L-R: Hesperocallis undulata (Desert lily), Malacothrix glabrata (Desert dandelion), Silene verecunda ssp. platyota (White catchfly), Trixis californica (California trixis), Justicia californica (Chuparosa)

In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear. Where no credit is given for photos, they are in public domain mostly from Wikipedia.

  • ka'li: presumably a derivation from the word alkali, or perhaps they both share a common derivation. This taxon was one of those that were an important source of soda ash since its ashes contain as much as 30% of the alkali material sodium carbonate. The word alkali itself is reported to have been derived from the Arabic al qaly, or "from Kali," and there is a famous area of Saudi Arabia called the Rub al-Kali or Rub al-Khali, the "Empty Quarter." It is likely that the same kinds of alkaline plants grow there such as Chenopodium, Salicornia, Batis as well as Salsola (ref. Salsola kali)
  • Kallstroe'mia: after Swedish botanist/gardener Anders Kallström (1733-1812), an obscure contemporary of the Italian physician and naturalist Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (1723-1788), the author of the genus. To gain gardening experience, Kallström went to London where he was employed as a journeyman gardener at Kensington Palace, following which he went to Paris before returning to Sweden. He was associated with botanist Philip Miller at Chelsea, chief gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden, and his letters refer to the forthcoming edition, the eighth, of Miller's Gardeners Dictionary. He also spent time in Holland (ref. genus Kallstroemia)
  • Kal'mia: named after Pehr (Peter) Kalm (1716-1779), Finnish-Swedish explorer, botanist, agricultural economist
      and student of Carl Linnaeus, considered as one of his most important disciples. He travelled extensively in Russia and then was sent by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences to study the botany and natural history of North America. He spent three years in New York, Pennsylvania and Canada, and wrote about it in Travels Into North America (English edition published in London 1772). After returning to Sweden, he became a professor of natural history and was elected to the Stockholm Academy of Sciences. He was born in Sweden to where his Finnish parents had fled to
    escape the Great Northern War between Sweden and a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony-Lithuania. His father died soon after his birth and his mother took him back to Närpes in the Ostrobothnia region of Finland at the cessation of hostilities. He studied at the Royal Academy of Turku which was the only university in Finland at that time, and then entered the University of Uppsala, where he was one of Linnaeus’s first students and was given instruction in astronomy by Anders Celsius.  From 1742 to 1746 he did field research in Sweden, Russia and the Ukraine. Linnaeus used his findings in his Flora Suecia. The following year Kalm then became a professor of economics at the Royal Academy of Turku. He had become a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1745 and in 1747 he was selected to travel to North America to study its flora and bring back seeds and plants useful to agriculture. He was the first trained scientist to describe Niagara Falls and published the first scientific paper on the North American cicada. He was specifically tasked to bring back a hardy species of mulberry from which they hoped to establish a silk industry. He spent six months in England and met many English botanists, then arrived in Philadelphia in 1748 and was befriended by no less than Benjamin Franklin who introduced him to the great botanist John Bartram. In the summer of 1749 he travelled up the St. Lawrence to Quebec where he botanized, gathering many plants of potential economic importance in Sweden such as walnut, early-ripening maize, pumpkin, cotton and watermelon. He also took many barometric, meteorological and cartographic measurements along the way. After travelling around in New York state, he got married and remained in Philadelphia until 1751, when he returned to Sweden. He continued to work as a lecturer in Turku, cultivated seeds he brought back, published numerous papers in the Proceedings of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, andconcentrated on silviculture and forest conservation. Although the species he returned with failed ultimately to have economic significance, he had a great influence on the next generation of botanical explorers. In his Species Plantarum Linnaeus credited Kalm with 60 new species including the mountain laurel Kalmia which Linnaeus named in his honor (ref. genus Kalmia)
  • kamtschat'icus: of or from the Kamchatka Peninsula (ref. Erigeron acris var. kamtschaticus)
  • karvinskia'nus/karwinskia'nus: named for Wilhelm Friedrich Karwinsky von Karwin (1780-1855), 19th century Bavarian explorer and naturalist who collected plants in Brazil (1821-1826) and Mexico (1826-1831, 1840. He was born in Hungary and died in Munich. He spent five years in Mexico and sent back large numbers of living plants, particularly agaves and cacti. In 1840 he returned to Mexico at the urging of the Russian government and sent his collections to St. Petersburg. The genus Karwinskia was named for him by German botanist Joseph Gerhard Zaccarini in 1832, and his name is on many taxa (ref. Erigeron karvinskianus)
  • Keckiel'la: after David Daniels Keck (1903-1995), American botanist known for his work on experimental taxonomy who collaborated with Philip Munz on A California Flora. in 1959. He was born in Nebraska and moved with his family to Riverside, California. His high school biology teacher was Edmund Jaeger who encouraged his early interest in botany. He received BSc and MSc degrees from Pomona College under the guidance of Philip Munz and a Ph.D. in botany from the University of California in 1930 where he did doctoral research with Harvey Monroe Hall. He worked at the Carnegia Institute of Washington at Stanford from 1934 to 1950. In 1950 he became head curator of the New York Botanical Garden and remained in that position until 1958. Before moving to New Zealand in 1970 where he established an arboretum near his home, he was Program Director for Systematic Biology at the National Science Foundation, returning to the United States in 1978. He died at the age of 92. The genus Keckiella was published by Richard Myron Straw in 1967 (ref. genus Keckiella)
