L-R: Cordylanthus maritimus (Saltmarsh bird's beak), Orobanche fasciculata (Clustered broomrape), Phacelia exilis (Lavender windows), Lupinus excubitus var. austromontanus (Southern mountain lupine), Helenium bigelovii (Bigelow's sneezeweed).


     G

        In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or simply that sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear.

  • gabilanen'sis: of or from the Gabilan Mountains on the Pacific Coast Range of California's Central Coast along the Monterey County and San Benito County line (ref. Arctostaphylos gabilanensis)
  • gabrielen'se/gabrielen'sis: of or from the San Gabriel Mountains (ref. Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. gabrielensis, Hulsea parryi ssp. gabrielensis, Quercus durata var. gabrielensis)
  • Gaillar'dia: after Gaillard de Charentonneau, an 18th-century French magistrate, naturalist and patron of botany (ref. genus Gaillardia)
  • gaillardio'ides: like genus Gaillardia (ref. Layia gaillardioides)
  • gaird'neri: after Dr. Meredith Gairdner (1809-1837).  I don't know anything about his early years except that he was born in London and received his medical degree in Edinburgh, Scotland.  He studied science in Germany, and then left England for North America in 1832 and was employed by the Hudson's Bay Company on the Columbia River.  He was a natural historian interested in plants, birds and fishes, and his name was given to the steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri.  He was constantly frustrated by the demands of his clerical work and his inability to spend more time on the things he loved.  He was plagued by tuberculosis and travelled with Thomas Nuttall to the Sandwich Islands sometime in the winter of 1835-1836.  He also witnessed eruptions of Mt. St. Helens in 1831 and 1835.  He became perhaps most famous (or infamous) for digging up the body of the Chinook Indian chief Comcomly and severing his head, which he eventually sent back to England for study.  He was interested in phrenology and the Chinook custom of head-flattening, and wanted to make some contribution to science before he died.  He had been sent to Fort Vancouver by the Hudson Bay Company in 1833 to help deal with an outbreak of smallpox, or what was referred to then as the 'cold sick', which had claimed the life of Comcomly and many others.  Unfortunately, he came down with tuberculosis himself and died of that disease in Honolulu in 1837 (ref. Perideridia gairdneri)
  • galbin'um: greenish-yellow
    galeobdo'lon: said to be from the Greek galee, "weasel," and bdolon, "an unpleasant smell" (ref. Lamiastrum galeobdolon)
  • Galeop'sis: from a Latin name used by Pliny for some nettle-like plant (ref. genus Galeopsis)
  • galericula'ta: with a small cap or hat, from the Latin galea, "a helmet" (ref. Scutellaria galericulata)
  • Galinso'ga: after Mariano Martinez de Galinsoga (1766-1797), Spanish doctor in Madrid, at one time physician to the Queen of Spain, and Superintendent of the Madrid Botanical Garden (ref. genus Galinsoga)
  • galio'ides: resembling the genus Galium (ref. Kelloggia galioides)
  • Ga'lium: from the Greek word gala, "milk," and alluding to the fact that certain species were used to curdle milk (ref. genus Galium)
  • gal'lica/gal'licum: of or from or referring to France (ref. Logfia gallica, Silene gallica, Tamarix gallica, Erucastrum gallicum)
  • galpin'ii/gal'pinii: after the South African botanist and banker Ernest Edward Galpin (1858-1941). The following is quoted from Wikipedia: "One of seven sons born in Grahamstown to Henry Carter Galpin, watchmaker and jeweller, and Georgina Maria Luck, Ernest Galpin started his education at the local St. Andrews School. Due to his father's ill-health, Ernest left school at 14 to assist with the business. A short spell of active service on the frontier followed, after which he joined the Oriental Banking Corporation, later the Bank of Africa. After being transferred to Middelburg in the Cape, he developed an interest in the local plants and spent long hours dissecting and identifying wild flowers with the aid of the three volumes of Flora Capensis and Harvey's Genera. However, it was not till 1888 when he became bank manager in Grahamstown, that his collecting took on a serious turn. In 1889 he was transferred to Barberton and became intrigued by the relatively unknown local flora. His specimens now started reflecting his meticulous nature in that they were carefully pressed, preserved and labelled with extensive notes on locality, habitat and plant form. His duplicates soon found their way to Kew, Zurich and a number of notable botanists such as Harry Bolus, Medley Wood and Peter MacOwan. Not surprisingly his collection became internationally known. In Barberton he befriended a young lawyer and plant collector Douglas Gilfillan, later to become his brother-in-law through their marriage to the de Jongh sisters. Galpin had had some new plant discoveries painted by Marie Elizabeth de Jongh (the daughter of Countess Mimi von Schönnberg) and married her in 1892. She shared his love of the outdoor life and accompanied him on many of his excursions and expeditions. In 1892 Galpin was transferred to Queenstown, where he was to remain until his retirement in 1917. By now his herbarium specimens had grown to about 1500 in number. He made extensive collecting trips to mountains in the Eastern Cape, including Great Winterberg, Katberg, Stormberg and Andriesberg. In 1904 his wife accompanied him on a trip to the Basutoland border where they collected around Ben MacDhui and Satsannasberg. In 1897 he set out on a trip from Port Elizabeth to Humansdorp, Knysna, George, Riversdale, Swellendam and Caledon districts, ending in Cape Town. Here he spent some time at the Bolus Herbarium. In 1905 he visited Rhodesia with the British Association, collecting at the Victoria Falls and the Matopos. In 1907, in the company of Prof. H.H.W. Pearson, he undertook a trip to South West Africa to study Welwitschia, making stops at Port Nolloth, Lüderitz Bay, Swakopmund, Welwitsch Station and following the Swakop River to Haikamkab. In 1910 he and his wife departed Lourenço Marques for Kenya and Uganda, collecting in the Aberdare Mountains and returning with a new species of tree Lobelia. From 1913 on he added few specimens to his collection, which even so numbered about 16,000 by 1916 when he donated the entire collection to the National Herbarium in Pretoria. In 1917 he retired to his farm Mosdene on the Springbok Flats near Naboomspruit north of Pretoria. Here he became inspired to start collecting again. Following the lead of Dr. I.B. Pole Evans, he started an intensive botanical study of the countryside surrounding his farm. Despite failing eyesight, he was taught to drive by his son, and together they set out on a trip through the Transkei and the Eastern Cape. His wife suffered a fatal heart attack in Durban in 1933 while he was on an expedition in the mountains of the eastern Transvaal. He was a life member of the Linnean Society and joined the S. Afr. Assoc. for the Adv. of Science a year after its founding. Vol. 13 of Flowering Plants of South Africa was dedicated to him, and the University of South Africa conferred an honorary doctorate on him." (ref. Bauhinia galpinii)
  • Galve'zia: after José Gálvez y Gallardo (1720-1787), Marquis del la Sonora, a Spanish colonial administrator. The following is quoted from the Encyclopedia Britannica: "He was noted for his work as inspector general in New Spain (Mexico), in 1765–71, where he reorganized the tax system, formed a government tobacco monopoly, and occupied Upper California. As minister of the Indies (America) from 1775, he worked to expand commerce. He devised the intendancy system that was introduced in 1786. Gálvez is considered Spain's greatest colonial administrator." (ref. genus Galvezia)
  • Gambel'ia/gambelia'nus: see gambelii below (ref. Astragalus gambelianus, also genus Gambelia)
  • gambel'ii: after William Gambel (1821-1849), an assistant curator at the Natural (now National) Academy of Sciences and an avid western plant collector (ref. Cardamine gambelii, Rorippa gambelii)
  • Gamochae'ta: from the Greek gamos, "marriage, stigma, female part," and chaite, "bristle, mane, long hair," thus meaning "united bristle" in reference to the pappus bristles (ref. genus Gamochaeta)
  • gan'deri: named after Frank Forest Gander (1899-1976), Curator of Botany at the San Diego Museum of Natural History (ref. Cryptantha ganderi, Cylindropuntia ganderi, Lepechinia ganderi, Senecio ganderi)
  • gar'beri: after American physician and botanist Dr. Abraham Pascal Garber (1838-1881) some of whose collections are at the University of Florida Herbarium. Despite a life that was cut short by consumption, Dr. Garber accomplished a lot. He grew up in a house that was saturated with botany on a farm that was appropriately enough called Floral Retreat. His father had built a greenhouse said to be the first in Pennsylvania west of Philadelphia. His father was also an editor/author of note on horticultural subjects with many published articles to his credit. He began his education in 1856 at a normal school that had been established only a few miles from his home, graduating in 1865. A normal school is a school for the training of teachers, and during this time he did teach at public schools and even became a principal. During this time also he spent a brief time in the military after joining the 195th Pennsylvania Volunteers with whom he saw service in West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. Following the war, he entered the junior class of Lafayette College, graduating in 1868 and becoming an Assistant in Natural History until 1870. He conducted numerous and extensive botanical explorations, amassing a significant collection for the herbarium at Lafayette. His interest in botany led him along a path toward medicine which actually began at Lafayette College and continued at the School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1872. Little did he know then that he had but nine years of life remaining to him. He became Assistant Resident Physician in the Harrisburg State Lunatic Hospital in charge of some 200 patients and continued there until poor health forced him to resign in 1875. He tried to set up his own doctor's office but the climate of Pennsylvania was not amenable and he sought relief by spending time in Florida. The flora of that part of the country was little known and Dr. Garber worked diligently to rectify that, again collecting a great number of specimens of interest and distributing many thousands of specimens to herbaria both in the United States and Europe. He made one trip to the West Indies at the suggestion of a Danish botanist, Baron Eggers, and added many specimens to his collection. He also made a trip to Puerto Rico in the early part of 1881 and made a small collection there. It was not long after he returned to Lancaster County in Pennsylvania in June of that year that his condition worsened and he died. He was a most respected and beloved individual who no doubt could have accomplished a great deal more had he been blessed with better health, but nevertheless left his mark on the field of botany (ref. Carex garberi)
