L-R: Sidalcea pedata (Big Bear checkerbloom), Castilleja cinerea (Ashy gray paintbrush), Encelia actonii (Acton encelia), Lewisia rediviva (Bitterroot), Delphinium parishii ssp. parishii (Desert larkspur)


PA-PH
In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear. Where no credit is given for photos, they are in public domain mostly from Wikipedia.
  • pachy-: in compound words signifying "thick."
  • pachyacan'tha: thick-spined. (ref. Fagonia pachyacantha)
  • pachycar'pa: with thick fruits. (ref. Eleocharis pachycarpa)
  • pachyle'pis: from the Greek pachys, "thick," and lepis, "scale."
  • pachyphyl'la/pachyphyl'lus: thick-leaved. (ref. Phacelia pachyphylla, Salvia pachyphylla, Linanthus pachyphyllus)
  • pachypo'da: with a thick foot or stalk. (ref. Heuchera pachypoda)
  • pach'ypus: thick-footed (or -stemmed). (ref. Astragalus pachypus)
  • pachysta'chya/pachysta'chyus: with a thick spike of some kind. (ref. Carex pachystachya, Orthocarpus pachystachyus)
  • pachystig'ma: with a thick stigma. (ref. Cardamine pachystigma)
  • pacif'ica/pacif'icum/pacif'icus: from the Latin pacificus, meaning "peace-making, peacable," and from a botanic standpoint probably meaning "of the Pacific Ocean or the general Pacific area." (ref. Atriplex pacifica, Quercus pacifica, Salicornia pacifica, Zostera pacifica, Conioselinum pacificum, Juncus effusus ssp. pacificus, Leymus pacificus)
  • Pack'era: named after botanist John George Packer (1929- ), specialist on the flora of Alberta and on Arctic and alpine flora, instructor in the Department of Botany at the University of Alberta 1958-1988, co-author with Cheryl Bradley of Checklist of the rare vascular plants in Alberta (1984), one of the editors of the English edition of Flora of the Russian Arctic (2000), co-author with his wife of Some Common and Interesting Plants of San Miguel de Allende (Mexico). He also revised E.H. Moss's Flora of Alberta (1983), worked to protect Mountain Park in the Canadian Rockies from an open-pit coal mine, and is currently contributor and on the editorial committee for Flora of North America. (ref. genus Packera)
  • pa'dre-crow'leyi: after Father John Joseph Crowley (1891-1940), called the Desert Padre, naturalist, conservationist
      , movie producer, storyteller and first priest to celebrate mass on the summit of Mt. Whitney. The following is quoted from one of Larry Blakely's superb articles in his Who's in a Name? series: "Though not a botanist, Crowley knew and loved the native plants of the mountains and deserts. In his writings, especially his weekly column "Sage and Tumbleweed" (which he wrote using the pseudonym Inyokel), he frequently referred to the plants that he admired on outings. He consulted the only book dedicated at that time to the desert regions, Coville's "Botany of the Death Valley
    Expedition", published in 1893; Crowley called it "the most complete survey of the flora of the valley extant". Father Crowley, the "Desert Padre", struggled mightily, and successfully, to enhance the economic base of the Eastern Sierra in the 1930s, primarily by publicizing it as a tourist mecca. Like Mary [DeDecker], he fought the City of Los Angeles over its water policies, to help the disheartened residents out of their depression over the City's depredations. His fatal auto accident occurred in 1940, when he was 48 years old. His legendary life and writings are lovingly presented in the 1997 book, "Desert Padre", by Joan Brooks. Prominent man-made features in the Eastern Sierra keep the Crowley name alive: Crowley Lake; the Father Crowley Viewpoint on the western approach to Death Valley National Park; a monument on Highway 14 where he met his death in his old Ford (which, it is said, he always drove too fast, hurrying to this or that secular or religious appointment in his vast Eastern Sierra parish); and, recently, a mural on a building in Bishop." And from the Catholic Online website: " John J. Crowley was born on Dec. 8, 1891, in County Kerry, Ireland. His family emigrated to Worcester in 1903. Crowley entered Holy Cross in 1911 and became an active participant in college life, contributing stories, essays and poems to The Purple and serving as the journal's editor in chief during his senior year. This literary flair would stay with him throughout his life as he wrote for various local and diocesan publications during his 22 years in California. After graduating from Holy Cross, he entered the seminary in Baltimore, Md., with a reference from Rev. Joseph N. Dinand, S.J. Ordained in 1918 in Fall River, Mass., he left shortly after for Los Angeles, borrowing 50 dollars from his bishop to purchase his train ticket to the coast. He served briefly in two parishes before he volunteered, in 1919, to serve in a parish located in the desert region of four different counties-Mono, Inyo, Kern and San Bernadino. His initial parish covered 30,000 square miles, an area equal in size to all of Ireland. His northernmost church was in Bishop, 200 miles from its southern counterpart in Barstow. And in those years, this remote area had few paved roads. Driving between his scattered parish meant bouncing over gravel and sand. The parish contained both the lowest spot in the United States, Death Valley, and the highest, Mount Whitney. In his first 16 months, Fr. Crowley put over 50,000 miles on his Model T Ford. Adapting quickly to his new environment, he kept a sleeping bag in his car for emergencies and donned the uniform that would be his trademark: riding boots, khaki riding pants and a khaki shirt under which he wore his clerical collar. After serving in this desert parish for five years, he became pastor of St. John's Cathedral, Fresno, in 1924. During this time, Fr. Crowley was instrumental in starting St. Columba's High School there; as part of a major diocesan fund-raiser, he arranged for Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig to appear in an exhibition baseball game. Ten years later, Fr. Crowley returned to Eastern Sierra County and the Owens Valley." It