref. genus Funastrum)
  • funer'ea/funer'eus: pertaining to death or a funeral, or of the Funeral Mts (ref. Chylismia claviformis ssp. funerea, Ephedra funerea, Salvia funerea, Astragalus funereus)
  • fur'cans: forked
  • furca'ta/furca'tum/furca'tus: furcate, forked (ref. Amsinckia vernicosa var. furcata, Solanum furcatum)
  • furcatip'ilis: with forked hairs, from the Latin furcatus, "forked or cleft," and pilus, "a hair" (ref. Arabis glabra var. furcatipilis)
  • furco'sum: from the Latin furca, "a fork," and -osum, a Latin adjectival suffix indicating an abundance or a marked or full development, thus "very forked" (ref. Eriogonum umbellatum var. furcosum)
  • fus'ca/fus'cus: dark or brown (ref. Horkelia fusca, Cyperus fuscus)
  • fusca'tum: brownish (ref. Chamaemelum fuscatum)
  • fusifor'me/fusifor'mis: spindle-shaped, i.e. thickest in the middle and tapering toward both ends (ref. Polygonum fusiforme, Oreogenia fusiformis, Sollya fusiformis)

View from near Mt. Pinos
                                 Sunset over Kelso Dunes, East Mojave National Preserve.

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