  • gard'neri: named for Alexander Gordon (?1795-?) who collected the type specimen along the Platte River in Nebraska in 1843, and then given the name gardneri because the author, Christian Horace Benedict Alfred Moquin-Tandon, misread the specimen label (ref. Atriplex gardneri)
  • gar'rettii: after Utah botanist and mycologist Albert Osbun Garrett. (1870-1948), author of Spring Flora of the Wasatch Region, Some Introduced Plants of Salt Lake County, Utah, Fungi Utahensis, and The Uredinales or Rusts of Utah. In 1911 he undertook an exploration of southeast Utah with Per Axel Rydberg (ref. Epilobium canum ssp. garrettii)
  • Gar'rya: named for Nicholas Garry (1782-1856) of the Hudson's Bay Company who was an assistant of David Douglas in his explorations of the Pacific Northwest (ref. genus Garrya)
  • garrya'na: see Garrya above (ref. Quercus garryana var. breweri)
  • Gastrid'ium: Umberto Quattrocchi gives the following: "Diminutive of the Greek gaster, 'abdomen, belly, paunch,' referring to the base of the spikelets, swollen" (ref. genus Gastridium)
  • gaten'se: from the type locality, Los Gatos Creek northwest of Coalinga in western Fresno County, an area made famous to folk music fans because of Woody Guthrie's poem about the "Plane Wreck at Los Gatos (Deportees)" (ref. Galium andrewsii ssp. gatense)
  • Gaudin'ia: named for Swiss botanist Jean Francois Aimé Philippe Gaudin (1766-1833), a clergyman and professor of botany at Lausanne (ref. genus Gaudinia)
  • Gaulther'ia: after Jean François Gaulthier (1708-1756), French-Canadian botanist of Quebec, appointed King's physician for Quebec in 1741. He also apparently kept historical climate records of the St. Lawrence River Valley (ref. genus Gaultheria)
  • Gau'ra: from the Greek gauros, "proud," from the showy flowers of some sspp. (ref. genus Gaura)
  • gayan'a: after Jacques Etienne Gay (1786-1864), Swiss-born botanist and civil servant who moved to Paris in 1811 and was appointed to the office of the Senate. He was appointed Secretary to the Comité des Pétitions. He carried out extensive research in descriptive botany, and was instrumental in the foundation of the Société Botanique de France, 1854 (information from the Darwin Correspondence Online Database) (ref. Chloris gayana)
  • Gayophy'tum: after naturalist Claude Gay (1800-1873), French author of Flora of Chile, who went to Chile in 1828 to study the flora of South America, eventually amassing an herbarium of some 4000 specimens. His interests went far beyond botany however, and he conducted a general scientific survey of Chile including detailed astronomical observations. He also travelled in Peru and Brazil. His great work, Historia Fisica y Political de Chile, was published over the period 1843 to 1851, in 24 volumes. In 1856 he was elected a member in the botanical section of the French Academy of Sciences, and in 1858 went to the United States to study its mining system (ref. genus Gayophytum)
  • Gazan'ia: named for Theodorus of Gaza (1398-1478), Greek-born Italian scholar and translator of the works of Theophrastus from Greek into Latin (ref. genus Gazania)
  • gemel'lum: from the Latin gemellus, "a twin, one born at the same time," from the paired heads (ref. Trifolium gemellum)
  • gemma'ta: jeweled (ref. Cardamine nuttallii var. gemmata)
  • -gena: a suffix that often indicates an origin from a particular area or an affinity for a particular area, e.g. nubigena, "born among the clouds," alpigena, "alpine," glaciogena, "from glaciated areas"
  • genicula'ta/genicula'tus: jointed, bent like a knee at a node (ref. Brassica geniculata, Eleocharis geniculata, Alopecurus geniculatus)
  • Genis'ta: a Latin name from which the Plantagenet kings and queens of England took their name, planta genesta or plante genest. The plant was the common broom flower, called planta genista in Latin. It was Geoffrey of Anjou who was nicknamed the Plantagenet because he carried a yellow-flowered sprig of broom on his helmet as a badge (genêt is the French name of the broom shrub), and it was his son, Henry II, who became the first Plantagenet king. Other historical explanations are that Geoffrey planted this shrub as a hunting cover or that he used the broom to scourge himself. It was not until Richard, Duke of York, father of both kings Edward IV and Richard III, that members of this family adopted the name Plantagenet, and it was then retroactively applied to the descendents of Geoffrey of Anjou as the dynastic name (ref. genus Genista)
  • genistifo'lia: with leaves like genus Genista (ref. Linaria genistifolia)
  • Gentia'na: named after Gentius, King of Illyria, who in the 2nd century B.C. found the roots of the herb yellow gentian or bitterwort to have a healing effect on his malaria-stricken troops (ref. genus Gentiana)
  • Gentianel'la: "little Gentian," reflecting its having been split off from the genus Gentiana because while very similar was of different enough character and measurements to warrant its own genus (ref. genus Gentianella)
  • Gentianop'sis: resembling or having the form of Gentian (ref. genus Gentianopsis)
  • gen'tilis: from the Latin gentilis, "family, hereditary, related" (ref. Aristida ternipes var. gentilis)
  • gent'neri: after Louis Gustave Gentner (1892-1980). The following is quoted from a website of the Oregon State University Library: "Louis G. Gentner, was born in Portland, Oregon, in February 1892. Gentner received his B.S. from Oregon Agricultural College in 1915, his M.S. from the University of Wisconsin in 1918, and completed his doctorate at Oregon State College in 1953. He did his post-graduate work at Oregon State College in 1945 and 1946. After working as an entomologist in Wisconsin and Michigan, he became associate entomologist and assistant superintendent of the Southern Oregon Branch Experiment Station in Medford in 1930. Gentner's studies with alfalfa varieties led to the selection and naming of "Talent" alfalfa, now grown extensively for seed production exports. His work with beetles led to the elimination of the Klamath goat weed infestation on southern Oregon infested rangeland and enabling thousands of acres to be become viable again. Gentner retired from the station in 1962 and died July 16, 1980." (ref. Fritillaria gentneri)
  • genuflex'a: presumably from the root words genu, "knee, joint, knot," and flex from Latin flexus, "bent, turned, curved" (ref. Angelica genuflexa)
  • -gera: a suffix denoting "bearing or carrying" (e.g. setigera, scapigera)
  • Gerae'a: from the Greek geraios for old, for the white-haired involucre (ref. genus Geraea)
  • Geran'ium: from the Greek geranos, "crane," from the beak-like fruit (ref. genus Geranium)
  • gerard'ii: after eminent French botanist and physician Louis Gérard (1733-1819) (ref. Juncus gerardii)
  • german'ica: of or from Germany, German (ref. Iris germanica)
  • germanor'um: literally means "Germans" in Latin, the -orum ending is usually applied to a personal name to convert it to a specific epithet when the name applies to two or more men or two people with mixed sexes represented (ref. Lessingia germanorum)
  • -gerous: bearing
  • Ge'um: an ancient Latin name (ref. genus Geum)
  • gey'eri/geyeria'na: after Karl Andreas Geyer (1809-1853), a German botanist who travelled across the continent in 1843 with a group of missionaries, collecting plants particulary in the camas-dominated prairie areas of northern Idaho and southeastern Washington which were at the time considered 'Upper Oregon.' He collected some 10,000 specimens representing 600 species, and had thirteen species named in his honor by the great British botanist William Hooker. The following was extracted from the Bulletin of the Native Plant Society of Oregon: "Born in Dresden, Germany, in 1809, Geyer was trained in botany as a youth [no doubt influenced by his gardener father and assisting at the Dresden Botanic Garden], and traveled to America in the 1830s heading for St. Louis which he knew was the stepping- off place for exploration of the upper Missouri River and the poorly surveyed western part of the continent. Upon arrival, he attached himself to several expeditions and gained experience in wilderness travel. In 1843 he found a patron in the famous Dr. George Engelmann (of the Engelmann spruce) who financed a collecting trip into the northwest with the understanding that Geyer's plant specimens would come back to Engelmann in St. Louis. Traveling as part of a large and well-supplied party, Geyer started west along the Oregon Trail in 1843 -- the same year as the first major migration of pioneers in covered wagons. Leaving the large party as he neared what is now Idaho, Geyer traveled with smaller groups, staying at Indian villages and missions as he explored much of what is now Idaho and Washington state. As he traveled and collected, Geyer kept a detailed journal of his observations. He was particularly interested in Indian uses of plants and his ethnobotanical notes are especially useful. Fortunately for us, this narrative of Geyer's travels was published by William Hooker along with the names of the plants discovered by the explorer. Geyer returned to Germany after his adventure in the American west and there he died, a relatively young man in his early 40s, perhaps worn out by his strenuous explorations of a raw new land." Geyer was also engaged by the French professor of mathematics and physical geographer Joseph Nicholas Nicollet and accompanied him on an expedition to the Upper Mississippi [Minnesota] in 1838. Many of Geyer's plants were described by John Torrey. He joined John C. Fremont in 1841 on a trip to Iowa, again collecting plants wherever he went. After sailing to England to study collections at Kew, he returned to his native Saxony in 1845 (ref. Astragalus geyeri, Melica geyeri, Salix geyeriana)
