L-R: Abronia maritima (Red sand verbena), Baileya multiradiata (Desert marigold), Loeseliastrum matthewsii (Desert calico), Gilia splendens (Splendid gilia), Lotus nevadensis var. nevadensis (Sierra Nevada lotus).

     J

       In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear.

  • Jacaran'da: a Brazilian vernacular name (ref. genus Jacaranda)
  • ja'cens: from Latin jacens, "to lie along," from jaceo, "to lie or to be situate," thus fallen, prostrate or lying (ref. Gilia jacens)
  • jacinten'sis: same as following entry (ref. Keckiella rothrockii var. jacintensis)
  • jacin'teus: from Mt. San Jacinto, California
  • jacin'ticum: same as previous entry (ref. Galium angustifolium ssp. jacinticum)
  • jacobae'a: an epithet applied to plants and deriving from two different possible sources: (1) from St. James (Jacob or Jacobus), one of the 12 Apostles; or (2) referring to the island of St. Iago in the Cape Verde Islands (ref. Senecio jacobaea)
  • jae'geri/jaegeria'nus: after Edmund Carroll Jaeger (1888-1983), author of Desert Wildflowers and other works on desert ecology, professor of biology and Curator of Plants at the Riverside Municipal Museum (ref. Caulostramina jaegeri, Halimolobos jaegeri, Ivesia jaegeri, Linanthus jaegeri, Astragalus jaegerianus)
  • jala'pa: of Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, this is a plant (Mirabilis jalapa) in cultivation and occasionally found as a garden escape in California, the name jalapa being the specific epithet and referring to the drug jalap which was incorrectly assumed to have been extracted from this plant (ref. Mirabilis jalapa)
  • James'ia/jamesia'na/james'ii: after Edwin P. James (1797-1861), an American naturalist and botanical  explorer in the Rocky Mountains.  He studied medicine, then learned botany from Professor John Torrey, and in 1820 became the naturalist-surgeon of the federal government's Yellowstone Expedition which explored the Rockies all the way south into New Mexico.  He and two colleagues were the first Americans to ascend Pike's Peak, and he was the first plant collector to explore the high alpine regions of the Rocky Mountains (ref. genus Jamesia and species Cryptantha jamesii, Pleuraphis jamesii, Pseudostellaria jamesiana)
  • james'ii: after Dr. Frederick C. James (1935-2002). The following is from the Greenville, South Carolina, News: "Dr. Frederick C. James, age 67, died Friday, July 19, at the Baptist Hospital in Columbia. He was born in Long Beach, Calif., and was a son of the late Charles and Caroline Jicha James. Dr. James, affectionately known as 'Scrap Iron James' was a graduate of East Carolina University in Greenville, N.C. and received his PhD in botany from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. He taught at Westmar College in LeMars, Iowa for two years before he began his long career at Presbyterian College teaching there for 31 years and just retiring at the end of this school year. Dr. James was so loved and respected by his students at PC, that twice he was selected Professor of the Year, first in 1982 and second in 2002. One of his students went on to discover a new plant and named it Smilax jamesi in honor of Dr. James. He was also well- known for his biology trips to the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands, Africa and Hawaii. Not only was he known by his friends for his great sense of humor and friendly manner, but as a member of the Virginia High School Hall of Fame for scoring 83 points in a single basketball game, the most points ever scored in a single game." (ref. Smilax jamesii)
  • janish'iae: after Nevada artist Jeanne Russell Janish ( 1902-1998), a botanical and paleontological illustrator who traveled extensively in China as a young woman and produced many pencil drawings and watercolors of that country, particularly its flora. In her later years, she concentrated on the Southwestern region of the U.S. She was a graduate of Vassar and held a Masters degree from Stanford. Her work illustrated Roxana Ferris's Flowers of the Point Reyes National Seashore and Abrams' Flora of the Pacific States (re. Penstemon janishiae)
  • japon'ica/japon'icum/japon'icus: of or belonging to Japan, Japanese (ref. Lonicera japonica, Gnaphalium japonicum, Bromus japonicus, Lathyrus japonicus)
  • jar'edii: after Lorenzo Dow Jared (1831-1909). Born near Jacksonville, Illinois, Jared received an M.D. at Eclectic Medical College of Cincinnati in 1857. He was an assistant surgeon with the 23rd Illinois Volunteer Infantry from March to July 1865, then moved to California. He settled in Los Nietos (Los Angeles County) from 1870 to 1875, Santa Maria (Santa Barbara County) from 1876 to 1882, and Estrella (San Luis Obispo County) from 1883 to 1906. He lived the remaining years of his life at the Soldiers Home in Sawtelle, back in L.A. Co. David Hollombe sent me the following: "He lived on the Estrella plain of San Luis Obispo County, and after many years' study made a list of the native plants of the region which is the first list for any part of that great interior and is still in existence in manuscript.... While resident [there] he wrote a series of articles on the uses of the native plants for the San Luis Press, a newspaper at San Luis Obispo" (ref. Lepidium jaredii, Navarretia jaredii, Peucedanum jaredii)