was what he found there that caused him to dedicate a large part of his life to saving the Owens Valley, all the while ministering to his parishioners in Lone Pine, Bishop and Death Valley. Part of his attempt to publicize the region was in the movies that were filmed in the Alabama Hills and the friendships he forged with the likes of Cary Grant and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. More from Catholic Online: "As part of his ongoing efforts to publicize the Eastern Sierra as an ideal tourist location, Fr. Crowley organized an extravaganza in October 1937. The three-day celebration entitled, "The Wedding of the Waters," commemorated the completion of a paved road from Death Valley to Whitney Portal, linking the lowest spot in the country to the highest-in the then 48-state nation. In a clever publicity move, Fr. Crowley filled a desert gourd with water from the highest lake in the country. The gourd was carried first by a Native American, then transported, on horseback, by one of the first men to climb Mount Whitney. Next it was taken in a stagecoach, driven by the descendant of an original stagecoach hand who was accompanied by the governor of California. The gourd was passed along to a covered-wagon driver who was a descendant of the ill-fated Donner Party, and then handed over to the engineer of a narrow-gauge railroad. After a short run on the rails, the gourd was passed to the driver of a new 1938 Lincoln Zephyr. At the end of this ride, President Roosevelt pressed a telegraph key that sent word of the celebration to the rest of the country. The Zephyr driver passed the gourd to a World War I combat pilot who flew to Death Valley where the gourd was emptied into Bad Water Sink, the lowest body of water in America. "The Wedding of the Waters" was featured in papers across the nation, bringing the publicity Fr. Crowley had sought. Recently, the Public Broadcasting Company's Los Angeles affiliate sponsored a reenactment of the ceremony. The widow of Hopalong Cassidy was present for the activities." He was killed in 1940 when he car struck a steer on the road and collided with an oncoming truck. Father Crowley no doubt is in the very top ranks of the truly monumental characters of the Eastern Sierras and Owens Valley region. (ref. Lupinus padre-crowleyi) (Photo credit: Explore Historic California)
  • Paeo'nia: honors Paeon, the physician of the gods in Homer's Iliad who used the plant to heal the wound that Hercules inflicted on Pluto. (ref. genus Paeonia)
  • pahuten'sis: named for Pahute Mesa in Nye County, Nevada, this taxon is rare in California, but may be found occasionally in the Grape vine Mountains. (ref. Penstemon pahutensis)
  • pajaroen'sis: of or from the area of the Pajaro Hills and/or Pajaro Valley near Monterey. (ref. Arctostaphylos pajaroensis)
  • palaesti'num: of Palestine. This is the black calla lily from the Middle East. (ref. Arum palaestinum)
  • Palafox'ia: named after José Rebolledo de Palafox y Melzi (1776-1847), Duke of Saragossa, Spanish government
      official, general, defender against the armies of Napoleon, briefly Archbishop of Mexico, Viceroy of New Spain, book collector and author. "Don José de Palafox y Melzi, Duke of Saragossa, the youngest son of an old Aragonese family, was a Spanish general and hero of the Peninsular War. Brought up at the Spanish court, he entered the guards at an early age, and in 1808 as a sub-lieutenant accompanied King Ferdinand VII of Spain to Bayonne; but after vainly attempting, in company with others, to secure Ferdinand's escape, he fled to Spain, and after a short period of
    retirement placed himself at the head of the patriot movement in Aragon. He was proclaimed by the populace Governor of Saragossa and Captain-general of Aragon (May 25, 1808). Despite the want of money and of regular troops, he lost no time in declaring war against the French, who had already overrun the neighboring provinces of Catalonia and Navarre, and soon afterwards the attack he had provoked began. Saragossa as a fortress was both antiquated in design and scantily provided with munitions and supplies, and the defences resisted but a short time. But it was at that point that the real resistance began. A week's street fighting made the assailants masters of half the town, but Palafox's brother succeeded in forcing a passage into the city with 3000 troops. Stimulated by the appeals of Palafox and of the fierce and resolute demagogues who ruled the mob, the inhabitants resolved to contest possession of the remaining quarters of Saragossa inch by inch, and if necessary to retire to the suburb across the Ebro, destroying the bridge. The struggle, which was prolonged for nine days longer, resulted in the withdrawal of the French (Aug. 14), after a siege which had lasted 61 days in all. Palafox then attempted a short campaign in the open country, but when Napoleon's own army entered Spain, and destroyed one hostile army after another in a few weeks, Palafox was forced back into Saragossa, where he sustained a still more memorable second siege. This ended, after three months, in the fall of the town, or rather the cessation of resistance, for the town was in ruins and a pestilence had swept away many thousands of the defenders. Palafox himself, suffering from the epidemic, fell into the hands of the French and was kept prisoner at Vincennes until December 1813. In June 1814 he was confirmed in the office of Captain General of Aragon, but soon afterwards withdrew from it, and ceased to take part in public affairs. From 1820 to 1823 he commanded the royal guard of King Ferdinand, but, taking the side of the Constitution in the civil troubles which followed, he was stripped of all his honors and offices by the king, whose restoration by French bayonets was the triumph of reaction and absolutism. Parafox remained in retirement for many years. He received the title of Duke of Saragossa from Queen Maria Christine. From 1836 he took part in military and political affairs as Captain-general of Aragon