  • gib'ba: swollen on one side (ref. Lemna gibba, Utricularia gibba)
  • gibbo'sa: swollen on one side (ref. Sarracenia purpurea ssp. gibbosa)
  • gianon'ei: after the 19th century Swiss dairyman Ambrogio Gianone who ran a dairy on the Swanton Pacific Ranch (ref. Carex gianonei)
  • gibbs'ii: after Charles D. Gibbes (?) (1812-1893), civil engineer, surveyor and map-maker from a distinguished Charleston, SC family and curator of mineralogy at the California Academy of Sciences. Collected plants in California (ref. Astragalus gibbsii)
  • gigan'tea/giganteum: gigantic (ref. Carnegiea gigantea, Epipactis gigantea, Leptosyne gigantea, Ammoselinum giganteum, Eriogonum giganteum, Sequoiadendron giganteum)
  • gigantosper'mum: huge-seeded (ref. Chenopodium gigantospermum)
  • gi'gas: giant (ref. Carex gigas)
  • Gil'ia: after Filippo Luigi Gilii (1756-1821). I have encountered much confusion about the name of the person this genus is named after, but I here quote information from my friend Al Schneider of the website Southwest Colorado Wildflowers, and I thank him for it: "Italian naturalist, [astronomer], clergyman, and Director of the Vatican Observatory, for twenty-one years Gilii made twice daily meteorological readings at the Observatory, and he had the meridian line and obelisk placed in front of St. Peter's for readings of the seasons. With the first Argentinean botanist, Gaspar Xuarez (1731-1804), Gilli co-authored the three volumes of Observazioni Fitologiche (1789, 1790, 1792) a work on the value of American (primarily South American) cultivated plants, their sexuality, form of reproduction, anatomy, etc. Most of the plants had been cultivated by the natives before the discovery of America and some were grown in the Vatican gardens." According to Umberto Quattrocchi, his major works were Agri Romani Historia naturalis (1781) and Delineazione dei generi naturali (1785). David Hollombe has also confirmed that this particular botanist's name should be correctly spelled Gilii, not Gilli or Gil, and that its pronunciation should follow the Italian rule which makes a 'g' before 'i' soft. Also in Italian the 'i' is pronounced as 'ee,' so in order to preserve the pronunciation of the original name, Gilia should properly be said as 'JEE-lee-uh." I find no evidence that he was Spanish as is sometimes said or that a Spanish pronunciation should be given to his name. Al Schneider has convincingly (to me) explained the situation by saying "It was apparently assumed by some botanical historian, probably in the 19th century, that since Ruiz and Pavon [who published the genus name] were Spanish and the dedication states that Gilia honors a "Felipe Gil", Gil must have been Spanish.  But this assumption overlooked the fact that the dedication of the genus says that it is to the person who co-authored Observazioni Fitologiche with Xuarez.  That person was not a Spaniard named Felipe Gil but an Italian named Filippo Luigi Gilii. Ruiz and Pavon could have averted the confusion by using the proper Italian spelling of Gilii's name." (ref. genus Gilia)
  • gilio'ides: like genus Gilia (ref. Allophyllum gilioides ssp. gilioides, Allophyllum gilioides ssp. violaceum)
  • gil'liesii/gillies'ii: I have encountered some discrepancies in references to the man whose name was given to the plant here in question. One source says it was named for John Gillies, an early 19th century botanist in Argentina. Another reference is to the Scottish physician John Gillies who travelled in the Argentinian Andes, but this is probably the same person. L.H. Bailey's Manual of Cultivated Plants attributes the name of Caesalpinia gilliesii to John Gillies (1747-1836), a traveller in South America, again probably the same person but it appears certain that Bailey got the dates confused with the John Gillies who was a well-regarded Scottish historian and classical scholar, neither a physician or a botanist, or a person who ever travelled in South America. Finally, the Darwin Correspondence Online Database created by the Darwin Correspondence Project at University Library, Cambridge, England, which I believe to be a dependable source, has a reference to a John Gillies (1792-1834) who was a naval surgeon who went to Buenos Aires in 1820 and collected plants in Chile and Argentina, returning to Scotland in 1829. This is the person I think this plant is named for. Sara Scharf, PhD candidate at the University of Toronto, contacted me with the following information which I think clears up the matter quite adequately: "He was not just a naval surgeon but an avid botanist. He was from the Orkney Islands and learned medicine in Edinburgh. Forced to leave the UK due to bad health, he lived in Argentina and other South American countries in the 1820's. During this time he was in constant contact via letters with many of the leading botanists of his day, including Robert Brown, Hooker, John Lindley, H.C. Watson and even the young George Bentham. He sent them plants and biogeographical information, they sent him books. He returned to Scotland in January 1829."  Thanks to Sara for resolving these discrepancies (ref. Caesalpinia gilliesii)
  • Gilman'ia/gilman'ii/gil'manii: after Marshall French Gilman (1871-1944), a Death Valley naturalist (ref. genus Gilmania, also Astragalus gilmanii, Cymopterus gilmanii, Ericameria [formerly Haplopappus] gilmanii, Eriogonum gilmanii, Petalonyx gilmanii)
  • girdia'na: after Henry Harrison Gird (1826-1913), who was born in New York and moved with his family as a baby to Louisiana where his father, Henry Hatton Gird III, was appointed the second President and Professor of Mathematics and Natural History at the College of Louisiana, at that time the largest university west of the Mississippi River. He was educated at private schools in Jackson and then at the College. He did not finish his education however because in 1844 he moved with his father and his brother Edward to Illinois, where his father had been buying land since 1837, and they engaged in farming and stockraising. He married Martha Lewis in 1849. His father and younger brother Richard died shortly thereafter. A son, Henry Lewis, was born in 1851 but unfortunately died during a malaria epidemic the following year. These tragedies and his dissatisfaction with conditions in Illinois prompted him to move west, not for gold but for fertile land, and he sold the farm and emigrated to California. Henry and his wife Martha and brother Edward started out from St. Louis with three wagons in 1853 and crossed the plains successfully. A daughter, Mary, was born in a tent en route. The first Gird Ranch was near Hangtown, later renamed Placerville, a booming mining town in 1853. Henry never felt the lure of the mines, but went to farming, raising stock and selling his produce to the miners. Their son, William, was born in Hangtown on January 22, 1856. Deciding to go further north, they moved to a ranch near Nicholas, in Sutter County. A third child, Lucy Ellen, was born here on February 28, 1859, and she lived until the age of 103. The fall of 1861 found them at Calto Lake, Mendocino County where they spent a hard, cold winter. In the spring, they moved down the coast to San Jose. By the fall of 1862 they reached Los Angeles, where they purchased the Cienega Rancho, where they remained for almost 20 years. This ranch of nearly 1000 acres was in the Crenshaw/Angeles Vista/La Brea section of modern Los Angeles ( now the heart of downtown LA). The famous La Brea Tar Pits was on part of their Ranch. It was then an ideal farming and stock raising location and the family prospered. Two more daughters were born here: Sarah Ann (called "Sally") on February 24, 1863, and Katie Lenora, born on May 17, 1868. Sally died October 23, 1884, but Katie lived until 1945. Henry and Martha had had another daughter, Carrie Augusta, born July 4, 1866, but she lived only a few months, dying on October 6, 1866. With the children growing up, they needed a school. Henry Gird became active in organizing a school district, with the result that a district bearing his name was formed. It was bounded on the south by Vernon, on the east by Los Angeles, on the north by Santa Monica, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. In 1876 he heard about some land in northern San Diego County which lay along both sides of the San Luis Rey River, a short distance above Bonsall, and was a tract of 4590 acres called Rancho Monserate. The land was a North county Mexican land grant, originally planned to have been the dwelling place for the last of the California-Mexican governors, "Pio Pico". To the Alvarado Family, to whom Governor Pico granted the ranch, it became Rancho Monserate, named for a mountain is Spain where a monastery had stood since 800 A.D. - the Virgin Mary is said to have appeared there. A small pox epidemic had broken out there in 1863, killing 21 persons, including the owner who had been nursing the sick. His son inherited the Rancho and lived there for a time afterward, constructing a new adobe ranch house. It was later to be his wedding gift to his daughter, Senora Serano, but she was killed and Don Alvarado decided to sell it- too many tragedies for one family in that once happy place. The ranch lands reached east to the Pala area. The San Luis Rey Valley was a lush fertile valley that lay below the sage covered foothills of the San Jacinto Mountain Range of the Sierra Madres. Henry Gird saw this place as ideal and the deal was closed at Pala (Palomar Mountain) in 1876, where at that time the only notary public was located. So in 1880 he moved his family south from Los Angeles. They traveled down the coastline and then across country through the small villages of Anaheim, Santa Anna, and Capistrano, and across the big Santa Margarita Rancho, camping at the ford across the San Luis Rey River near the mission. Because of the mountains, they had to go down the coastline, about 10 miles farther south of their destination, and double back east and north through the San Luis Rey River Valley past the famous Mission - an added 20 miles or more to the already long trip from Los Angeles. Henry and Martha Gird, with the help of their son, Will, were very successful in their new home. They raised fine horses, mostly trotting stock, and had many cattle. A family orchard was started and at one time contained practically every kind of fruit suited to the location. There were fruit trees from Australia, Africa, and the three northern continents. The Gird Ranch was a popular place. There was a saying at that time that "All roads lead to Girds." The road that led to the Gird Ranch was later named "Gird Road". It was Henry Harrison Gird who brought the grape species that eventually bore his name to the attention of Thomas Volney Munson (1843-1913), a grape breeder in Dennison, Texas, and one of the leading experts in native American grape species, who described and named it. Henry and Martha died within a few months of each other at Fallbrook in 1913. [Personal information and stories pertaining to Henry Harrison Gird very kindly provided by Teddie Anne "Annie" Driggs, a great-great-granddaughter to whom I am indebted and whose extensive website may be accessed here] (ref. Vitis girdiana)