  • Jas'minum: a late Medieval Latin version of the Persian name yasmin (ref. genus Jasminum)
  • Jaume'a: named after Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire (1772-1845), a French botanist. The following is quoted from a Rare Books website of the Missouri Botanic Garden: "Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire was born on October 29, 1772 in Grasse, a small town in Alpes-Maritimes, about fifteen kilometers north of Cannes. His family was probably of the upper bourgeoisie, and his intended career may have been to take part in the family enterprises, perhaps as a banker. The family name was Jaume, and he added the Saint-Hilaire at a later date; it is actually the name of a rural quarter of the old town section of Grasse. A biographer has suggested that he made the name change so that he would not be identified with another member of his family, Henri-Honore Jaume, who was a "local Jacobin terrorist." Very little is known about Jaume's early life and education, but he presumably had a comfortable upbringing and was educated locally. When he was twenty years old, he joined the Revolutionary Army as an artillery officer, and served with distinction in the Italian campaigns. In 1800, he resigned his commission, and went to Paris to study the natural sciences. His interest in botany may have developed from the fact that Grasse was a center for the perfume industry, and was a town surrounded by flowers.
         Jaume arrived in Paris at a time when significant institutional changes were underway, as successive Revolutionary governments sought to sweep away the structures of the Old Regime, and replace them with institutions compatible with the revolutionary theme of egalitarianism. For example, the Jardin du Roi, which had continued to function during the early years of the Revolution, was abolished by the National Convention by a decree of June 10, 1793. In its place was created the National Museum of Natural History, which included a botanic garden, a library for natural history, a menagerie or collection of foreign animals, and an amphitheatre of lecture room. Another organization changed by the Revolution was the Académie Royale des Sciences, which was abolished on August 8, 1795, and replaced by a decree of October 24, 1795 with the National Institute to consist of 144 members. The members were divided in classes, with the First Class, mathematics and physics, arranged in ten sections. The seventh section was botany and plant physiology, and the first members were M. Adanson, R. L. Desfontaines, A. L. de Jussieu, C. L. L'Heritier de Brutelle, J. B. Lamarck, and E. P. Ventenat, along with L. J. M. Daubenton of the section of anatomy and zoology. This was the distinguished company with whom Jaume was first associated in Paris.
         Jaume must have made a favorable impression as a student in the natural sciences, for, after just two years in Paris, he was asked to write a popular guide to the museum. At the time, he was studying floral paintings with Gerard van Spaendonck, and may have worked with Pierre Joseph Redouté, the master artist who tutored more than a generation of flora painters. Jaume Saint-Hilaire's studies in science combined with his artistic training emphasize the fact that, as his later works were to demonstrate, he was both scientist and artist. In 1805, he published, at his own expense, his first major work, Exposition des familles naturelles et de la germination des plantes, contentant la description de 2337 genres et d'environ 4000 especes, 112 planches dont les figures ont ete dessinées par l'auteur. Simply described, this was a popularized version of the classification system of A. L. de Jussieu, who was a strong advocate of the “natural” system of classification. Jaume had done a number of experiments on plant germination before beginning the book, and emphasized its importance to taxonomy. Jaume differed from de Jussieu in some respects, and added three family names—Amaryllidaceae, Lythraceae, and Verbenaceae—which are permanently established in botanical nomenclature. Jaume, who lived on a small military pension, had published at his own expense, as he was to do with subsequent works. He hoped thereby to earn a comfortable living, but this did not happen and, despite the fact that his writings were well received, he lived close to poverty for most of his life.