and a senator." (Quoted from Wikipedia) The above information notwithstanding, David Hollombe has brought up another interesting possibility. Apparently the name Palafoxia was published by Mariano de la Gasca (aka Mariano Lagasca) in 1816 in his Genera et Species Plantarum but he did not explain the etymology. A work entitled "Le Récit Par Augustin Pyramus de Candolle de l'Élaboration de la Flore du Mexique, Dite Aussi des Dames de Genéve" by Hervé M. Burdet suggests that the name originally commemorated Juan de Palafox y Mendoza (1600-1659), who was a bishop and founder of the University of Mexico. The other Palafox is listed by Miguel Colmeiro y Penido in his La botánica y los botánicos de la península hispano-lusitana published in Madrid in 1858. The suggestion is that the name was originally given for Palafox y Mendoza, but because the other Palafox became a national hero, the attribution was transferred to him. Obviously this is still a matter of uncertainty. (ref. genus Palafoxia) (Photo credit: http://www.fuenterrebollo.com/Masoneria/palafox.html)
  • palea'ceum: like straw or chaff. (ref. Eriophyllum ambiguum var. paleaceum)
  • pal'lens: pale. (ref. Agrostis pallens)
  • palles'cens: rather pale or becoming pale. (ref. Delphinium hesperium ssp. pallescens)
  • pal'lida/pal'lidum/pal'lidus: ashen, pale, wan. (ref. Amelanchier pallida, Camissoniopsis pallida, Deinandra pallida, Poa cusickii ssp. pallida, Torreyochloa pallida, Lycium pallidum, Lupinus pallidus, Delphinium parishii ssp. pallidum, Calochortus clavatus var. pallidus)
  • pallidefus'ca: from the Latin pallide, "pale," an adverb modifying the Latin adjective fusca, "dark or dusky brown." (ref. Setaria pumila ssp. pallidefusca)
  • pallidiflor'a: with pale-colored flowers.
  • pallid'ipes: from the Latin pallidus, pallide, "pale," and the -pes suffix which relates to stalks, thus with a pale or pallid stalk?. (ref. Lupinus polyphyllus var. pallidipes)
  • pallid'ula/pallid'ulus: somewhat pale. (ref. Camissonia brevipes ssp. pallidula)
  • palma'ta: lobed like a hand. (ref. Cucurbita palmata, Ficus palmata)
  • palm'eri/palmeria'num: after self-taught botanist, professional plant collector and amateur zoologist, archaeologist
      and ethnologist Edward Palmer (1829-1911). Born in England, he "emigrated to the United States [in 1849] at the age of eighteen. He developed an interest in natural history collecting under the tutelage of Dr. Jared Kirtland and got his first major opportunity to collect when he was appointed to Captain Page's Water Witch expedition to Paraguay as hospital steward and botanical collector in 1853. After the Paraguay expedition he went to England to visit his mother, got married on March 29, 1856, and came back to the U.S. He studied medicine for a few months in Cleveland;
    then he lived in Kansas, Colorado, and for a few months, California, where he worked on the Geological Survey of California, collecting marine invertebrates. During the Civil War, he did medical work in army outposts in the southwest for a while after the war. He managed to make natural history collections while working for the army. The rest of his life was mostly taken up with making archaeological, zoological and botanical collections for a variety of patrons, primarily in the southwestern U.S. and Mexico. He is best known for his botanical collections, which are said to number over 100,00 specimens. He made numerous botanical collecting trips to Mexico from 1878 to 1910. Rogers McVaugh describes Palmer's botanical specimens as "exceptionally well documented for his time," a trait which was obscured by the fact that his field notes were not distributed with his plants." (From a website of the Library of the Gray Herbarium). Palmer was not a professional botanist or biologist. He made a living wandering throughout the western states and Mexico, collecting plant and animal specimens of all kinds that he sold to museums in the United States and England. He also collected specimens in Florida and Baja. Other better known naturalists like Spencer Baird, George Engelmann, John Torrey, and Charles Parry often hired him to collect for them. Funded by the Peabody Museum at Harvard in 1880, he investigated and retrieved objects from burial caves known to be in the region of Coahuila, Mexico. In 1890 while exploring the southernmost coast of Sonora, he was afflicted by spells of "intermittent fever" (which he probably contracted on the coast, for the coastal swamps supported hordes of blood-sucking insects), but he still managed to add 124 specimens to his collection. He was the first to call attention to the boll weevil that ultimately caused $5 billion in damage to the American South's cotton crops 50 years later. He worked for the Department of Agriculture, the Smithsonian Institute and the Army Medical Museum. It has been stated repeatedly that in 1891 he collected plants on and even led an expedition exploring the flora and fauna of California and Death Valley. This expedition in fact was organized and initially led by Dr. C. Hart Merriam and sent out by the U. S. Department of Agriculture under the subsequent leadership of Theodore Sherman Palmer (no apparent relationship) to make a biological survey of the region of Death Valley, California, an expedition on which Frederick Vernon Coville, first Curator of the U.S. National Herbarium, was the botanist. Undoubtedly there was confusion regarding the name Palmer because it appears that Edward Palmer was in Mexico in 1891.  He suffered personal and professional tragedies such as the death of his young bride from yellow fever, and the losses of several of his collections.  After his death his field notes sat neglected on a shelf for more than fifty years.  He did however have two hundred species named after him, and Professor Asa Gray named a genus, Palmerella, in his honor. The genus Malperia was apparently also named for him, according to Umberto Quattrocchi. He was perhaps one of the most productive amateur botanists ever to collect a plant. (ref. Abutilon palmeri, Alternanthera palmeri, Amaranthus palmeri, Artemisia palmeri, Astragalus palmeri, Calochortus palmeri var. munzii, Calochortus palmeri var. palmeri, Ceanothus palmeri, Ericameria [formerly Haplopappus] palmeri, Euphorbia palmeri, Ficus palmeri, Frankenia palmeri, Harpagonella palmeri, Lesquerella palmeri, Lupinus palmeri, Malacothamnus palmeri, Mimulus palmeri, Penstemon palmeri, Quercus palmeri, Tetrapteron palmeri, Tiquilia [formerly Coldenia] palmeri, Trifolium palmeri, Eriogonum palmerianum)