  • keck'ii: see above entry (ref. Phacelia suaveolens var. keckii, Poa keckii, Sidalcea keckii)
  • keil'ii: after David John Keil (1946- ), Director of the Robert F. Hoover Herbarium and Curator of Vascular Plants
      at CalPoly, co-author of California Vegetation (1995) and Vascular Plant Taxonomy (1996), a major contributor to and co-editor of the Jepson Manual, and a major contributor to the Flora of North America North of Mexico. He grew up in Illinois and decided on a career in botany while in high school. He received a B.S. degree (1968) and an M.S. degree (1970) from Arizona State University, and a doctorate in 1973 from Ohio State University. He joined the faculty of California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo in 1978 and was a professor of biology.  He was
    also the editor of Volumes 35 through 37 of the botanical journal Madrono (1988-1990), and the co-author of Wildflowers of San Luis Obispo County. In addition to the western United States particularly California and Arizona, he has botanized in Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, Bolivia, Peru, El Salvador, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. In 2002-2003 he collected in South Africa and Lesotho. He is Emeritus Professor at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo (ref. Erigeron inornatus var. keilii) (Photo credit: Cal Poly San Luis Obispo)
  • kelley'anum: after Lynwood Julius Kelley (1885-1952), native of Fresno, dairyman for many years for various institutions in Alameda County and an amateur naturalist who botanized in the Sierra Nevadas and assisted John Gill Lemmon in 1902 (ref. Lilium kelleyanum)
  • Kel'loggia/kel'loggii: after Dr. Albert Kellogg (1813-1887), botanist, physician, and one of 7 founders of the
      California Academy of Sciences in 1853. He was born in Connecticut and studied medicine with a physician in Middletown, then enrolled at the Medical College of South Carolina and finally at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky, where he received his doctor of medicine degree. He had been interested in natural history from an early age and in the mid-1840’s he travelled through the southern and southwestern states collecting plants and studying the vegetation. He moved to California during the gold rush of 1848, travelling around the Horn and finally settling
    in San Francisco as a physician and becoming the first resident botanist in California. Exploring the natural history of the Sierras, he published the first extensive account of Sequoia gigantea in 1855. From JSTOR: “In search of adventure again, Kellogg joined the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey as botanist and surgeon, leaving on their expedition to explore the Bering Sea and Alaska in 1867. The trees he studied along the Pacific coast during this expedition contributed to his most impressive botanical work, the Forest Trees of California. Published in 1882 it contained many of his own drawings as he was a talented draftsman. In total Kellogg added some 40 new species to the flora of North America and the genus Kelloggia Torr. ex Hook.f. was named after him for his contributions.” As he became more involved with botany his enthusiasm for his medical practice waned. He and his great friend William George Washington Harford (see harfordii) often travelled together, including several trips to the Channel Islands where in 1874 they became the first botanists to collect on Santa Cruz Island. Kellogg also collected on Santa Barbara Island in 1871 and described and named Coreopsis gigantea. Many of the plants they collected were new to science. In some ways he was way ahead of his time, and one example of this was his  belief that women should be included in scientific and natural history work, and two women who were later hired as curators at the Academy were the incomparable Katherine Brandegee and Alice Eastwood. He was especially drawn to the study of trees and he published a book in 1889 with Edward L. Greene entitled Illustrations of West American Oaks with 400 botanical drawings. He died in Alameda. The genus Kelloggia was published by Joseph Dalton Hooker in 1874 based on a previous description by John Torrey (ref. genus Kelloggia, also Antirrhinum kelloggii, Deinandra kelloggii, Poa kelloggii, Polygonum kelloggii, Quercus kelloggii) (photo credit: Huntington Institute for Botanical Investigation)
  • ken'nedyi: named after William Ledlie Kennedy (c. 1827-?), who collected specimens in Kern Co. He came to California in 1849 on the bark J.R. Gardner and became a well-known figure in Kern County, owning several stores and stamp mills. In 1876 he sent a collection of specimens to botanist Joseph Trimble Rothrock at the Smithsonian Institution where they were added to those collected by Rothrock the previous year. The extent of his interest in botany is not clear, but he did meet Joseph Trimbel Rothrock when he botanized the Cuddy Valley, Mt. Pinos and the Fort Tejon area, and collected samples of what came to be known as Calochortus kennedyi and Eriogonum kennedyi. A third species named for him by Thomas Conrad Porter in 1877, Gilia kennedyi, is now considered synonymous with Linanthus parryae. David Hollombe provided the following additional information about him: "[He was] born in Ireland about 1827, lived in New York until June 12, 1849 when he and Grant Thorburn, Jr. sailed for San Francisco and was in Los Angeles in the 1850 census. Naturalized in L.A. in 1855. Opened a store in Keyesville in 1856 with William Marsh and with him also set up a stamp mill and pack mule service over the Greenhorn Mountains. In 1860 they set up ore processing mills in the Coso Mts. He was secretary of a group formed to separate Kern County from Tulare and ran unsuccessfully for supervisor of the new county, began prospecting in Inyo County, and was part of the group that discovered silver in Surprise Canyon in the Panamints. 