  • githa'go: from the Latin and Old English gith, the name of a kind of plant with aromatic black seeds (corn-cockle or Roman coriander), and -ago, a Latin substantival suffix used to indicate a resemblance or property. A. githago is now called corn-cockle, whereas Roman coriander is Nigella sativa, a plant with similar blackish caraway-like seeds (ref. Agrostemma githago)
  • Githop'sis: from the Greek for "Githago-like" (ref. genus Githopsis)
  • glabel'la: rather or somewhat glabrous (ref. Viola glabella)
  • gla'ber: without hairs, glabrous
  • glaberri'ma/glaberri'mum/glaberri'mus: completely glabrous (ref. Lasthenia glaberrima, Epilobium glaberrimum ssp. glaberrimum, Ranunculus glaberrimus)
  • gla'bra/gla'brum: smooth or hairless (ref. Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hypochaeris glabra, Turritis glabra, Acer glabrum)
  • glabra'ta: somewhat glabrous (ref. Cornus glabrata, Lasthenia glabrata, Malacothrix glabrata, Tetradymia glabrata)
  • glabres'cens: becoming glabrous (ref. Eremogone kingii var. glabrescens, Holodiscus microphyllus var. glabrescens)
  • glabrisep'ala: with glabrous sepals (ref. Keckiella breviflora var. glabrisepala)
  • gla'brius: glabrous (ref. Galium sparsiflorum ssp. glabrius)
  • glabrius'cula: derived from two Latin words meaning "smooth" and "little," hence "rather smooth and hairless" (ref. Chaenactis glabriuscula var. glabriuscula)
  • glacia'lis: from icy-cold regions (ref. Erigeron glacialis)
  • glaciogen'a: from glaciated areas. David Hollombe sent along the following: "All localities are granitic ones and were formerly glaciated; the exposed rocky areas thus allow the two parents to occur very near one another, rather than elevationally separated as is usually the case." (ref. Pellaea X glaciogena)
  • Gladio'lus: from the Latin gladiolus, "little sword," for the leaf shape (ref. genus Gladiolus)
  • Glandular'ia: according to Umberto Quattrocchi, this is from the Latin glandulae, "a little acorn, tonsils" (ref. genus Glandularia)
  • glandulif'era/glandulif'erus: bearing or producing glands (ref. Lessingia glandulifera var. glandulifera, Lessingia glandulifera var. tomentosa, Nemacladus glanduliferus)
  • glandulo'sa/glandulo'sum/glandulo'sus: means "provided with glands," referring to the secreting structures on the surface ending in hairs or other plant parts (ref. Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. adamsii, Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia, Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. mollis, Drymocallis glandulosa ssp. ewanii, Drymocallis glandulosa ssp. glandulosa, Drymocallis glandulosa ssp. reflexa, Lagophyllum glandulosa, Layia glandulosa, Prosopsis glandulosa, Purshia tridentata var. glandulosa, Epilobium ciliatum ssp. glandulosum, Eriogonum glandulosum, Ledum glandulosum, Teucrium glandulosum, Streptanthus glandulosus)
  • glau'ca/glau'cum/glau'cus: glaucous, from the Greek meaning "bluish-gray," referring primarily to the leaves, and specifically to "bloom," the fine, whitish powder that coats the leaves of certain plants (ref. Agoseris glauca, Arctostaphylos glauca, Erigeron glauca, Hoffmanseggia glauca, Nicotiana glauca, Poa glauca, Chenopodium glaucum, Delphinium glaucum, Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum, Caulanthus glaucus, Elymus glaucus ssp. glaucus, Elymus glaucus ssp. jepsonii, Erigeron glaucus)
  • glauces'cens: somewhat glaucous (ref. Sidalcea glaucescens)
  • glaucifo'lius: having gray-green leaves (ref. Rubus glaucifolius)
  • Glau'cium: from the Greek word for "glaucous" (ref. genus Glaucium)
  • glaucomol'lis: soft and glaucous (ref. Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. glaucomollis)
  • glaucophyl'lum: with glaucous leaves (ref. Chenopodium strictum var. glaucophyllum)
  • glaucoval'vula: glaucous-valved (ref. Arabis glaucovalvula)
  • Glaux: a name used by Pliny and applied by Dioscorides to another plant, wart cress, a species of Coronopus (ref. genus Glaux)
  • glaziovia'na: named after the French landscapist and botanist Auguste Francois Marie Glaziou (1828-1906) who was trained at the Museu de Historia Natural de Paris and was a plant collector in Brazil. In Rio de Janeiro he designed the beautiful gardens at the Quinta de Boa Vista which was the official home to the Royal and Imperial Family from 1809 to 1889. Brazil was Portugal's most important colony and when the troops of Napoleon forced the King, Dom João VI, to abdicate, he fled with his family to Rio de Janeiro where he was crowned Emperor Pedro I of Brazil in 1822. Today the area is known as Campo de Santana Park or the Auguste Francois Marie Glazious Gardens (ref. Oenothera glazioviana)
  • glea'sonii: named after Mt. Gleason, location of the species formerly called Castilleja gleasonii and now included in C. pruinosa according to the Jepson Manual
  • Glebio'nis: from the Latin gleba, "soil," and -ionis, "characteristic of," of uncertain application (ref. genus Glebionis)
  • Glecho'ma: from the Greek glechon, an old name for a kind of mint, possibly the pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium (ref. genus Glechoma)
  • Gledit'sia: named for German botanist Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch (1714-1786) (ref. genus Gleditsia)
  • Glehn'ia: after Peter von Glehn (1835-1876), Russian botanist and plant explorer in Baltic Russia, author of Flora der Umgebung Dorpats (ref. genus Glehnia)
  • Glin'us: Greek for "sweet juice," glinos and glinon were names used by Theophrastus and Pliny for a maple tree, a plant with sweet sap (ref. genus Glinus) (ref. genus Glinus)
  • globif'era/globif'erus: bearing globe-shaped or spherical clusters (ref. Matricaria globifera)
  • globo'sa/globo'sus: spherical or globe-shaped, usually referring to the flower head (ref. Carex globosa, Condalia globosa, Wolffia globosa, Cymopterus globosus)
  • globular'is: pertaining to a small sphere or globe (ref. Rhynchospora globularis)
  • globulo'sus: small and globular
  • glob'ulus: globular, from the Latin for "small, round ball" (ref. Eucalyptus globulus)
  • glomera'ta/glomera'tum/glomera'tus: clustered (ref. Dactylis glomerata, Datisca glomerata, Madia glomerata, Cerastium glomeratum, Andropogon glomeratus, Halogeton glomeratus)
  • glomeriflor'a: having flowers in glomerules (ref. Cryptantha glomeriflora)
  • glorio'sa/glorio'sus: superb, glorious (ref. Amsinckia tessellata var. gloriosa, Ceanothus gloriosus)
  • glos'sa: tongue (ref. genus Platyglossa)
  • Glossopet'alon: from the Greek meaning "tongue petal" from the shape of the petals (ref. genus Glossopetalon)
  • gluma'ceum: with chaffy bracts
  • glutinicau'le: with sticky stems
  • glutino'sa/glutino'sum: sticky, referring to the leaves (ref. Baccharis glutinosa, Allophyllum glutinosum)
  • Glycer'ia: from the Greek glykys, "sweet," referring to the edible grains of Glyceria fluitans (ref. genus Glyceria)
  • Glycyrrhi'za: from the Greek glykys, "sweet," and rhiza, "a root," and referring to the root of G. glabra which is the source of commercial liquorice (ref. genus Glycyrrhiza)
  • glyptocar'pus: from glypto, "to carve or sculpt," and carpos, "fruit" (ref. Plagiobothrys glyptocarpus)
  • Glyptopleur'a: from the Greek glyptos, "carved", and pleura, "side," referring to the sculptured fruit (ref. genus Glyptopleura)
  • glyptosper'ma: from glypto, "to carve," and sperma, in compound words signifying "seeded," thus "carved-seeded," the ashen-gray globose seeds being coarsely pitted (ref. Chamaesyce glyptosperma, Eschscholzia glyptosperma)
  • gnaphaloi'des: like genus Gnaphalium (ref. Stylocline gnaphaloides)
  • Gnaphal'ium: derived from the Greek gnaphalon, "a lock of wool," describing these plants as floccose-woolly (ref. genus Gnaphalium)
  • gno'ma: Edmund Jaeger's A Source-Book of Biological Names and Terms says that this from the Greek gnoma, "a mark or sign," but David Hollombe says "I think Dudleya gnoma is from 16th century Latin, not Greek or Classical Latin; as in 'gnomus' of Paracelsus, that we get the modern 'gnome' from. The author (Stephen McCabe) mentions that the plant was in cultivation under the name "D. greenei 'White Sprite'." One of its common names in Munchkin dudleya or Munchkin liveforever (ref. Dudleya gnoma)
  • good'dingii: after Leslie Newton Goodding (1880-1967), botanist and collector, one of the first to explore the southern Arizona area, who as a student journeyed to Yellowstone National Park to collect there and in the Montana/Idaho/Tetons area with Dr. Aven Nelson, founder of the Rocky Mountain Herbarium of the University of Wyoming. He discovered the rare Goodding's ash, and had other plants named after him (ref. Haplopappus gooddingii, Salix gooddingii, Verbena gooddingii)