  • palm'ifrons: with leaves that look like palm fronds. (ref. Ipomopsis congesta ssp. palmifrons)
  • paludico'la: dwelling in marshes. (ref. Arenaria paludicola)
  • paludo'sa/paludo'sus: marsh-loving. (ref. Pulicaria paludosa, Bolboschoenus maritimus ssp. paludosus)
  • palus'tre/palus'tris: growing in marshes. (ref. Gnaphalium palustre, Callitriche palustris, Ludwigia palustris, Parnassia palustris, Poa palustris, Rorippa palustris var. occidentalis, Scheuchzeria palustris, Zannichellia palustris, Zizania palustris)
  • panaminten'se/panaminten'sis: of the Panamint Mountains. (ref. Eriogonum panamintense, Astragalus panamintensis, Cymopterus panamintensis)
  • Pancra'tium: from pankration, an old Greek name for some bulbous plant, from pan, "all," and kratus, "strong, mighty," in reference to its supposed medicinal properties. (ref. genus Pancratium)
  • pandurifor'me: from the Latin pandura, a three-stringed musical instrument supposedly invented by Pan, and forme, indicating shape or resemblance, thus "fiddle-shaped." (ref. Pelargonium panduriforme)
  • panicula'ta/panicula'tum/panicula'tus: with the flowers in panicles. (ref. Ericameria paniculata, Hemizonia paniculata, Epilobium paniculatum, Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus)
  • Pan'icum: from a classical Latin name for millet. (ref. genus Panicum)
  • pannon'ica: of the Roman province Pannonia, an area which covers parts of present-day Austria, Hungary and Yugoslavia. (ref. Vicia pannonica)
  • panno'sa: felt-like. (ref. Cotoneaster pannosa)
  • pan'sa: from the Latin pansus, "expanded, stretched open." (ref. Carex pansa)
  • papastil'lii: for Dr. Steven Michael Still (1944- ), the father of Shannon M. Still who published the name. (ref. Eschscholzia papastillii)
  • Papa'ver: the classical Latin name for the poppy. (ref. genus Papaver)
  • papilla'ta/papilla'tus: same meaning as the next entry. (ref. Cuscuta salina var. papillata, Penstemon papillatus)
  • papillo'sa/papillo'sus: having papillae, i.e. soft protuberances on a surface. (ref. Cuscuta californica var. papillosa, Ceanothus papillosus)
  • pappo'sa: from the Latin for "with pappus." (ref. Dyssodia papposa, Pectis papposa)
  • pappus: can refer to the pappus of an asteraceous plant as in Hymenopappus, "membranous pappus," or derived from the Greek pappos, "a grandfather, or the first down on the chin," so down or fuzz.
  • papy'rus: the pith of this plant was used to make rolls of paper in ancient Egypt and the Greek name was papyros. (ref. Cyperus papyrus)
  • para-: Greek prefix meaning "beside, alongside, close by."
  • paradi'sa/paradi'sum: from the Latin paradisus which is derived from the Greek paradeisos, "a park or paradise." (ref. Descurainia paradisa, Sedum paradisum)
  • paradox'a: unusual, paradoxical. (ref. Acacia paradoxa, Fallugia paradoxa, Phalaris paradoxa)
  • parali'num: from the Greek paralos, "maritime," sometimes used with the sense of "blue like the sea." (ref. Eriogonum nudum var. paralinum)
  • Paraph'olis: from the Greek para, "near, beside, near to," and the genus Pholiurus, which derives from pholis or pholidos, "scale, horny scale." (ref. genus Parapholis)
  • pardali'num: related to leopards, spotted like a leopard. (ref. Lilium pardalinum)
  • Parentucel'lia: after Tomaso Parentucelli (1397-1455), born to a poor physician in the Italian region of Liguria,
      early Renaissance librarian to Cosimo de' Medici in Florence, teacher, diplomat and clergyman who rose first to the Bishopric and then became Pope Nicholas V, restorer of Rome's city fortifications, churches and aqueducts, called the Humanist Pope, and known best perhaps because of his establishment of the Vatican Library and gardens. The following is quoted from Wikipedia: "Pope Nicholas V, born Tomaso Parentucelli, was Pope from March 6, 1447, to his death. He was born at Sarzana, Liguria, where his father was a physician. His father died while he was young,
    but in Florence, Parentucelli became a tutor in the families of the Strozzi and Albizzi, where he made the acquaintance of the leading humanist scholars. He studied at Bologna, gaining a degree in theology in 1422, whereupon the bishop, Nicholas Albergati, was so much struck with his capacities that he took him into his service and gave him the chance to pursue his studies further, by sending him on a tour through Germany, France and England. He was able to collect books, for which he had an intellectual's passion, wherever he went. Some of them survive, with his marginal annotations. He distinguished himself at the Council of Florence, and in 1444, when his patron died, he was appointed bishop of Bologna in his place. Civic disorders at Bologna were prolonged, so Pope Eugene IV (1431–47) soon named him as one of the legates sent to Frankfurt to negotiate an understanding between the Holy See and the Holy Roman Empire, with regard to undercutting or at least containing the reforming decrees of the Council of Basel. His successful diplomacy gained him the reward, on his return to Rome, of the title of Cardinal priest of Santa Susanna (December 1446). He was elected Pope in succession to Eugene IV on 6 March of the following year, taking the name of Nicholas V in honour of his early benefactor. The eight scant years of his pontificate were important in the political, scientific and literary history of the world. Politically, he made the Concordat of Vienna, or Aschaffenburg (February 17, 1448) with the German King, Frederick III (1440–93), by