         Over a number of years, Jaume worked on Plantes de la France: Décrites et peintes de'apres nature. This was a ten-volume work, published in two distinct periods—1808-1809 and 1819-1822; it contains 1000 color-printed stipple engravings of drawings by Jaume himself. Among his other publications were: Mémoires sur les indigoféres du Bengale et de la Chine (1826); Mémoire sur la culture du poivrier noir (1827); Traité des arbrisseaux et des arbustes cultivés en France et en pleine terre (1825); Traité des arbres forestiers (1824); La flore et la pomone francaises (1828-1833); Flore paisienne (1835); Les Dahlia (date ?); Recueil de mémoires sur l'administration des forêts, sur les arbres forestiers et l'économie. Jaume's publications relating to forests show his lifelong dedication to forest protection and conservation. During the Napoleonic period and before, the forests of France had been ruthlessly exploited, and Jaume hoped that, following the Restoration, a new attitude might prevail. In 1820, the Bourbon government called for a new forest code and, in 1824, a school of forestry was established at Nancy. When the government began the planting of trees along main highways, Jaume regarded this as a personal triumph for his advocacy. In 1827, a new forest code was adopted which incorporated many of the reforms proposed by Jaume and other natural scientists. Perhaps because of his interests in forest cultivation and conservation and other practical themes in agriculture, in 1831, Jaume was elected a member of the Societe Royal and Central d'Agriculture.
         In another area of practical botany, Jaume concerned himself with the commercial possibilities of a dye plant, Wrightia tinctoria. During a trip to Great Britain in 1815, he had become acquainted with the British commercial policies that enabled entrepreneurs to reap profits from useful plants. In the years following the Restoration, he attempted to persuade the government of the commercial possibilities of Wrightia tinctoria and other dye plants that could be substituted for the traditional sources of indigo. He was able to produce a superior blue dye from the plant, Polygonum tinctorum, but failed to receive any reward for his work. He also advocated government action in the area of colonial agricultural productivity, believing rightly that successive governments had failed to capitalize on the production of commodities such as black pepper, cinnamon, and others. However, no serious emphasis was developed in French colonial agriculture until later on in the 19th century.
         Jaume Saint-Hilaire obviously had a life filled with interests, activities, and achievements, but it may have been a disappointing and frustrating life in many respects. Financial rewards escaped him as did professional recognition. For example, in spite of two nominations, he was not elected to the Academy of Sciences; in retrospect, his numerous scientific publications and his advocacy of the use of botanical science for the improvement of agriculture and related fields should have brought him the appropriate rewards."