  • Goodman'ia: after George Jones Goodman (1904-1999), an Oklahoma botanist and authority on Chorizanthe. The following is quoted from a February 2000 newsletter of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. "Dr. George Jones Goodman, 94, Regents Professor Emeritus of Botany and Curator Emeritus of the Bebb Herbarium at the University of Oklahoma, died peacefully at his home 23 May 1999. Dr. Goodman was born to Elizabeth Jones Goodman and Arthur Duane Goodman on 5 November 1904 in Evanston, Wyoming. He attended the University of Wyoming, graduating in 1929 with a Bachelor of Arts degree with honors in botany. From Washington University in St. Louis he received an M.S. in 1930 and a Ph.D. in 1933. Dr. Goodman joined the faculty of the University of Oklahoma in 1933 as assistant professor of botany and herbarium curator. From 1936 to 1945 Goodman left OU to serve as associate professor of botany and curator of the herbarium at Iowa State College in Ames, Iowa. In 1945 Goodman was invited to return to OU as professor and curator and he remained there until his retirement in 1975. Goodman married Marcia McCay of Muskogee, Oklahoma in 1948. During his career as a botanist Goodman came to be known as a leading expert in the field of plant taxonomy of Oklahoma and the western United States. He was respected, admired, and beloved by his many undergraduate and graduate students and colleagues. He authored 73 publications, described 36 new plant taxa, made 9 new combinations, and had 4 plants named for him. Dr. Goodman was a charter member of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the International Association of Plant Taxonomists, the Society for the Study of Evolution, the Southwestern Association of Naturalists, and the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science. In addition, he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Sigma, Phi Chi, Sigma Xi, and the Oklahoma Academy of Science. He received the Phi Sigma Orteriburger Award, the Oklahoma Academy of Science Award of Merit, and a Distinguished Service Citation from OU. Shortly after his 90th birthday, the University of Oklahoma Press published Retracing Major Stephen H. Long's 1820 Expedition: The Itinerary and Botany, a book which Goodman co-authored with a former graduate student, Dr. Cheryl Lawson of Shawnee, Oklahoma. Reviewers described the book as 'a worthy botanical and historical milepost' and 'the challenging model for future accounts of America's past exploring expeditions.' When Rhodora, the Journal of the New England Botanical Club, decided to publish a series of recollections of leading American botanists, Goodman was among the first invited to submit his recollections. Dr. Lawson authored the article from tape recordings she had made of Goodman's reminiscences during their years of field trips together as they conducted research on the Major Long expedition. At the time of his death, Goodman and Dr. Lawson were working on a publication on the plant types of Oklahoma." (ref. genus Goodmania)
  • good'manii/goodmania'na: see previous entry (ref. Eriogonum umbellatum var. goodmanii, Oxytheca parishii var. goodmaniana)
  • Good'yera: after the English botanist John Goodyer (1592-1664). The following is quoted from the Wikipedia entry on Goodyer: "Goodyer's reputation was so great that, in 1643 during the English Civil War, Ralph Hopton, one of the senior Royalist commanders, ordered troops to defend and protect John Goodyer, his house, family, servants and estates. John Goodyer was born in Alton, Hampshire. It’s unknown where he was educated but he lived in Petersfield [Hampshire, England] where his house still exists. He was buried in an unmarked grave at St Mary’s church, Buriton, where a stained glass window can be found within the church as a memorial to him showing the Goodyer coat of arms. Following his death the Goodyer charity Weston was set up using some of the proceeds from his estate to help the poor. His work and books are now stored at Oxford university and in recognition to his work, the “Goodyera” a small terrestrial herb has been named after him." In 1655, he produced the first translation in English of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides (the first century Greek physician, who served as a medical doctor in the Roman army). Dioscorides' work served as the basis for the practice of western medicine well into the sixteenth century (ref. genus Goodyera)
  • gord'onii: after the Scottish horticulturist and nurseryman Alexander Gordon (c. 1795?-?). Not much is known about his early life, but an article in The Gardener’s Magazine dated 1827 refers to an Alexander Gordon as gardener to Sir William Wake. This may or may not be the same person. He apparently arrived at New York in 1827 with a shipment of nursery stock. He collected extensively in South Carolina and Georgia in 1831 on a trip during which he visited the principal nurseries and private gardens of the region. He established a nursery at Rochester around 1833 and then moved to Toronto where he was associated with and wrote a series of articles for The Genesee Farmer and was listed as a secretary of the Toronto Horticultural Society founded in 1834. A website article called The Roots of the Toronto Horticultural Society says: "He had arrived in the city the previous year from Rochester in New York, established a nursery on Spadina Avenue, and written a series of articles “On Gardening” that appeared in the Toronto newspaper The Patriot.” He appears to have worked as a nurseryman in various places in order to raise funds to finance his trips, in 1843, over the Oregon Trail through the Wind River Mountains, and in 1845 over the Santa Fe Trail out through New Mexico. He was a colleague at least by correspondence of George Engelmann and may have visited him in 1848. It is also likely that he was in correspondence with Thomas Nuttall. Alexander Gordon collected the first specimens of Ivesia gordonii for science along the upper Platte River in 1844 (from the Southwest Colorado Wildflowers website). The JSTOR website refers to a letter from Gordon in Mobile, Alabama to Sir William Hooker dated 23 Dec. 1844: "Gordon informs Hooker that he has not gone further on his intended journey than Mobile. He explains that he left New York, travelling via Philadelphia, crossed the Allighaney [Alligheny] Mountains, reached the head of the Ohio River at Pittsburgh and descended the river to its junction with the Mississippi. Whilst going down the Mississippi to New Orleans on a steam boat called 'The Belle', there was a collision and the boat sunk. Gordon held on to a plank until he was picked up, but lost everything except his shirt, pantaloons and four dollars change in his pocket. This misfortune has prevented Gordon from continuing his journey as intended, but since being at Mobile he has made a large collection of southern plants that he thinks will be saleable at New York. He hopes the revenue from this collection will allow him to continue his journey in the spring. He will probably go to the Santa Fe mountains or maybe to the Texan ranges. Assuming he chooses Santa Fe he will join the regular traders at St Louis and travel onwards under their protection. Dr. Torrey was a hundred miles from New York when Gordon was there, but wrote him a long letter, which Gordon received at New Orleans." It should be pointed out that his reference to not having gotten farther than Mobile had only to do with that particular trip because of course he had indeed been farther west the previous year. The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements dated May, 1849 has an article by Alexander Gordon, listed as botanical collector, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in which he says: "A long period has elapsed since I raised my pen to address you. Since then I have traversed many a dreary waste, and many fertile regions, having twice, during the interim, extended my researches to the Rocky Mountains, California, Oregon, and New Mexico, on botanical pursuits..." A website of the Lewis and Clark Herbarium in reference to the species Atriplex gardneri, says: "Gardner’s saltbush, Atriplex gardneri, was mistakenly assigned the epithet gardneri by [Alfred] Moquin (in A.P. de Candolle & A.L.P.P. de Candolle, Prodr. 13(2): 114. 1849) when he proposed Obione gardneri. In fact, the plant Moquin saw was collected by Alexander Gordon who made his collection in 1843 while serving as botanist on the Sir William Drummond Stewart expedition along the Platte River of Nebraska while heading westward to the Wind River Range of Wyoming. Moquin simply misread the collector’s name." Moquin misread Gordon's handwriting and honored Gordon with the name of "Gardneri"! According to botanical rules, the spelling of the name cannot be corrected. Lesquerella gordonii was collected in New Mexico in 1848 by Alexander Gordon. (ref. Ivesia gordonii, Lesquerella gordonii)
  • gor'manii: after Martin Woodlock Gorman (1853-1926). The following is quoted from an appreciation by Mr. James Nelson in Rhodora, the Journal of the New England Botanical Club, March, 1927: "The death of M. W. German, which occurred in the Good Samaritan Hospital in Portland, on Oct. 7, 1926, removes from the scanty ranks of Oregon botanists the last of our picturesque trio of pioneer field-botanists -Howell, Cusick, and Gorman—men of a type now rapidly becoming extinct, who, without formal scientific preparation or academic position, were animated by an intense love of science, and who devoted their energies to a study of the native flora, often under the most adverse and discouraging conditions. It is idle to speculate on what, with better preparation, they might have accomplished. Howell’s Flora of Northwest America, considering the circumstances under which it was produced, raises its author almost to the rank of a genius, and forcibly calls to mind the work of that other tireless investigator and pioneer, Joao de Loureiro, in Cochin China; and during the years in which Howell was struggling with difficulties and discouragements of every sort, Mr. Gorman was his constant associate and faithful friend, whose modesty and self-effacement alone prevented him from claiming the title of collaborator.
        Martin Woodlock Gorman was born at Douglas in the Province of Ontario, Nov. 10, 1853, the son of Peter and Mary (Woodlock) Gorman. His father, a Canadian of Irish descent, was engaged in the lumber business in his younger days, but retired from active business after inheriting the paternal homestead at Douglas. His mother, a native of Ohio, was also of Irish descent. The young Martin seems to have inherited an interest in trees from his father; he was fond of telling his friends how he spent many youthful hours transplanting ail the species of trees he could find in the forest to a little plantation of his own -a sort of miniature “Arboretum."