which the decrees of the Council of Basel against papal annates and reservations were abrogated so far as Germany was concerned; and in the following year he secured a still greater tactical triumph, when the resignation of the antipope Felix V (1439–49) (7 April) and his own recognition by the rump of the council of Basel (1431–39), assembled at Lausanne, put an end to the Western Schism (1378–1417). The next year, 1450, Nicholas V held a jubilee at Rome; and the offerings of the numerous pilgrims who thronged to Rome gave him the means of furthering the cause of culture in Italy, which he had so much at heart. In March 1452 he crowned Frederick III as Emperor in St. Peter's, the last occasion of the coronation of an Emperor at Rome. Within the city of Rome, Nicholas V introduced the fresh spirit of the Renaissance. His plans were of embellishing the city with new monuments worthy of the capital of the Christian world. His first care was practical, to reinforce the city's fortifications, cleaning and even paving some main streets and restoring the water supply. The end of ancient Rome is sometimes dated from the destruction of its magnificent array of aqueducts by 6th century invaders. In the Middle Ages Romans depended for water on wells and cisterns, and the poor dipped their water from the yellow Tiber. The Aqua Virgo aqueduct, originally constructed by Agrippa, was restored by Pope Nicholas V, and emptied into a simple basin that Leon Battista Alberti designed, the predecessor of the Trevi Fountain. But the works on which he especially set his heart were the rebuilding of the Vatican and the Borgo district, and St Peter's Basilica, where the reborn glories of the papacy were to be focused. He got as far as pulling down part of the ancient basilica, and made some alterations to the Lateran Palace (of which some frescos by Fra Angelico bear witness). Under the generous patronage of Nicholas V, humanism made rapid strides as well. The new humanist learning had been looked on with suspicion in Rome, a possible source of schism and heresy, an unhealthy interest in paganism. Nicholas V instead employed Lorenzo Valla as a notary and kept hundreds (confirm; this seems high) of copyists and scholars, with the special aim of wholesale translations of Greek works, pagan as well as Christian, into Latin, giving as much as ten thousand gulden for a metrical translation of Homer. This industry, coming just before the dawn of printing, contributed enormously to the sudden expansion of the intellectual horizon. Nicholas V founded a library of nine thousand volumes. The Pope himself was a man of vast erudition, and his friend Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, later Pope Pius II (1458–64), said of him that 'what he does not know is outside the range of human knowledge. He was compelled, however, to add that the lustre of his pontificate would be forever dulled by the fall of Constantinople, which the Turks took in 1453. The Pope bitterly felt this catastrophe as a double blow to Christendom and to Greek letters. 'It is a second death,' wrote Aeneas Silvius, 'to Homer and Plato'. Nicholas V preached a crusade, and endeavoured to reconcile the mutual animosities of the Italian states, but without much success. He did not live long enough to see the effect of the Greek scholars armed with unimagined manuscripts, who began to find their way to Italy. In undertaking these works Nicholas V was moved 'to strengthen the weak faith of the populace by the greatness of that which it sees'. The Roman populace, however, appreciated neither his motives nor their results, and in 1452 a formidable conspiracy for the overthrow of the papal government, under the leadership of Stefano Porcaro, was discovered and crushed. This revelation of disaffection, together with the fall of Constantinople, darkened the last years of Pope Nicholas V; "As Thomas of Sarzana," he said, 'I had more happiness in a day than now in a whole year'." (ref. genus Parentucellia)
  • Parietar'ia: derives from the Latin parietarius, "of walls," which descends from Greek paries, "a wall," where the plant likes to grow, as Pliny knew when he described it (ref. genus Parietaria)
  • Parishel'la: see entry below. (ref. genus Parishella)
  • par'ishii: after brothers Samuel Bonsall Parish (1838-1928) (photo) and William Fletcher Parish (1840-1918),
      both botanical collectors who lived on a ranch in San Bernardino, California and made extensive exploring trips through the mountains and deserts. Their father was the Methodist Episcopal Reverand Daniel Parish, and they had at least one half-sister, and they were both Civil War veterans. One website says Samuel (and possibly William also) was born in Paterson/Newark, New Jersey. Samuel was the more devoted of the two and is the one that we have the most information about. He corresponded with and was on very familiar terms with many of the
    leading botanists of his day. He went to Wesleyan University 1854-1856 and New York University 1856-1858 graduating with a B.A., and was a high school teacher 1858-1860 at Ottawa Academy in Ottawa, Illinois, and then for a time at Barton Academy at Mobile, Alabama. He served as 1st sergeant with Company K of the 2nd Kansas Voluunteer Cavalry. After the War, both brothers moved west and were thinking about getting into mining which was becoming a big thing. They ended up buying a ranch in San Bernardino around 1872. They occupied themselves with growing fruit while at the same time exploring the region and collecting plants in the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mts, and in the Mojave Desert. They were in contact with major botanists of the time such as Sereno Watson and Asa Gray, who with his wife visited the Parish’s at their ranch in 1885. They were joined by C.C. Parry on a number of collecting trips. Others who visited them included Edward Palmer, E.L. Greene, Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, John Gill Lemmon, Charles Sprague Sargent, Michael Schuck Bebb, Harvey