         Based on the pronunciation of the original French name Jaume, this epithet should correctly be pronounced "ZHOME-a" (ref. genus Jaumea)
  • jef'freyi: after John Jeffrey (1826-1854), a gardener at the Edinburgh Botanic Garden and discoverer of the Jeffrey pine in the Shasta Valley of California in 1852. Originally classified as a variety of ponderosa pine due to similar physical appearance and geographic range, it was later determined to be a separate species (ref. Dodecatheon jeffreyi, Pinus jeffreyi)
  • Jen'sia: named by Bruce Baldwin for Jens Christian Clausen (1891-1969), Danish botanist, ecologist and geneticist. He received his BS, Masters and Doctoral degrees at the University of Copenhagen and became an assistant professor at the Royal Agricultural College. He moved to the United States in 1931. He held a research appointment at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and at Carnegie's laboratory at Stanford University. At the time taxonomist Harvey Monroe Hall was conducting experiments in transplanting native plants into different ecological environments to see how they developed. In 1932 Clausen was invited to join Hall's group, but within a few months Hall died and Clausen took over the work. With his colleagues David Keck and William Hiesey, over the course of two decades, he established that new species can result from rapid or extreme environmental changes. In 1951 he published Stages in the Evolution of Plant Species and was from 1951 to 1956 a professor of biology at Stanford. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1959 and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1961. Also in 1961 he was knighted by King Frederick IX of Denmark (ref. genus Jensia)
  • Jepson'ia/jepson'ii: after Willis Linn Jepson (1867-1946), a major California botanist who by the age of 13 was cataloguing the plants of the Sacramento Valley and surrounding areas. He was the first person to receive a doctorate in botany from the University of California. He succeeded his mentor, Edward Lee Greene, as professor of Botany at that institution, and founded the California Botanical Society in 1915. He also formed the Save the Redwoods League. His Manual of the Flowering Plants of California, completed in 1925, was the first identification guide to all the wild plants of California. He also wrote Trees of California, and coined the term "alien plant." The multi-volume Flora of California, which had not been finished at the time of his death, was completed thereafter and exists today as the Jepson Manual, accepted by most if not all in the field of botany as the Bible of California flora. In 1892, along with John Muir and Warren Olney, he helped to found the Sierra Club. He travelled widely by automobile, on foot, by steamship (to Catalina Island, where Blanche Trask (see traskiae) was his guide), and once even took a rowboat down the Colorado River in search of new plants. The Jepson Herbarium and Library at the University of California at Berkeley continues his work and promotes the vision he had that botany and indeed biological science in general is an ongoing process and that no book or flora should be considered final or complete but merely a furtherance of our knowledge (ref. genus Jepsonia, also Castilleja jepsonii, Eriophyllum jepsonii, Galium jepsonii, Lathyrus jepsonii)
  • jepsonia'nus: see previous entry (ref. Astragalus rattanii var. jepsonianus)
  • joaquinia'na: relates to the San Joaquin Valley region which is one of the areas where this taxon resides (ref. Atriplex joaquiniana)
  • Johanneshowel'lia: see following entry (ref. genus Johanneshowellia)
  • johan'nis-howel'lii: after John Thomas Howell (1903-1994), see Howelliella/howellii (ref. Astragalus johannis-howellii)
  • johnson'ii/john'sonii: named for Joseph Ellis Johnson (1817-1882), an early Mormon settler at St. George, Utah who in the spring of 1874 played host to Dr. Charles Parry and has been described as a "pioneer publicist, herbalist and horticulturist" (ref. Dalea johnsonii, Sclerocactus johnsonii)
  • Johnstonel'la: for Ivan Murray Johnston (1898-1960), see next entry. This is a former genus name which may be resurrected in the future.