1875 was also the year that Joseph Trimble Rothrock traveled from Santa Barbara to Mount Whitney as surgeon and botanist of Lt. George. M. Wheeler's U. S. Geographical Surveys West of the Hundredth Meridian.  By the time Rothrock reached Fort Tejon it was already late July, and so most of his collecting was done at the higher elevations.  In early September, at La Motte's Ranch (Lamont Meadow?) 'through the kindness of Mr. Kennedy, Rothrock was put in possession of some chia, an article well known to the Mexicans and Indians, who use it as food on their long trips, and also mix it with water to render it (water) more palatable and refreshing, and to do away with the necessity of drinking so much.'  Mr. Kennedy was also persuaded to make botanical collections for him the following spring.  Kennedy's 'impressive set of collections,' as Twisselmann describes them [in A Flora of Kern County], included the types of the two species that bear his name, both collected on or near Mount Piños.  The "Economic Botany" section of the survey Report contains his account of the use of  the red roots of 'popcorn flower' (Plagiobothrys nothofulvus) as a cosmetic by the Indian women of Fort Tejon. I haven't found any details of Kennedy's later years, although his name appears in Kern County voting registers at Fort Tejon in 1876 and at Bakersfield in 1880. He may be the William Kennedy listed in the 1880 census in a hospital in San Francisco with broken ribs." (ref. Calochortus kennedyi var. kennedyi, Calochortus kennedyi var. munzii, Eriogonum kennedyi var. alpigenum, Eriogonum kennedyi var. austromontanum, Eriogonum kennedyi var. kennedyi)
  • Kentran'thus: see Centranthus
  • kentrophy'ta: an old name meaning "spiny growth" (ref. Astragalus kentrophyta)
  • ker'neri: named after Austrian botanist Anton Joseph Kerner von Marilaun (1831-1898). The following is quoted
      from a superb website called Some Biogeographers, Evolutionists and Ecologists: Chrono-Biographical Sketches by Charles H. Smith, Joshua Woleben and Carubie Rodgers at Western Kentucky University: "Kerner von Marilaun's work was well known to both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, who refer to him in their writings. Kerner was in a good position to develop natural history studies, as for most of his professional life he held positions both as director of a botanical garden and as a university professor. He was known especially as an
    outstanding expert on alpine floras; further, he did important experimental work in an alpine setting when he transported a number of species cultivated in Vienna to high altitudes nearby to examine any changes that might take place, and whether these changes would prove hereditarily transmissible. Changes in form and life cycle were in fact observed, but only remained if the plants were kept at the high altitude location: thus, the environment appeared to be responsible. Kerner's work extended to efforts in regional floristics, systematic botany, and popular writing." He began his career like so many botanists by studying medicine at the University of Vienna, then became a teacher of natural history. In 1860 he was made Professor of Natural History and Director of the botanical gardens and museum of natural history at the University of Innsbruck, and then from 1878 to 1898 was Professor of Systematic Botany at the University of Vienna and Director of the Vienna Botanical Gardens. He was the author of Das Pflanzenleben der Donaulaender (The Plant Life of the Danube Region, 1863), Pflanzenleben (Plant Life, in two volumes, 1890-1891), and Flowers and Their Unbidden Guests 1878), and then in 1895-1896 he published his English language version of the Pflanzenleben, The Natural History of Plants, Their Forms, Growth, Reproduction, and Distribution in two volumes (ref. Rumex keneri)
  • Kick'xia: after Jean Kickx (Sr.) (1775-1831) and his son Jean Kickx (Jr.) (1803-1864) (photo shown). According to
      Umberto Quattrocchi, Jean Kickx Sr. was a Belgian professor of botany, pharmacy and minerology at a medical school in Brussels, and was the author of Flora bruxellensis, published in Brussels in 1812. Jean Kickx Jr. was also a professor of botany and malacology in Brussels (1831-1835) and at the University of Ghent  from 1835 to 1864, and was the original author of Flore cryptogamique des Flandres (Cryptogamatic Plants of Flanders), a work completed and published posthumously in 1867 by his son Jean Jacques Kickx (1842-1887), also a botanist, professor and Vice-Chancellor
    of the University of Ghent. He received his doctorate at Leuven and was a co-founder of the Société royale de botanique de Belgique. He also published Specimen inaugurale exhibens synopsin molluscorum Brabantiæ Australi indigenorum with Francis Joseph Adelmann in1830, Flore cryptogamique des environs de Louvain, ou, Description des plantes cryptogames et agames qui croissent dans le brabant et dans une partie de la province d'Anvers (1835) and Notice sur quelques champignons du Mexique (1841).The genus Kickxia was named in 1827 by Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier (ref. genus Kickxia)
  • killip'pii: after Ellsworth Paine Killip (1890-1968), a botanist from the National Herbarium of the Smithsonian
      Institution who by chance was associated with the collection gathered by one of the great biological expeditions of modern times, the Royal Botanical Expedition led by Jose Mutis of Spain to the area known then as Nuevo Granada, an area that today would include large parts of northern South America and southern Central America. This monumental effort began in 1783 with the blessing of the Spanish Court and included botanical, biological and mineralogical surveys. Continuing for some thirty years, the expedition made a vast collection of specimens and