Monroe Hall, Willis Lynn Jepson, and George Engelmann who joined Parry and Samuel Parish on a visit to Whitewater Canyon where he, Engelmann, saw his first Opuntia bigelovii, and being very excited, backed into another cactus, upon which Parish proclaimedI spent the afternoon prying Engelmann loose." William Parish had moved to Hermosa Beach/ Redondo but passed away in 1918 at the Wadsworth VA Soldier’s Home. Samuel’s last collecting trip was 1920, after which he and Eliza moved to Berkeley for better access to herbaria, and later was appointed Honorary curator of the University of  California Herbarium and became a lecturer and professor at Stanford. In his late 80’s Samuel was working on his Flora of the Mojave Desert, but unfortunately his house, unpublished manuscript and papers were lost in the Berkeley fire of 1923. He had sold his personal herbarium to Stanford University in 1917 and when he moved north he sold his large library to Pomona College and it is now at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. Samuel passed away at the age of 91 in 1928. He was the author of  "Trees of Southern California," "A Catalog of Plants Collected in the Salton Sink," "Little or Little-Known Plants of Southern California," "A Catalog of Plants Collected in the Salton Sink," "A Contribution Toward a Knowledge of the Genus Washingtonia," "The Immigrant Plants of Southern California," and "A Group of Western American Solanums." About William Parish, David Hollombe provides the following: "William served in the Civil War as a sergeant and later sergeant-major in company C, 15th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry. The Daniel Parish family is listed in the 1840 census at Westfield, Richmond County, NY. William is alone at Morris Township, Morris County, NJ, in 1860 and at Branch twp., Stanislaus County, CA, in 1870. He is registered at San Bernardino up to 1890, and at Long Beach in 1892. He was in Chester, PA, in 1898 and 1900, staying with Dr. Daniel Parish Maddux (his half-sister's son, who served on the local Board of U. S. Pension Examiners). By 1906 he was living at Redondo, and later in Hermosa Beach." Of all the taxa with the name parishii, the majority were collected by S.B. Parish and the rest are listed with both brothers as co-collectors. Therefore it would seem as though most taxa are named for the elder brother. (ref. Acanthoschyphus [formerly Oxytheca] parishii, Allium parishii, Atriplex parishii, Boechera parishii, Chaenactis parishii, Cheilanthes parishii, Delphinium parishii ssp. pallidum, Delphinium parishii ssp. parishii, Ericameria [formerly Haplopappus] parishii, Erigeron parishii, Eriogonum parishii, Eschscholzia parishii, Euphorbia parishii, Galium parishii, Grusonia parishii, Heuchera parishii, Lycium parishii, Malacothamnus parishii, Mimulus parishii, Orobanche parishii ssp. brachyloba, Orobanche parishii ssp. parishii, Perideridia parishii, Phacelia parishii, Plagiobothrys parishii, Puccinellia parishii, Silene parishii, Solanum parishii, Stipa parishii, Symphoricarpos parishii, Tauschia parishii, Trichostema parishii, Viguiera parishii)
  • parisien'se: of or from Paris. (ref. Galium parisiense)
  • park'eri: after Joseph Chamberland Parker (1834-1910). Thanks to David Hollombe for providing the following information: "He was a photographer, not a painter. He was born in Cincinnati but his family moved to Peoria in 1836. He became a professional photographer in 1857, moving to Pekin, Illinois in 1862 and coming to California in 1872. In 1873 he settled at San Diego and remained there through 1892. His son, Wallace Brown Parker, joined him in his business, and Wallace is listed in Los Angeles city directories from 1892 to 1899. The 1900 census shows them in Tucson, and they moved to Los Angeles just 8 months before Joseph's death. Parker, along with lawyer George N. Hitchcock, also collected the type specimen of Agave shawii, following Parry's notes from the boundary survey, sending the specimens, along with photographs, to [George] Engelmann. Engelmann had named the cactus for Parker, but did not publish the name. 12 years after Engelmann's death, J.M. Coulter published it but, not being familiar with J.C. Parker, indicated that it had been collected by C.F. Parker. The other Parker (Charles) was a bookbinder in Camden, NJ, who made himself useful at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and was elected a member in 1865, a curator in 1874 and eventually "curator-in-charge" of the Academy. He was one of the founders of the conchological and botanical sections and was also interested in entomology." (ref. Cylindropuntia californica var. parkeri)
  • Parkinson'ia: named after John Parkinson (1567-1650), Apothecary of London and king's herbalist to James I,
      author in 1629 of Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris. Parkinson was a leading figure in the European botanical renaissance and Thomas Johnson is said to have gathered seeds at his famous garden in Long Acre, London. He was also a founding member of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries in December 1617, and was later Royal Botanist to Charles I. He was born and spent the early part of his life in Yorkshire and moved to London at the age of 14 to apprentice as an apothecary. He assisted the Society of Apothecaries in preparing a list of all the medicines that an
    apothecary should stock. His work Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris generally described the proper cultivation of plants and has been described as the earliest important treatise on horticulture published in England. His other major work published in 1640 was Theatrum Botanicum (The Botanical Theatre or Theatre of Plants) which was according to many the most complete and beautifully presented English treatise on plants of its time. Parkinson maintained contacts with sources at home and abroad such as John Gerard, John Tradescant the elder, and Matthias de L’Obel, actively sought new varieties of plants, financed plant-hunting expeditions abroad and introduced new species. He was a pious Catholic and yet was forced to maintain a quiet faith in the face of the Catholic-Protestant troubles, and in the end his family was torn asunder by the English Civil War (1642-1651). His botanical garden about which little is known except that it was about two acres and contained about 480 species was in Covent Garden. He died in London and was honored with the genus Parkinsonia, published in 1764 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Parkinsonia)