  • john'stonii/johnston'ii: after Ivan Murray Johnston (1898-1960), one of the leading American systematic botanists of the first half of the 20th century and and authority on the family Boraginaceae not only in America but worldwide with more than 50 articles published on that family (ref. Arabis johnstonii, Galium johnstonii, Mimulus johnstonii)
  • john-tuck'eri: after John Maurice Tucker (1916-2008), Professor Emeritus of Botany, University of California, Davis, 1955. Tucker grew up in California, and went to Santa Barbara State College (now UCSB), 1934-38, receiving an AB with honors 1940 and a PhD in 1950 at Berkeley. He was originally interested in forestry, then turned to oaks after a trip to El Salvador. As a graduate student at UC Berkeley he was hired as the Director of the UC Davis Botany Department Herbarium which has now become the J.M. Tucker Herbarium, a position he held for 39 years. During that time the collection grew from just 9,400 specimens to over 300,000. He also was Director of the UC Davis Arboretum for 12 years. He devised the keys and wrote the species descriptions for the oak family treatment in the 1st edition of the Jepson Manual and completed a revision for the 2nd edition not long before his death. He was particularly interested in hybridizations between oak species (ref. Quercus john-tuckeri)
  • jo'kerstii: after Sacramento botanist James Dent Jokerst (1956-1995). The following is quoted from a website of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists: "Jim was born on 27 February 1956 in Denver, CO, USA, but he spent most of his life in California. He attended California State University, Chico, where he received his BS (1978) and MS (1981) degrees in botany. His graduate thesis was based on a study of the pollination biology of Calochortus species. He joined Jones & Stokes Associates [an environmental consulting firm] in 1985, where he served as an associate principal and leader of the botanical resources group. Jim Jokerst will be remembered as one of the foremost authorities on the flora and ecology of California's vernal pools, which are the focus of considerable controversy between the state's conservation and development communities. He developed objective methodology for selecting and ranking candidate vernal pool preserves, based on the quality, species diversity, representativeness, and preservation feasibility of a set of candidate preserve sites. He was known for his encyclopedic knowledge of California flora, soils, climate, hydrology, and geomorphology and his expert grasp of state and federal environmental laws. His outgoing, honest personality and keen sense of humor enabled Jim to develop close working relationships with environmental professionals in both the public and private sectors. These traits, coupled with his technical expertise, enabled him to resolve the most complex and controversial environmental problems with impeccable scientific data and objectivity. Jim described two new plant species Monardella beneolens (Lamiaceae) from the southern crest of the Sierra Nevada, and Pogogyne floribunda (Lamiaceae) from the Great Basin in northeastern California. In addition to his many technical reports, he contributed articles on California floristics and conservation biology to a variety of journals, including Madroño, Fremontia, Phytologia, and Aliso. He also prepared the descriptions and taxonomic keys for Acanthomintha, Monardella, and Pogogyne for the New Jepson Manual of the flowering plants of California. His involvement in many professional organizations included his service for the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) on the Rare Plant Advisory Committee and the Natural Community Scientific Advisory Committee, and he represented CNPS on the U.S. Forest Service Issues Statewide Conservation Committee. He was a volunteer preserve manager at The Nature Conservancy's Vina Plains Preserve near Chico; an important contributor to the California Department of Fish and Game's Natural Diversity Data Base; a field associate with the California Academy of Science; and a member of the Natural Areas Association, the Ecological Society of America, the California Botanical Society, and the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. Jim received the Chevron National Environmental and Conservation Award in 1988 for his many voluntary contributions to conservation, and he received the CNPS Rare Plant Conservation Award in 1992 for his outstanding contributions to rare plant conservation in California. Throughout his life, Jim was drawn to the wilderness and he felt most comfortable there. He was an accomplished backcountry skier, mountaineer, and whitewater canoeist. Mountain peaks and desert lowlands were of equal interest, as long as rare plants could be found and wild landscapes were available to explore. His many colleagues remember Jim Jokerst as a world-class botanist and ecologist, author, teacher, leader, and cherished friend." He was also the author of The Vascular Plant Flora of Table Mountain, Butte County, California. He died in a tragic drowning incident at the age of 39. (ref. Trifolium jokerstii)
  • jolonen'sis: presumably named after the town of Jolon (pronounced ho-lone), California or the Jolon Valley located in Monterey County (ref. Brodiaea jolonensis)