    descriptions, including some 6000 illustrations of 2700 plant species, possibly the greatest collection of botanical illustrations ever made. After the deaths of Mutis and his successor, Francisco Caldas, the King of Spain summarily ordered the collection shipped to the Royal Botanical Gardens of Madrid, where it languished essentially forgotten and unused until 1929. It was then that E.P. Killip began the enormous job of organizing it, a job whose fruition was not to be until the late 1953 with the publication of the first volume of illustrations. Thus far 23 volumes have been produced representing perhaps one-fifth of the species that were described by Mutis and Caldas (ref. Linanthus killipii) (Photo credit: www.passionflow.co.uk)
  • king'ii: named after Clarence King (1842-1901), a California geologist connected with the California Geological
      Survey in the 1860's. King’s businessman father died in China when he was only six, and when he was 17 he dropped out of high school without graduating. He had been prone to some illnesses and fits of depression, but with the help of his stepfather he entered the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale and was a member of its first graduating class receiving a Bachelor’s degree in 1862.  He headed for California to climb mountains and study geology, and joined the California State Geological Survey as an unpaid assistant geologist. He explored the Sierra Nevada mountain range
    in 1864. In 1865 he made a trip to Nicaragua where he contracted malaria, and two years later he was appointed U. S. Geologist-in-Charge of the U.S. Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel, during which he he surveyed some 12,000 square miles and collected over 3,000 specimens of rocks, minerals and fossils.. He published a book about his adventures entitled Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada in 1872. He also conducted the survey of the Yosemite Valley Mountains and the glaciers on Mount Shasta, California in 1875, and in 1879 he was appointed the first director of the United States Geological Survey. He served in that position for two years then became interested in geological work as it related to mining serving as a consultant for the Anglo-American Mining Company. By 1884 he was back in New York where he met an African -American woman, and since interracial marriage was illegal, he passed himself off as a black Pullman car porter, and they were married in 1888 without his wife knowing that he was white. During the following years he continued to have financial problems and such periods of depression that he was actually committed for a time. After being declared ‘recovered,' he travelled to the Caribbean, got whooping cough, and was later diagnosed with tuberculosis. After thirteen years of a common law marriage, he finally admitted to his wife that he was not black. The only will he had was from before he was married and everything he had was left to his mother. His published scientific studies of western geology are in the American Journal of Science and Smithsonian Institute. Despite a life which many including King himself would consider a failure, he is considered one of the greatest geological scientists of the 19th century. His cause of death was recorded as tuberculosis (ref. Angelica kingii, Antirrhinum kingii, Arenaria kingii, Blepharidachne kingii, Festuca kingii, Physaria kingii ssp. bernardina, Physaria kingii ssp. kingii, Plagiobothrys kingii, Ptilagrostis kingii) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • kingstonen'se: of or from the Kingston Mountains in northeast San Bernardino County (ref. Galium hilendiae ssp. kingstonense)
  • kinkien'se: from the Tongva names Kinki (for San Clemente Island) and/or Kinkipar (a village on that island), this taxon's common name in the Jepson Manual is San Clemente Island larkspur (ref. Delphinium variegatum ssp. kinkiense)
  • klamanthen'se/klamathen'sis: of or from the Klamath Range (ref. Ribes inerme var. klamanthense, Arctostaphylos klamathensis)
  • klee'i: after Waldemar Goetrik Klee (1853-1891), entomologist and head gardener of the U.C. 'agricultural
      experimental grounds' 1878-1886. He was appointed Inspector of Fruit Pests by the California State Board of Horticulture in 1886, and made a name for himself as an entomologist. He was one of the original incorporators of the Santa Cruz Mountain Winery, and botanical author on olives and other subjects like "A Treatise on the Insects Injurious to Fruit and Fruit Trees of the State of California." He was born in Copenhagen one of a pair of twins. His twin died at the age of 2. He came to the U.S. in 1872 at the age of 19 and was married with three children. He died of
    tuberculosis at the very early age of 37 at Gravenstein Ranch, Santa Cruz, California. (ref. Penstemon rattanii var. kleei) (Photo credit: Geni)
  • knappia'na: after Moses Arthur Knapp (1865-1957), a mining engineer. He was born in Columbia, CA and died at Glendale. He received a B.S. at the University of California in 1887. He came up with the idea by 1890 for diverting water from the Owens River to irrigate the Antelope Valley in Kern and Inyo Counties. .He collected what became Brickellia knappiana in the vicinity of the Mojave River, California (ref. Brickellia knappiana)
  • Knipho'fia: named after Johann Hieronymus Kniphof (1704-1763), a German botanist, physician, and professor
      of medicine. Wikipedia provides the following: “He studied medicine at the Universities of Jena and Erfurt, becoming a professor of medicine at the latter institution in 1737. In 1745 he succeeded Andreas Elias Büchner (1701–1769) as director of the library at Erfurt, two years later being named dean to the faculty of medicine. In 1761 he was chosen as university rector. At Erfurt, he assembled a large and impressive herbarium, about which in 1733, he first published a work [of botanical illustrations] with the title of Botanica in originali (later releases known as Botanica