  • Parnas'sia: named for Mt. Parnassus of Greece, of uncertain application. (ref. genus Parnassia)
  • Parony'chia: from the Greek paronychia, "a whitlow," which is a painful infection of the finger, especially beneath the nail, derived in turn from para, "near," and onyx, "nail." One of the common names for Paronychia is whitlow-wort, an herb thought to be a cure for whitlow. (ref. genus Paronychia, also Polygonum paronychia)
  • Paro'sela: an anagram of the name Psoralea. (ref. former genus Parosela, now renamed Dalea)
  • par'qui: ??? (ref. Cestrum parqui)
  • par'ryae: after Emily Richmond Preston Parry (1821-1915), second wife of Dr. C.C. Parry. (ref. Linanthus parryae)
  • par'ryi/par'ryana: named for Dr. Charles Christopher Parry (1823-1890), an English-born American botanist
      and botanical collector with the Pacific Railway Survey who visited the Southwestern mountains and deserts many times and is remembered in the names of more than a score of California native plants. During his long career, he became the trusted colleague of many major naturalists such as John Torrey, Asa Gray, George Engelmann, John Muir, Charles Wright, Edward Green, Edward Palmer, John G. Lemmon, and Sir Joseph Hooker, son of William Hooker and like his father the Director of Kew Gardens in London. He was a member of both the Mexican Boundary Survey
    and the Pacific Railway Survey, but he was better at discovering new species than at describing them. One of his most beautiful finds was Lilium parryi, the lemon lily. Few American botanists have covered as much and as many different areas as he did. He was born in Gloucestershire but moved to the U.S. in 1832 where his family settled first in northeastern New York. It was here and in the following years that he began collecting specimens of plants. He had two brothers and six sisters. He was educated in good schools and finally studied medicine at Columbia University where he studied with John Torrey and got his medical degree. Larry Blakely in his excellent Who’s in a Name essay says: “He became life-long friends with both Torrey and Torrey’s protégé Asa Gray, as well as with their St. Louis associate George Engelmann – the 3 pillars of mid-19th century US botany.”  Parry moved west in 1846, settling in Davenport, Iowa, and setting up a medical practice. From 1848 to 1855 he was a surgeon and botanist for the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey led by Maj. William Hemsley Emory. In 1853 he married his first wife, Sarah Dalzell, who died after five years leaving him a single daughter. In 1859 he married his second wife, Emily Preston, He made many plant collections in California, Colorado, Utah and other western states. David Hollombe says: “Dr. Parry won a world-wide fame and did much to build up the reputation of the Davenport Academy of Sciences as a center of scientific work and research.” He was repeatedly president of this Academy, as well as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of numerous other associations. From 1869 to 1871 he was Botanist to the United States Agriculture Department and spent much of that time in Washington. During this period also he made a visit to his home country and established what would be a lasting friendship with Sir Joseph Hooker at Kew, who later referred to him as the King of Colorado botany. In 1872 he accompanied Asa Gray to the summit of the mountain Parry had named for Gray, one of two that had attracted his attention, the other being named by him for John Torrey. He created a private herbarium that was one of the finest in America, comprised of over 18,000 specimens of some 6,800 species. It has been an article of faith until recently that C.C. Parry first described the Torrey pine and named it Pinus torreyana after his friend and colleague, but it appears now that although Parry was the one who originally described this pine, he was not the one who validly published the name, and that was the French botanist and conifer authority Élie-Abel Carrière. Parry’s name however is associated with numerous species and deservedly so. Parry was first and foremost a field botanist, and his careful firsthand observations and scrupulously recorded notes are testament to his stature as one of the giants of American botany. He died at his home in Davenport, a much-loved, widely-known and deeply-respected caretaker and student of the natural world. (ref. Allium parryi, Atriplex parryi, Calycoseris parryi, Calyptridium parryi, Centromadia parryi ssp. australis, Cheilanthes parryi, Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina, Chrysothamnus parryi ssp. asper, Collinsia parryi, Cylindropuntia parryi, Delphinium parryi, Eremalche parryi, Euphorbia parryi, Frasera parryi, Jepsonia parryi, Lilium parryi, Lomatium parryi, Marina parryi, Nolina parryi, Notholaena parryi, Phacelia parryi, Polygonum parryi, Stephanomeria parryi, Turricula parryi, Ziziphus parryi, Arctostaphylos parryana)
  • parthen'ium: from the classical Greek name parthenion for a plant related to Matricaria. (ref. Tanacetum parthenium)
  • Parthenocis'sus: from the Greek parthenos, "a virgin," and kissos, "ivy," a genus whose common name is woodbine or virginia creeper, Virginia having been named after England's virgin queen Elizabeth I. (ref. genus Parthenocissus)
  • par'va/par'vum: small. (ref. Dudleya abramsii ssp. parva, Allium parvum)
  • parvicapita'tum: small-headed. (ref. Chenopodium capitatum var. parvicapitatum)