        After securing a common-school education, he left home at the age of 16 to clerk in a store, and at 20 went to Montreal, where he spent eleven years in office work. During this time he occasionally attended the lectures of J. W. (afterward Sir William) Dawson, the geologist, at McGiIl University, and made the acquaintance of John Macoun (see macounii), then botanist of the Canadian Department of Agriculture. In 1885 he came to Portland, Oregon, where he was at first a clerk in a bank, but after a few years became traveling representative of a salmon-cannery operated by relatives of his in Alaska. This work gave him the longed-for opportunity to study the flora and fauna of the Pacific Coast. In his business capacity he made five trips to southeast Alaska between 1890 and 1895. In 1898 he joined the gold-seekers who were flocking to Dawson, and penetrated into the Yukon Territory to a point on the White River 200 miles above its confluence with the Yukon. Although wholly unprovided with facilities for pressing or drying specimens, "the call." as he often phrased it, "was strong," and he collected assiduously during the trip. Many of his specimens were lost in a tragic accident resulting in the drowning of his companion, and his own miraculous rescue by a wholly unexpected boat; but he brought out at least ten new species, and as great an authority as E. L. Greene declared that the results of this trip surpassed in value those of the fully-equipped Harriman Expedition.
        At the close of the Lewis and Clark Exposition, held in Portland in 1905, all the buildings were demolished except the Forestry Building, which was taken over by the city as a permanent memorial, being constructed wholly of Oregon timber in its native state, in the form of a gigantic Swiss chalet. Of this building Mr. Gorman was appointed Curator, and held the position until his death— which ensued as the result of pneumonia following a cold caught while raking leaves about the grounds. His little room in the building, filled to overflowing with books, papers and specimens, was the unfailing resort of all botanists who visited Portland. In his summer vacations he made collecting trips to all parts of Oregon and Washington; he has left a record of 17 of these trips, almost every one of which resulted in notable extensions of range or discovery of new species. He minutely botanized the environs of Portland, making a special study of the disappearance of native species under the encroachment of civilization; and to accompany him on one of these trips was a rare privilege, for he not only saw everything and detected the slightest change of environment, but had the happy faculty of pouring forth a running commentary of reminiscence and illustration, tinged with genial Irish wit, that made his society eagerly sought. He never married, but his kindly and unselfish disposition prevented him from developing into the classic old-bachelor type. His interest in humanity was unfailing, and his charity and tolerance seemed never to be exhausted. Much-abused as the word “gentleman” has been, it could with little exaggeration be literally applied to him; he represented the finest ideals of his race. He was wholly free from vanity or self-seeking, painfully modest as to his own attainments, always ready to subordinate his own judgment, and never indulging in harsh or carping criticism even of those whose views were most widely divergent from his. To the end of his life his botanical interest was chiefly directed toward the trees and shrubs; but he collected everything, and devoted a large part of his time to making determinations for his many correspondents. His long association with Thomas Howell made him an admirable commentator on the Flora of Northwest America; he had accompanied Howell on many of his expeditions, and was able to give detailed information as to time and place of collection of many of his species. His own large collection he never wholly reduced to order, but by the terms of his will it. becomes, along with his books and papers, the property of the University of Oregon." (ref. Ranunculus gormanii)
  • gossypi'na/gossypi'num: cottony, resembling cotton or Gossypium (ref. Pyrrocoma uniflora var. gossypina, Eriogonum gossypinum)
  • Gossyp'ium: from Latin names used by Pliny for the cotton tree (ref. genus Gossypium)
  • goveniana: named after James Robert Gowen (1783-1862), British horticulturist, Secretary and then Treasurer of the Horticultural Society, honorary member of the Lunacy Commission, Confidential secretary to three successive earls of Carnarvon, Fellow of the Geological Society, Director of the New Zealand Company, particularly interested in orchids and rhododendrons. "Cupressus goveniana ssp.goveniana was named “Gowen cypress” to commemorate the services to horticulture of James Robert Gowen." (Sargent, C. S. 1896. The silva of north America, Vol. X). The Cypress was found by Karl Theodor Hartweg (1812-1871), a German plant collector in California working at the behest of the Horticultural Society of London, and named by George Gordon who was also a member of the Horticultural Society. (ref. Callitropsis [formerly Cupressus] goveniana)
  • gow'enii: presumably after David Gowen, volunteer at the Jepson Herbarium who has been involved in monitoring rare and unusual plants for the East Bay CNPS and is a co-contributor on the coming Jepson treatment of Eriastrum (ref. Navarretia gowenii)
  • gra'cile: slender, graceful (ref. Eriogonum gracile, Porophyllum gracile, Tropidocarpum gracile, Xanthisma gracile)
  • gra'cilens: probably the same as gracile
  • gracilen'ta/gracilen'tum/gracilen'tus: slender (ref. Mentzelia gracilenta, Trifolium gracilentum, Helianthus gracilentus, Lupinus gracilentus)
  • graciliflor'a: slender-flowered (ref. Camissonia graciliflora)
  • gracil'ior: more slender (ref. Carex gracilior, Erigeron pumilis var. gracilior)
  • gracil'ipes: slender-stalked (compare brevipes, crassipes, filipes, planipes) (ref. Eriogonum gracilipes)
  • gra'cilis: see gracile above (ref. Arabis pulchra var. gracilis, Bouteloua gracilis, Cryptantha gracilis, Elatine gracilis, Lasthenia gracilis, Limnanthes gracilis, Madia gracilis, Microsteris gracilis, Nemacladus gracilis, Potentilla gracilis var. elmeri, Potentilla gracilis var. fastigiata, Setaria gracilis, Spartina gracilis)
  • gracil'lima/gracil'limum: most graceful or slender (ref. Najas gracillima, Eriogonum gracillimum, Galium angustifolium ssp. gracillimum, Ribes aureum var. gracillimum)
  • grae'ca: Greek, Grecian (ref. Malcolmia graeca)
  • gregar'ia: of or belonging to a herd or flock (ref. Minuartia nuttallii var. gregaria)
  • gra'hamii: after James Duncan Graham (1799-1865). The following is a passage quoted from Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography found on the website of the US Corps of Topographical Engineers: "James Duncan Graham, topographical engineer, was born in Prince William County, Virginia, 4 April, 1799, and died in Boston, Massachusetts, 28 December 1865. He was graduated at the United States Military Academy in 1817, and became lieutenant of artillery. He was promoted several steps in this arm of the service, and employed on topographical duty, but it was not until 1829 that his specialty was recognized. He was then brevetted captain and afterward major, that he might enter the corps of topographical engineers, receiving the full commission of major in 1838. In 1839-40 he was astronomer of the surveying party that, in behalf of the United States, established the boundary-line between the latter and the then new Republic of Texas. In 1840 he was appointed commissioner for the survey and exploration of the northeast boundary of the United States, and was employed along the Maine and New York frontiers until 1843. In the same year he was ordered to duty as astronomer on the part of the United States for the joint demarcation of the boundary between the United States and the British provinces, under the treaty of Washington. He was thus employed during the Mexican war. On its conclusion he was brevetted lieutenant colonel, the commission reading, "for valuable and highly distinguished services, particularly on the boundary line between the United States and the provinces of Canada and New Brunswick." In 1850 Colonel Graham was engaged by the states of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, to examine certain disputed questions regarding the intersection of the boundary line of those states. He made a thorough survey of the line originally made by Mason and Dixon, and published a voluminous report thereon. He was employed in the final settlement of the questions resulting from the War with Mexico, and during 1851 was United States astronomer in the survey of the boundary line between this country and Mexico. For the next ten years he was in charge of various harbor improvements on the northern and northwestern lakes, in which he discovered the existence of a lunar tide (1858-59). At the time of his death he was superintending engineer of the sea-walls in Boston harbor, and of the repairs of harbor works on the Atlantic coast from Maine to the capes of the Chesapeake. He was promoted to be colonel of the engineer corps, 1 June, 1863. He was a member of several scientific societies." (ref. Mammilaria grahamii)
  • gramin'ea/gramin'eus: resembling grass, grassy (ref. Stellaria graminea, Chrysothamnus gramineus, Potamogeton gramineus)
  • graminifo'lia: with foliage like grass
  • grana'tum: many-seeded (ref. Punicum granatum)