  • jones'ii: after Marcus Eugene Jones (1852-1934), a self-taught geologist and botanist who worked as a private explorer and mining engineer for a railroad company in Salt Lake City, making numerous collecting trips to Mexico, Baja California, British Columbia and throughout the western states. An apparent lover of controversy, he became embroiled in a national debate between eastern and western botanists throughout the botanical field on whether western botanists should have to clear all names and descriptions of the western plants they were discovering with Asa Gray at Harvard, or whether they had the right to name and describe them themselves. In order to express his opinions on the matter, he became one of the first self-publishers and subsequently released eighteen issues of a journal he called Contributions to Western Botany, in which he supported the botanists of his own region, while at the same time making no secret of his sarcastic and somewhat negative opinions of some of his fellows. He referred to Edward L. Greene, for whom he had a particular dislike, as a botanical crook, moral reprobate, and an unmitigated liar, and he called Wilhelm Suksdorf a "hopeless splitter," referring to the manner in which the latter created new species without any justification for doing so. Toward the end of his life, he donated his extensive collection of 100,000 specimens to Pomona College where he spent a good deal of time. In 1934 he was killed in an accident while returning from a collecting trip in the San Bernardino Mountains. In Karen B. Nillson's words, he was "an irascible old codger" and despite never completing the flora he began for the Great Basin region, his contributions to the field of botany were many and significant (ref. Argyrochosma jonesii, Cryptantha muricata var. jonesii, Layia jonesii, Linanthus jonesii, Mentzelia jonesii, Muhlenbergia jonesii, Notholaena jonesii, Plagiobothrys jonesii)
  • jordan'ii: after Rudolf Jordan (1818-1910), born in Germany of French Huguenot extraction. After a brief period of military service, he embarked on what would be a lifetime of various entrepreneurial and business activities. A desire for something exotic and an interest in tropical climes took him to Cuba where he worked at some unspecified activity and then became involved with daguerreotype photography, then in its infancy. Hearing about the possibility of gold being found in California, he travelled across Mexico and eventually reached Tuolumne County, where he engaged in placer mining that was moderately profitable and held his interest for a while. It seems he was always looking for something else because the list of things he pursued was a long one and the numbers of partners he had and firms he worked for was large. He was involved in selling and trading products, trying to develop new items of equipment like a gold-washing machine and a fan-wheel for fruit drying, various agricultural endeavors, flour mills, log cutting and pearl fisheries. Later in his life he returned to Germany with his wife and took with him many plant specimens he had collected to be studied there by Professor Karl Mueller at the University of Halle. One of these was a species of maidenhair which the Professor declared to be a new species and was named for Jordan. Many commercial goods of his were destroyed in the 1851 fire in San Francisco and then suffered through the Great Quake and Fire of 1906. He was an accomplished linguist, being comfortable in Spanish, English, French as well as German. He was happily married from 1856 until his wife died in 1901 and had children and grandchildren by them to whom he was equally devoted (ref. Adiantum jordanii)
  • juba'ta/juba'tum: crested, with long awns (ref. Cortaderia jubata, Hordeum jubatum)
  • juda'ica: of or from Judea or as it is sometimes spelled Judaea (ref. Parietaria judaica)
  • Jug'lans: a classical Latin name for walnut, possibly from Jovis, "of Jupiter or Jove," and glans, an acorn or nut (ref. genus Juglans)
  • julibris'sin: derived from the Persian name for this plant (ref. Albizia julibrissin)
  • ju'nakii/junak'ii: after Steven Junak (1949- ), botanist at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, collector and authority on the Channel Islands, author with others of The Flora of Santa Cruz Island (ref. Malacothrix junakii)
  • jun'cea/jun'ceum: rush-like, referring to the leafless stems of this plant (ref. Bebbia juncea, Brassica juncea, Chondrilla juncea, Machaeranthera [formerly Haplopappus] juncea, Spartium junceum)
  • juncifo'lia: with leaves like Juncus (ref. Poa secunda ssp. juncifolia)
  • Jun'cus: the classical Latin name for the rush, possibly from jungere, "to join or bind," because the stems were used for binding (ref. genus Juncus)
  • juniperi'num: resembling Juniperus, bluish-brown, like berries of juniper (ref. Phoradendron juniperinum)
  • junipori'num: alternative spelling of the previous entry (ref. Eriogonum umbellatum var. juniporinum)
  • Junip'erus: a Latin name for juniper (ref. genus Juniperus)
  • Justic'ia: after James Justice (1698-1763), a Scottish botanist and horticulturist, son of Sir James Justice. He was apparently the first person to successfully bring a pineapple to the fruiting stage in Scotland, became involved in the tulip bulb craze and died bankrupt (ref. genus Justicia)   

Mojave National Preserve
Malibu Creek State Park Group Campground.

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