    in Originali, seu Herbarium Vivum). Considered to be Kniphof's magnum opus, it would eventually be published in several editions. It was renowned for employing a preparation/printing technique known as 'nature printing', which at the time was a little understood process that Kniphof had mastered in order to imprint details of various botanical specimens.” His father died when he was very young but thanks to his mother he was able to study medicine and because of the help of his friend Büchner he became a member of the highly prestigious Leopoldina, the world's oldest Academy of Sciences. The genus Kniphofia was named in his honor by the botanist Conrad Moench in 1794 (ref. genus Kniphofia) (Photo credit: National Gardens Scotland)
  • Kobres'ia: after Austrian amateur botanist and plant collector Joseph Paul von Cobres (Kobres) (1747-1823), geologist, minerologist, patron of botany and banker. He was born as Giuseppe Paolo Cobres probably in the Republic of Venice and settled in Augsburg in 1769. In 1770 he began collecting natural history books with great enthusiasm to make a great library and exhibited other natural history objects. He published a part of his book collection in 1781/82 with the two-volume book catalog Deliciae Cobresianae. Scholars and scientists well appreciated his library and collections of natural history materials and many used them for research purposes. He possessed many books which have since become very rare or have simply disappeared. Cobres was involved with one of the most important banking houses in Augsburg but at some point was unable to avoid bankruptcy. The conflicts initiated by Napoleon caused an economic decline which forced him to sell a large country house and his beloved library some of which was acquired in 1811 by the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and other parts sold to other purchasers. Cobres was also for a time an imperial councilor to the Emperor Joseph II, a Knight in the Order of Malta, and a captain of the Augsburg city militia. He was a member of the Imperial Leopoldinian-Carolinian Academy of Naturalists and a corresponding member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, and also belonged to a number of other professional and scientific societies. The genus Kobresia was published in his honor in 1805 by Carl Ludwig Willdenow(ref. genus Kobresia)
  • Koch'ia: named for Wilhelm Daniel Josef Koch (1771-1849), a German physician and professor of botany
      from Kusel in the Rhineland-Palatinate where he was born the eldest of seven children. Wikipedia says: “Koch studied medicine at the Universities of Jena and Marburg, and afterwards was a Stadtphysicus (state physician) in Trarbach and Kaiserslautern (1798). In 1824 he became a professor of medicine and botany at the University of Erlangen, where he stayed for the remainder of his life. At Erlangen, he was also director of the botanical gardens. In 1833, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Among his better written efforts was
    a synopsis on German and Swiss flora titled Synopsis florae germanicae et helveticae (1835–37). Another noteworthy publication of his was Catalogus plantarum, quae in ditione Florae Palatinatus (Catalog of Palatinate flora) (1814).” He was also the author of De Salicibus Europaeis commentatio (Commentary on European Willows) in 1828 and De Plantis Labiatis in 1833. The genus Kochia was named in his honor in 1801 by Albrecht Wilhelm Roth (ref. genus Kochia)
  • Koeberlin'ia: named after Christoph Ludwig Köberlin (Koeberlin) (1794-1862), a German clergyman and botanist. He was born in Volkratshofen the son of a pastor who stimulated his botanical interests, and died in Eysölden. He was married to Helene Elisabeth Zangmeister in 1819 and had two sons. He attended high school in Augsburg and studied theology in Erlangen from 1813 to 1817. This was where he made the acquaintance of Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini and Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius with whom he became lifelong friends and colleagues. He was a pastor in the Bavarian Evangelical Reformed Church, serving from 1819 until his death in a number of communities, and explored the flora of the Bavarian Upper Swabia region, the Allgäu region and the Alps. He was particularly interested in the moss flora of Memmingen, a town in Swabia where he maintained a herbarium. The genus Koeberlinia was named for him in 1832 by Zaccarini (ref. genus Koeberlinia)
  • koeh'leri: named for Richard Koehler (1844-1932), a railroad official. He was sent to Portland "as special agent for the German and English bondholders of the Oregon & California Railroad" and was later involved with the Oregon Central and Southern Pacific (ref. Arabis koehleri)
  • Koeler'ia: after Georg Ludwig Köler (Koeler) (1765-1807), German physician, pharmacist, botany professor, student of the grasses, and author of a work on the grasses of Germany and France entitled Descriptio graminum in Gallia et Germania (1802). He was born in Stuttgart and attended the University of Göttingen around 1780 to study medicine. He practiced as the personal physician of Count Carl Ludwig of Salm-Grumbach. He began botanical studies in 1786 in the Rheingau region. His goal was to write a Flora of Germany, France and Switzerland, and he collected herbarium material which he passed to de Augustin de Candolle, but the section on grasses was all he was able to complete. He was considered one of the outstanding botanists of his time. In 1799 he was appointed professor of natural history at the University of Mainz. He died in Mainz as a result of the flu and typhus epidemic which broke out there. The genus Koeleria was published in 1805 by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon (ref. genus Koeleria)
  • koelerio'ides: like genus Koeleria (ref. Calamagrostis koelerioides)
  • Koelreuter'ia: after Josef Gottlieb Kölreuter (1733-1806), German botanist, physician, professor of natural