  • gran'de/gran'dis: big, showy (ref. Cynoglossum grande, Eriogonum grande var. grande, Eriogonum grande var. rubescens, Galium grande, Juniperus grandis)
  • grandiceph'alum: large-headed
  • grand'iceps: large-headed
  • grandiflor'a/grandiflor'um/grandiflor'us: large-flowered (ref. Agoseris grandiflora, Collomia grandiflora, Heterotheca grandiflora, Kallstroemia grandiflora, Phacelia grandiflora, Linanthus grandiflorus, Linum grandiflorum, Lotus grandiflorus)
  • grandifo'lia: large-leaved (ref. Frankenia grandifolia)
  • gran'dis: big, showy (ref. Bromus grandis, Glyceria grandis, Orobanche californica ssp. grandis)
  • grantia'num: after botanist and computer designer George Barnard Grant (1849-1917). In 1876 he unveiled at the Philadelphia Centennial Fair a device called a "difference engine," designed to automatically calculate mathematical tables. His machine was eight feet wide, five feet wide and contained 15,000 moving parts, many of which were gears, and followed after the development of Charles Babbage's groundbreaking analytical engine. His design and construction of gears led him to become one of the founders of the gear industry in the United States, eventually founding the Lexington Gear Works, the Grant Gear Works, the Philadelphia Gear Works and the Boston Gear Works, the latter three of which are still operating. David Hollombe provided the following: "He was collecting on Mt. San Gorgonio on July 25, 1904 with his cousin, Walter Wheeler, and a guide, when Wheeler was struck and killed by lightning." There followed an incredibly-difficult descent of the mountain with Wheeler's burned and frozen body in the midst of almost continuous thunder- and hailstorms, a descent that was interrupted by a flood of thousands of tons of water and debris across the path ahead basically washing out the trail they were using. Grant collected the type specimen of mountain carpet clover on Mt. San Gorgonio only two days before Wheeler was killed (ref. Trifolium monanthum var. grantianum)
  • grantia'nus: after Adele Gerard Grant (née Lewis) (1881-1969), American botanist specializing in Mimulus. She was born in Carpenteria, California, graduated from the University of California, Berkeley and the Henry Shaw School of Botany at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. She taught at Cornell University and then moved to South Africa in 1925 where she lived for five years, during which time she visited Rhodesia, the Belgian Congo, Kenya and Mozambique (ref. Mimulus grantianus)
  • grant'ii: see grantianum above (ref. Gilia splendens ssp. grantii, Trifolium monanthum var. grantii)
  • Graphephor'um: probably from grapheion, "paint brush, pencil or stylus," and phoros, "bearing, carrying," for the hairy appendage formed by the extension of the rachilla of the spiklet (ref. genus Graphephorum)
  • Gratio'la: from the Latin gratia, "agreeableness, pleasantness, loveliness," in reference to its medicinal qualities of these herbs (ref. genus Gratiola)
  • gratis'sima: very pleasing (ref. Rosa woodsii ssp. gratissima)
  • gra'tus: pleasant or pleasing
  • graveo'lens: strong or ill-smelling (compare beneolens, suaveolens) (ref. Apium graveolens, Sanicula graveolens)
  • graya'na/graya'num: see following entry (ref. Galium grayanum, Orobanche californica ssp. grayana)
  • gray'i/Gray'ia: after Asa Gray (1810-1888), one of the most eminent American botanists and professor at Harvard, who played an important part in the identification of many Sierra wildflowers, and whose guides in Yosemite were John Muir and Galen Clark.  More than 10,000 letters to Gray have been preserved from hundreds of correspondents including John Torrey, George Engelmann, Charles Darwin and Muir.  His life's goal was to describe all known plants of the United States, a task that no one man could ever achieve, but he dominated American botany like no other, and was honored by the naming of the genus Grayia by Sir William Hooker in Glasgow (ref. genus Grayia)
  • great'ae: after Louis Agustin Greata (1857-1911), a plant collector of significant repute acknowledged as such by no less a figure than Harvey Monroe Hall. He was born in London, was educated in Paris, and came to the U.S. in 1870, and as of 1880 was a railroad clerk in Louisville, Ky. He had moved on to San Francisco by 1884 and arrived in Los Angeles around 1894, becoming secretary to an organization of hardware dealers called the Pacific Coast Hardware and Metal Association. He was friends with Hall and went on collecting trips with him. [Info from D. Hollombe]  Jaeger's Desert Wildflowers states that Greata "...with Dr. H.M. Hall made a lengthy trip in the early 1900's in search of California Compositae, travelling with a horse named Molly and a buckboard fitted with water casks and an imbrella." He especially collected around the Los Angeles area. In the Kurtz Street Marsh, a freshwater marsh that existed a hundred years ago near downtown Los Angeles, he collected a sample of Helenium puberulum which was housed at the Herbarium of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, closed sometime in the 1990's. [Info from an online article by Robert van de Hoek about Los Angeles County naturalist Mickey Long]  That specimen is now at the Herbarium of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences and was for many years Secretary of the Botanical Section and in charge of the Herbarium. He had two species named for him, Aster greatae and Salvia greatae, and in both cases the specific name was originally published as greatai but later corrected to greatae. Normally, the specific ending -ae indicates that it commemorates the name of a woman, but the rule is that if the name of the person being so honored ends in an 'a', then it takes a final 'e.' The pronunciation of Greata's name is something that has caused me difficulty. Akrigg & Akrigg's British Columbia Place Names apparently gives the pronunciation as GREET-a, but a representative of the Cedar Creek/Greata Ranch Vineyards in British Columbia told me that they pronounce the name as GRET-a. Since I know of no connection between Louis Greata and this Greata Ranch, the foregoing may be inconsequential. I have heard other people pronounce it as GRATE-a. Even if it were an English word, its pronunciation would be problematic given the various soundings of the vowel combination 'ea' as in 'mean,' 'pear,' 'great,' 'heard,' 'heart' and 'leapt,' but in the case of the overwhelming majority of English words, the 'ea' vowel combination is pronounced as a long 'e' as in 'read.' Of course, as a personal name its pronunciation did not necessarily conform to any rules. I can't say definitively how he pronounced his name unless I am contacted by a relative. The 'ae' ending should be pronounced as 'ee,' so the possibilities for the pronunciation of this specific name would appear to be 'GREET-ee,' 'GRET-ee,' or 'GRATE-ee.' I have opted for 'GREET-ee.' If anyone can shed any further light on this question, please let me know. (Obituary by Theodore Payne in Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences (ref. Symphyotrichum greatae, Salvia greatae)
  • green'ei: after Edward Lee Greene (1843-1915), a churchman who went from being a Baptist to an Episcopalean and finally converted to Catholicism. During much of this time he assiduously collected plants and acquired as much or more field knowledge than any other worker of his day. Like Marcus Jones, who despised him (see jonesii), he was a believer in the western botanical establishment and supported it in many of its conflicts with Asa Gray and the easterners, with whom he had numerous verbal battles. He began the first botanical garden in the west after he became the first professor of botany at the University of California at Berkeley, and later taught at Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. and was an associate in botany at the Smithsonian Institution from 1904 to 1909. He collected primarily in western states such as Colorado, New Mexico and California. One of his controversial views was that research on plant names should extend back as early as possible to preserve the absolute first name a plant had ever been given, and this seems to have been a precursor of our contemporary situation where plants have often been renamed in favor of an earlier recognized name. He came at botany from an essentially religious point of view, that all plant species had been created individually by God and that there could be no variations or changes in species such as hybrids evolving into new species. He was a splitter, and applied this practice to many genera, not the least of which was Eschscholzia. Of the 116 new species, subspecies and varieties of this genus he named, only 8 are still recognized. It was said that he could collect a plant, name it a new species, then collect from the same plant later in the season and name it another new species! Also like Jones, he did not shun controversy, and once, after having been locked out of his church for reasons that I am unclear on, he chopped the door down with an axe and delivered his sermon. Karen Nilsson's quote from Wilson Linn Jepson (referring to Greene's style of solving problems) seems appropriate to end this paragraph: "He rode it at full-tilt like a medieval knight. The conflict was short, sharp, decisive, and often highly interesting." Marcus Jones would likely have had a different point of view (ref. Brickellia greenei, Dudleya greenei, Helianthemum greenei, Physalis greenei, Tuctoria greenei)
  • Greeneochar'is: for Edward Lee Greene (1843-1915), see above entry. This is a former genus name which may be resurrected in the future.