      history, and Director of the Botanical Garden at Karlsruhe. He was born in Württemberg the son of an apothecary and took an early interest in natural history. He was educated at the Universities of Berlin and Leipzig, and at Tübingen, where he received his medical degree in 1755 and received an appointment at the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg where he worked both on botany and the curation of fish and coral collections, and remained there until 1761. He pioneered the study of plant fertilization and hybridization, and was interested in sexual reproduction in
    plants. In 1761 he returned to Germany and went to Karlsruhe in 1764 where he was professor of natural history and director and curator of the botanical garden. He was dismissed from the position as curator of the gardens after a dispute with the head gardener, but remained as a professor until he died in 1806. As part of his research into plant reproduction, he conducted nearly 500 hybridization experiments  and examined the pollen characteristics of over 1000 plants. Major works of his included Dissertatio inauguralis medica de insectis coleopteris, nec non de plantis quibusdam rarioribus... Tubingae: litteris Erhardianis (1755), Vorläufige Nachricht von einigen, das Geschlecht der Pflanzen betreffenden Versuchen (1761-1766), and Das entdeckte Geheimniss der Cryptogamie (1777). The Encyclopedia Britannica includes the following: “The experimental results he obtained foreshadowed the work of the Austrian biologist Gregor Johann Mendel. Kölreuter recognized the importance of insects and wind as agents of pollen transfer in plant fertilization. He applied the sexual system of classification of the Swedish botanist and naturalist Carolus Linnaeus to lower plant forms. His work was not recognized or appreciated until long after his death.” The genus Koelreuteria was named in his honor in 1782 by Friedrich Kasimir Medikus (ref. genus Koelreuteria)
  • koilolep'is: possibly from the Greek koilos, "hollow," and -lepis, "scale," this taxon's common name is keeled bulrush for whatever that's worth (ref. Scirpus koilolepis)
  • Kopsiop'sis: literally means 'like or having the form of genus Kopsia,' and so indirectly named after Jan Kops
      (1765-1849), Dutch agonomist and professor of botany, author of Flora Batava and Index Plantarum. He was born in Amsterdam the son of a yarn merchant. When his father died in 1773 he moved with his mother to Haarlem where he attended first a French school and then a Latin school. Not wishing to follow his family’s textile tradition, he undertook to study Dutch literature and botany, enrolling in 1781 at the Amsterdam Theological Seminary and also attending courses in natural history at the Athenaeum Illustre of Amsterdam. He served as a pastor in Leiden from
    1787 until 1800, however during this time he was passed over in 1792 as preacher for the Haarlem congregation and the same thing happened in Amsterdam. He consoled himself with botany and the first part of his Flora Batava appeared in 1800. His reputation as an agronomist was secured by this and a report he compiled regarding the possible conversion of dune lands into productive farmlands, and he was appointed as director of agriculture in the Netherlands with an office at the Hague, remaining in this position until 1815. He initiated the first Dutch agricultural magazine, Magazijn van Vaderlandschen Landbouw, and the formation of ten regional agricultural commissions. In 1808 he created the first “Agricultural Cabinet” to provide farmers with assistance and advice. He was appointed a professor of botany and agricultural economics in 1815 at the University of Utrecht and remained there until 1835, preaching as a minister in Utrecht, The Hague and Amsterdam. His first wife had six sons and five daughters, and his second wife had five sons (three of whom died young) and one daughter. Flora Batava, with illustrations of all plants in the Netherlands, was a long series issued in installments with 461 issues with 2,240 plates published between 1800 and 1934. The genus Kopsiopsis was named in 1930 by Günther Beck von  Managetta (ref. genus Kopsiopsis)
  • Kramer'ia: after Johann Georg Heinrich Kramer (1684-1744), an Austrian Army physician and botanist, or for his son William Heinrich Kramer (?-1765), physician, naturalist, entomologist and author of Elenchus Vegetabilium and Animalium per Austriam inferiorem Observatorum, a flora and fauna of Lower Austria, which was one of the first works to adopt the binomial nomenclature of Carl von Liné, or for both. Thanks to David Hollombe for this addition (ref. genus Krameria)
  • krantz'ii: after Tim Krantz (coll. 1977- ), San Bernardino Mts botanist (ref. Silene krantzii)
  • Krascheninniko'via: after Stepan Petrovich Krascheninnikov (1713-1755), a Russian botanist and Professor of
      Natural History who as a student at the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg was dispatched in 1733 to accompany the Danish explorer Vitus Jonassen Bering on his Great Northern Expedition (1733-1743), which was Bering's second expedition (the first was 1725-1730) to explore easternmost Siberia, and one of the largest scientific ventures the world has ever known. From 1736 to 1740 they explored the vast, little-known peninsula of Kamchatka and the nearby Kurile Islands. For part of that time they were accompanied by George Wilhelm Steller (1709-
    1746), the great German naturalist who became the first white man known to have stepped upon land that eventually became known as Alaska, and discovered and named the Stellar's jay and the Stellar's seacow, now extinct.. Bering's ship wrecked on the island that bears his name, he (and many of the others) became ill with scurvy, and he died in 1741. His grave and that of five other sailors was only discovered in 1991. Stellar managed to survive the winter and spent several years exploring and collecting plants and animals in Siberia but ran afoul of Czarist bureaucracy when he freed 17 Siberian natives he felt had been improperly imprisoned. Twice he was arrested, tried, imprisoned and then released, but his health collapsed and he died before he could return to St. Petersburg and prepare his report. Krascheninnikov survived to write a report based on his own and Steller's observations, but he died while it was in press. The work, entitled History of Kamtschatka,and the Kurilski Islands... with the Countries Adjacent (published first in 1755) describes the geography and geology of the highly volcanic region, its natural history, and the inhabitants and their customs, dialects, religions, and superstitions (ref. genus Krascheninnikovia) (Photo credit: ResearchGate)
  • kraussia'na: after German malacologist Christian Ferdinand Friedrich von Krauss (1812-1890), a biologist and
      professor at the University of Stuttgart who travelled and collected in South Africa. He worked as an apothecary’s apprentice and a pharmacist, and then undertook the study of mineralogy, zoology and chemistry at Tübingen and Heidelberg, where he received a doctoral degree in 1836. The German-born pharmacist, businessman and patron of the natural sciences Carl Ferdinand Heinrich von Ludwig, who had started the first botanical garden in Cape Town, visited Germany and persuaded Krauss to come to South Africa, which he did arriving in May, 1838. He quickly began
    studying the fauna, flora and geology of Cape Town and its environs and  collecting molluscs and crustaceans, marine algae and fish. By oxcart and horse he went to Kogmanskloof, Walker Bay, Cape Agulhas, Swellendam, the Outeniqua Mountains and Oudtshoorn, Mosel Bay, Knysna, the Olifants River and the Swartberg, Uitenhage, Port Elizabeth and the Karoo, Pietermaritzburg, and many other locations, finally reaching Port Natal where he sailed back to Cape Town. With several other people he conducted the first significant biological exploration of Natal. He had collected 2,308 species (mostly flowering plants) of which 340 species and 34 genera were new to science. He left Cape Town in April, 1840 with 16 crates of his collected material, stopping in England on the way and selling 500 specimens to the British Museum. Back in Stuttgart, he was appointed to the Natural History Museum and became Director in 1856. Krauss' specimens are lodged with the British Museum, University of Cambridge, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze, Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Geneve, Biozentrum Klein-Flottbek, and many more herbaria. In 1844 he was instrumental in the founding of the Association for national natural history in Württemberg. Another position he held was overseer and professor at the Royal Natural History Cabinet in Stuttgart, and became its director in 1890. He was elected a member of the Leopoldina in 1847 and in 1880 he was knighted (ref. Selaginella kraussiana)
  • kruckeberg'ii: after Arthur Rice Kruckeberg (1920-2016), who earned his PhD. in botany from the University of
      California at Berkeley in 1950.  Immediately after earning his degree he moved to Seattle from his native California to teach at the University of Washington.  So began his lifelong pursuit of Northwest flora and ecology.  In 1982, Dr. Kruckeberg published Gardening with Native Plants of the Pacific Northwest: An Illustrated Guide, the preeminent work for local gardeners wishing to integrate native plants into their home gardens. Later he wrote The Natural History of Puget Sound Country, an outstanding work covering the geology, botany, history, climate, and ecology of the
    Puget Sound and the impact human settlement has had on the bioregion. [He also wrote California Serpentines: Flora, Vegetation, Geology, Soils, and Management Problems and Geology and Plant Life: The Effects of Landforms and Rock Types on Plants, and as recently as this year, published Washington's Best Wildflower Hikes.] Dr. Kruckeberg stays involved with the University's Botany department as professor-emeritus and the Washington Native Plant Society, an organization he co-founded.  The garden that he and his late wife Mareen established in Shoreline has become the Kruckeberg Botanic Garden, for more information visit www.kruckeberg.org.  He also finds time to play the bassoon with an informal woodwind quintet, the Phoni Ventorum.  The following is from a website by the University of Washington Department of Biology: " Arthur Rice Kruckeberg, born 21 March, 1920 in Los Angeles, fell in love with the plant world at an early age.  He immersed himself in local flora and ornamental plants for gardens all during his school years.  After earning his Bachelor of Arts degree with honors (Phi Beta Kappa initiate) at Occidental College in 1939, he began graduate studies in botany at Stanford University.  World War II intervened and Art became a Japanese Language Officer in the US Navy.  All during the war years, Art found opportunities to pursue studies of plant life in the Pacific theatre (Hawaii, the Mariannas, the Philippines, and in Japan).  After the war, with the aid of the G.I. Bill, Art earned his Ph.D. degree at the University of California (Berkeley) in 1950; his thesis on serpentine ecology and evolution started him on 50 years devotion to the ecology of serpentines and other “kooky” habitats worldwide.  So in 1950, Art began his 50 years tryst with the University of Washington, starting as a lowly instructor and finally as emeritus professor of botany in 1989. During this long career at UW, Art devoted himself to a variety of endeavors: He taught general botany and biology, plant evolution, and a course in ornamental plants. He served as chair of Botany for seven years (1971-1977) and carried on research in plant ecology and evolution, with many publications on these topics.  Public service has been an important part of his career: adult education (field trips, lectures, short courses), published articles for the general public and a strong commitment to regional conservation.  In the latter arena, he aided the state in establishing a Natural Area Program, served on boards of The Nature Conservancy and other conservation groups.  Art was a cofounder in 1976 of the Washington Native Plant Society. Besides numerous research papers, he has written several books, all of which are in reach of the general public.  Art’s passion for plants is seen in his four-acre home garden, now incorporated and preserved as the Kruckeberg Botanic Garden, in Shoreline, Washington.  With his wife Mareen, the garden has become an outstanding botanical collection and have great aesthetic value to the community." (ref. Polystichum kruckebergii) (Photo credit: Madroño)