  • gregar'ia: from Latin gregis, "a flock," and thus meaning "of or belonging to a herd or flock, or being one of a large group" or by extension to a population of another sort. A.A. Heller in a 1903 Bulletin of the Southern California of Sciences wrote about this taxon: "It is abundant, growing in dense mats, often carpeting the ground in suitable situations." (ref. Minuartia nuttallii var. gregaria)
  • greg'gii: named after Josiah Gregg (1806-1850), frontier trader and author, who sent many specimens to Dr. George Engelman in St. Louis from little known areas of the southwest.  In 1849 he travelled to the northwestern corner of California where he hoped to find gold, and continued his somewhat erratic quests as a naturalist.  He was not popular with those he associated with, and he died at the early age of 44 after enduring a wet winter trapped in a forest of giant fallen redwoods (ref. Acacia greggii, Ceanothus greggii var. perplexans, Ceanothus greggii var. vestitus)
  • greg'orii: my information at this point is that this name was given (and the species described) by the plant collector Spencer Le Marchant Moore in 1894 in honor of his colleague John Walter Gregory (1864-1932), the Scottish explorer, stratigrapher, invertebrate paleontologist and geomorphologist, Appointed to the British Natural History Museum in 1887 as a geologist and paleontologist, Gregory travelled in North America and the West Indies and in 1892-1893 explored the Great Rift Valley which is where he collected the type specimen of Thunbergia gregorii.  Moore (born 1850) was a botanical explorer and taxonomic cytologist who was born in Hampstead, England, worked at the Royal Botanic Gardens from about 1870 to 1879, wrote a number of botanical papers, and then worked in an unofficial capacity at the Natural History Museum from 1896 until his death in 1932.  It was probably because the two men were both associated with this institution that they became acquainted, and Moore worked on collections of material, including those which Gregory brought back from Africa.  Gregory was the first professor of geology at the University of Melbourne and also held the position of Director of the Geological Survey of Victoria (1901-1904).  He resigned from those positions in 1904, and accepted a position at the University of Glasgow.  He was the first professor of geology at the University of Glasgow and held the Chair of Geology there for 25 years, until 1929. Gregory undertook expeditions in Libya, Angola, the Indian Himalayas and the East African Rift Valley, which he was the first to recognize as a graben.  He was originally chosen as the Scientific Director for Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic expedition, but resigned because he had understood his position to be in overall command and not just as the leader of the scientific staff.  In 1896 he was with Lord Conway on a crossing of Spitzbergen.  He was twice consulted regarding possible African locations for a Jewish homeland, and wrote over 300 papers on a variety of geological subjects (ref. Thunbergia gregorii)
  • Grevil'lea: named for the English horticulturist Charles Francis Greville (1749-1809), one of the founders of what is now the Royal Horticultural Society (ref. genus Grevillea)
  • grif'finii: after ecologist and oak authority James Richard Griffin (1931- ). Griffin received a Ph.D. in botany from UC Berkeley in 1962 and worked from 1967 until his retirement in 1992 as a research ecologist at the Hastings Natural History Reservation, a Biological Field Station of the University of California, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology and Natural Reserve System in Monterey County. He was also resident manager there from 1982 to 1988. In 1995 he authored a Flora of Hastings Reservation based on over 3000 specimens preserved by him and kept in the Hastings herbarium. He was also co-author in 1972 with William Critchfield of the book Distribution of Forest Trees in California, a publication of the USFS. One of his greatest qualities was his ability and willingness to be a mentor for younger scientists, many of whom have carried on his work (ref. Campanula griffinii)
  • Grinde'lia: named for David Hieronymus Grindel (1776-1836), a German pharmacologist, physician and professor of botany at Riga, Estonia (ref. genus Grindelia)
  • grindelio'ides: like or having the form of genus Grindelia
  • grinnel'lii: not named as is often thought for the 19th/20th century University of California zoologist Joseph Grinnell (1877-1939) whose specialty was the fauna of the San Bernardino Mts but rather after his brother, the entomologist Fordyce Grinnell, Jr. (1882-1943), who collected the species in 1903. He was born at Pine Ridge Indian Agency, South Dakota, and was educated at Stanford University. He was assistant curator of entomology at the Southwest Museum from 1916-1917, the founder of the Lorquin Natural History Club, and an early member of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. He published numerous papers in such journals as the Entomological News, Canadian Entomologist, Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, Journal of the New York Entomological Society, Lorquinia and the Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. The Lorquin Natural history Club was founded in honor of the 19th-century French entomologist Pierre Lorquin, who worked in California during the gold rush years and discovered a butterfly that became known as Lorquin's admiral, among other species (ref. Penstemon grinnellii var. grinnellii, Penstemon grinnellii var. scrophularioides
  • gris'ea/gris'eus: gray (ref. Castilleja grisea, Phacelia grisea, Viola pinetorum ssp. grisea, Ceanothus griseus)
  • groenland'ica: of or referring to Greenland (ref. Pedicularis groenlandica)
  • gros'sos: very large
  • grossulariifo'lia: with leaves like genus Grossularia (ref. Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia)
  • grossulario'ides: like the gooseberries (ref. Pelargonium grossularioides)
  • gruin'us: resembling a crane
  • Gru'sonia: named for the German privy councillor Hermann August Jacques Gruson (1821-1895), who had a particular interest in the Cactaceae, which is the family of this genus (ref. genus Grusonia)
  • gryposep'ala: from the Greek grypo, "curved, hooked," and sepala, "sepal" (ref. Agrimonia gryposepala)
  • guadalupen'sis: of or from Guadalupe Mountain (ref. Lupinus guadalupensis, Penstemon guadalupensis)
  • guggolzior'um: after Jack Guggolz (1917-2001), an avid birder and a long time member of Madrone Audubon and the Redwood Region Ornithological Society, and Betty L. Sennett Lovell Guggolz (c. 1924- ). The Guggolzes were also long time members of the Milo Baker chapter of the California Native Plant Society and monitored two wild populations of yellow larkspur (Delphineum luteum) for over twenty years. The following is quoted from the newsletter of the Milo Baker CNPS chapter: "Jack had a career as a research chemist for the USDA until he retired in 1972 and moved to Cloverdale. The rigorous scientific approach that he used in the laboratory served him well as he pursued his interest in the California flora and fauna. At the memorial service, Dr. Mike Parmeter remembered Jack as a knowledgeable birder and he also talked about Jack's museum quality collections of shells and insects, all accurately classified. These collections are now at the U.C. Berkeley and Sonoma State University. In the early '70's Jack's interests turned from birds to plants and he naturally became active in the California Native Plant Society. In the 1970's, he served on the Board of the State organization. Jack was not a charter member of the Milo Baker Chapter, but certainly was among the first to join and was one of the first treasurers. He was the third president, serving in 1976 and 1977. At that time, he led many field trips, especially to the Warm Springs Dam area where he did a lot of botany field work before the dam was built. He served on the board in many capacities for 27 years--most of the life of the chapter. He and Betty were the Rare Plant and Conservation committee for most of their 17 years together. His wisdom and knowledge will be missed. Jack grew up on a farm near Lodi and loved plants all his life. His Cloverdale garden was full of CA native plants that he had grown from seeds or cuttings. Every year he grew many plants to contribute to the plant sale." (ref. Harmonia guggolziorum)
  • Guillemin'ea: after Jean Baptiste Antoine Guillemin (1796-1842), a French botanist and author. He began working in a notary's office and then in 1814 went to Geneva to study under Augustine Pyrame de Candolle, botanist father of the great Alphonse de Candolle. In 1820 he went to Paris and worked in the library and herbarium of botanist Benjamin Delessert. He began work at the National Museum of Natural History in 1827 and received a medical degree in 1832. He succeeded Adolphe Brongniart as an assistant naturalist in the botany department. In 1838 he led a botanical expedition to Brazil to study the horticulture of tea (ref. genus Guilleminiea)
  • Guillen'ia: named after Father Clemente Guillen de Castro (1677/1678-1748), a Mexican Jesuit missionary (ref. genus Guillenia)
  • guiradon'is: Thanks to David Hollombe for the following information: "... named after Jose Juan Francisco de Jesus ('Frank' or 'Pancho') Guirado (1840-1886), brother-in-law to California Governor John G. Downey, who appointed him as assistant to Brewer on the State Geological Survey. He later left to accept a commission as 1st lieutenant in the 1st California Volunteer Cavalry when the Civil War began, served in Arizona and New Mexico, and when the California unit was disbanded he joined a unit from Missouri and was finally discharged at New Orleans in 1865. May have later been a policeman in Los Angeles where he was born and died" (ref. Solidago guiradonis)
  • Guizo'tia: named for Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot (1787-1874), a French historian and statesman who advocated a constitutional monarchy, served as premier (1847–1848), and published several historical works (ref. genus Guizotia)
  • gummif'era: bearing or producing gum
  • Gun'nera: named for Johan Ernst Gunnerus (1718-1773), Norwegian botanist and bishop, author of Flora Norvegica (1766-1772), founder of the Royal Norwegian Society. "Gunnerus was born at Christiania. He was bishop of Trondheim from 1758, and professor of theology at the university of Copenhagen. The following is quoted from the Wikipedia website: "Gunnerus was very interested in natural history and accumulated a large collection of specimens from visits to central and northern Norway. He also encouraged others to send him specimens. Together with the historians Gerhard Schönning and Peter Friederich Suhm he founded The Trondheim Society in 1760. In 1767 it received royal recognition and became the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters. Gunnerus was Vice-President and Director Perpetuus of the Society from 1767 to 1773. The society began publishing its journal in 1761, entitled Det Trondhiemske Selskabs Skrifter, still published today as Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter. In 1765 Gunnerus published a description of a basking shark in this journal, giving it the scientific name Squalus maximius. Gunnerus was the author of Flora Norvegica (1766-1776). He contributed notes on the ornithology of northern Norway to Knud Leem's Beskrivelse over Finmarkens Lapper (1767), translated into English in 1808 as An Account of the Laplanders of Finmark. In this Gunnerus was the first person to give a scientific name to the Greenshank. Gunnerus was the first to suggest that since the northern lights were caused by the Sun, there also had to be auroras around the moon, Venus and Mercury." (ref. genus Gunnera)
  • gussonea'num: after the Italian botanist Giovanni Gussone from Naples (1787-1866) (ref. Hordeum marinum ssp. gussoneanum)
  • Gutierre'zia: named for Pedro Gutierrez (Rodriguez), a 19th century Spanish nobleman, botanist and apothecary at the Madrid Botanical Garden called the Real Jardin Botanico founded by King Carlos III (ref. genus Gutierrezia)
  • gutta'tus: from the Latin meaning "a drop-like spot" which describes the red dots on both petals and sepals (ref. Mimulus guttatus)
  • gymnocar'pa/gymnocar'pon: from the Greek gymnos, "naked," and karpos, "fruit"  (ref. Rosa gymnocarpa, Trifolium gymnocarpon)
  • gymnoceph'alum/gymnoceph'alus: bare-headed (ref. Euchiton gymnocephalus)
  • gymnocla'da: from the word for "naked" and klados for "branch (ref. Phacelia gymnoclada)
  • Gymnoster'is: Umberto Quattrocchi says: "Probably from the Greek gymnos, "naked," and sterizo, "to stand fast, to fix" (in the sense of a support or foundation.) The Jepson Manual simply says: Greek for "naked stem" (ref. genus Gymnosteris)
  • gynodynam'a: presumably from the Greek gyne, "a woman, female," and dynamis, "power, strength," of uncertain application (ref. Carex. gynodynama)
  • Gypsoph'ila/gypsoph'ilum: loving gypsum, due to the habitat of one species (ref. genus Gypsophila, Delphinium gypsophilum)
  • gypsophilo'ides: having a resemblance to genus Gypsophila (ref. Claytonia gypsophiloides)
  • -gyra: from the Greek gyros, "round, a circle"

View from near Mt. Pinos
Andreas Canyon near Palm Springs


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