  • Kumlien'ia: after Thure Ludwig Theodor Kumlien (1819-1880). The following is quoted from a website of the
      Wisconsin Historical Society: "Pioneer ornithologist and naturalist, born Hertorp, Sweden. He attended Uppsala University, but left school in his senior year (May, 1843) to migrate to the U.S. He came to Wisconsin the same year, and settled at Lake Koshkonong. In that area he collected a vast number of natural-history specimens, especially birds and birds' eggs, and sold them to leading collectors and natural-history museums. For a number of years he was employed by the state of Wisconsin to arrange collections for the state normal schools and the university. He was
    professor of botany and zoology at Albion Academy (1867-1870), and when the Wisconsin Natural History Society was organized in 1881 he was engaged as taxidermist and conservator of its collections. In 1883 the collections were transferred to the Milwaukee Public Museum, and Kumlien served in the same capacity with that organization until his death. Reluctant to publicize either himself or his work, Kurnlien seldom presented detailed notes or journals to the scientific world. He maintained a correspondence of wide scope, however, and most of his findings are contained in letters to his many friends in the scientific world." (ref. genus Kumlienia)
  • kusch'ei: named after John August Kusche (1869-1934). The following is from Cantelow & Cantelow in Leaflets of Western Botany, 1957: "Natural history collector, particularly in entomology. Born in Germany in 1869, died in San Francisco, Calif., 3 Mar. 1934. Made extensive collections in remote South Pacific and Arctic regions, Alaska, Arizona, Hawaiian Islands, and elsewhere; contributed many valuable specimens to collections at Univ. Calif., Berkeley, Calif. Acad. Sci., and other museums." He came to the U.S. in 1886 and was employed for a number of years as a gardener and then as naturalist at a sanatorium (ref. Arenaria macradenia var. kuschei, Castilleja kuschei, Erigeron kuschei, Lupinus kuschei)
  • Kyhos'ia/Ky'hosia: named by Bruce Baldwin for Donald William Kyhos (1929- ) of the Department of Botany at UCLA. Berkeley and Professor Emeritus at UC Davis. He received his doctorate from the University of California at Los Angeles. He worked with Dr. Baldwin in the late 1980's on the Madia species called silversword in Hawaii, showing that it was closely related to the California tarweeds. In addition to the United States, he has also collected in Mexico (ref. genus Kyhosia)
  • Kyllin'ga: after Danish botanist Peder Lauridsen Kylling (1640-1696). The following is an English translation of an essay by E. Rostrup in the Danish Biography Lexicon, Vol. 9, on a website of Project Runeberg: "Born in Assens, Denmark, Kylling was the son of Alderman Laurids Kylling (d. 1662). He completed his high school studies in 1660 and earned his degree in divinity in 1666. A few years later, he was ordained as a priest, but for unknown reasons his ordination was immediately canceled. Because of this, Kylling dedicated himself to his botanical studies with great zeal and continued to do so right until his death. The botanist J.W. Hornemann, who was the most competent judge of men, said about Kylling 'this excellent man was without a doubt the most thorough, dedicated, and most experienced of botanists in Denmark until the age of Rottbøll.' In 1680, he was granted free residence at the Valkendorf College Dormitory on the condition that he restore and tend the garden - with the later additional condition that he 'take the students into the fields in the summer'. He then received special permission to live at the College for 16 years, until his death. In 1682, his patron Privy Councilor Moth had him appointed a royal botanist with an annual salary of 300 rix-dollars, which was a considerable sum in those days. His most famous work, Viridarium Danicum, was published in 1688 and contains an alphabetical list of all Danish plants known at the time with their localities in the different parts of the country, although mostly on the Islands. Henrik Gerner and Peder Syv were among the well-known men mentioned in the foreword who provided Kylling with information about the plants. The publication was later (in 1757) systematized by Jørgen Tyche Holm and critically treated (in 1859) by Morten Thomsen Lange. In 1889 Rudolf J.D.von Fischer-Benzon performed a critical study of the species from Schleswig. Kylling himself worked on a new expanded edition, but it was never published. It is said that the famous German botanist Haller kept the manuscript that Kylling intended to print in his library. Another, shorter, work by Kylling was published in 1684 under the name Gyldenlund ('Golden Grove'), containing a list of 404 plants observed by him in Gyldenlund (the present-day Charlottenlund north of Copenhagen). It was the first Danish compilation of special flora. The exactness and completeness of the work makes it especially interesting because one can compare the composition of present day flora with what it was then. Kylling’s contemporaries regarded him as a bit eccentric - and one joking tribute refers to him as 'a funny old fogey'. This was mainly because he lived at the College his whole life and remained unmarried, and because of his quiet, unassuming lifestyle, and his love of working in the garden and wandering about in the fields. Kylling had many enemies and he himself complained that when his Viridarium was being printed, one jealous hand had removed the letter 'n' from the title 'Urtekonstens Mester' ('Master of the Herbal Arts') in Henrik Gerner’s introduction so that it read 'Urtekostens Mester' ('Master of the Nosegay') instead. The introduction was placed in the beginning of the book according to the custom of that time. Christen Friis Rottbøll named a plant species in his honor." (ref. genus Kyllinga)

Box Canyon, Mecca Hills
Home Page