  • parviflor'a/parviflor'um/parviflor'us: from the Greek parvus, "small," and flora, "flower," hence "small-flowered." (ref. Claytonia parviflora, Cleomella parviflora, Collinsia parviflora, Eriogonum parviflora, Fumaria parviflora, Galinsoga parviflora, Gaura parviflora, Kallstroemia parviflora, Malva parviflora, Petunia parviflora, Proboscidea parviflora, Tamarix parviflora, Chlorogalum parviflorum, Lithophragma parviflorum, Symphyotrichum subulatum var. parviflorum, Cordylanthus parviflorus, Rubus parviflorus, Samolus parviflorus)
  • parvifo'lia/parvifo'lium: small-leaved. (ref. Krameria parvifolia, Matelea parvifolia, Sphaeralcea parvifolia, Ulmus parvifolia, Eriogonum parvifolium)
  • parvilo'ba: small-lobed. (ref. Navarretia hamata ssp. parviloba)
  • Parvise'dum: from the Latin for "small Sedum." (ref. genus Parvisedum)
  • par'vula/par'vulum/par'vulus: somewhat small. (ref. Eleocharis parvula, Gymnosteris parvula, Quercus parvula, Abutilon parvulum, Penstemon parvulus)
  • par'vum: small. (ref. Lilium parvum)
  • Pascopy'rum: an unusual combination of Latin pasco, "to feed, pasture" and Greek pyros, "grain, wheat." (ref. genus Pascopyrum)
  • Pas'palum: from the Greek paspalos for "millet." (ref. genus Paspalum)
  • Passiflor'a: from the Latin passio, "passion," and flos, "flower." The name was given because the plant parts seemed to represent aspects of Christ: the corona was the crown of thorns, the five stamens were the five wounds, the three styles three nails, and the ten petal-like parts the ten faithful apostles. (ref. genus Passiflora)
  • Pastina'ca: one source says from the Latin pastino, " to prepare the ground for planting," while another says from the Latin pastus, "food." This was the ancient name of the parsnip and may give a clue as to the origin of the Italian word pasta. (ref. genus Pastinaca)
  • patagon'ica/patagon'icum: of or from Patagonia, a region in Chile and Argentina. (ref. Plantago patagonica, Chenopodium carnosulum var. patagonicum)
  • pa'tens: spreading. (ref. Delphinium patens ssp. hepaticoideum, Juncus patens, Spartina patens)
  • patellar'is: dish- or saucer-shaped.
  • patellif'era: presumably bearing some structure or other that is dish-shaped. (ref. Ivesia patellifera, Potentilla patellifera)
  • pattersonen'sis: the -ensis suffix is usually used to indicate a geographical location, and thanks to David Hollombe, we have the following: "Vol. 4 of Abrams Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States gives the type locality of Senecio patersonensis as Mount Patterson, Mono county. Mt. Patterson is in the Sweetwater Mountains, north of Bridgeport." (ref. Senecio pattersonensis)
  • patterson'ii: after Harry Norton Patterson (1853-1919). The following is quoted from Al Schneider's excellent website on SW Colorado wildflowers: "Illinois newspaper publisher and amateur botanist who visited Colorado often. He took over the Oquawka Spectator which he and his wife, Florence, published after his father, Edward (or Edwin) H. N. Patterson moved to Denver in 1875. (Patterson, the elder, and Eugene Field were associates of Edgar Allen Poe and had attempted to have Poe move to Oquawka. Patterson also corresponded with Poe about financing Poe's longed-for literary magazine, the "Stylus", but Poe died of alcohol poisoning before the two could work out the publishing details.). H.N. Patterson was a correspondent with prominent American botanists of the time and he printed botanical labels for many collectors. His botanical collections are housed in a number of herbaria around the United States. In 1874 Patterson wrote A List of plants collected in the vicinity of Oquawka, Henderson County, Ills. Of this list Patterson said, "709 species are enumerated (not including mosses), and of these I have found 654 within three miles of Oquawka." In 1892 Patterson published "Patterson's Numbered Check-list of North American Plants North of Mexico." (ref. Poa pattersonii)
  • pat'ula/pat'ulum: somewhat spreading. (ref. Arctostaphylos patula, Atriplex patula, Tagetes patula, Polygonum patulum)
  • paucidenta'ta: from the Latin meaning "few-toothed." (ref. Stillingia paucidentata)
  • pauciflor'a/pauciflor'um/pauciflor'us: few-flowered. (ref. Clematis pauciflora, Dichelostemma capitatum ssp. pauciflorum, Muhlenbergia pauciflora, Stephanomeria pauciflora, Lathyrus pauciflorus [now renamed L. brownii], Senecio pauciflorus)
  • paucifo'lia: with little foliage, literally "few-leaved."
  • pauciradia'ta: from the Latin for "few-rayed" [Compare pleniradiata]. (ref. Baileya pauciradiata)
  • paul'senii/paulsen'ii: after Ove Vilhelm Paulsen (1874-1947), Danish botanist. He was born in Aarhus, studied at
      the University of Copenhagen, and was Curator at the Botanical Museum of the University of Copenhagen 1905-18, and head of the Museum 1918-20. From 1920 to 1947 he was a Professor of botany at the Danish College of Pharmacy. He studied the Danish flora, vegetation of the Danish West Indies, plankton of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean, and the flora of Central Asia. He participated in marine biological expeditions to the West Indies in 1895-96, and co-authored a work on the flora of the Danish West Indies. He was on expeditions to Northern Persia and Pamir
    1898-1899. He also sailed with the "Thor" 1903-06 and 1908-09, and with the "Dana" in 1928. When the Danish Commission for the Exploration of the Sea was started in 1902, he was appointed an assistant at the Plankton Laboratory where he continued to work until 1916. In 1929 he was an instructor in marine investigations in Spain, where he published a report on the microplankton of the Mediterranean. From 1931 to 1946 he was chief of the Plankton Laboratory. He was one of the visiting European scientists who joined the International Phytogeographic Excursion for all or part of its route across the United States and subsequently described the biome zonation from east to west in a paper. Along with Jacob Peter Jacobsen of the Danish Hydrographic Laboratory, Dr. Paulsen in 1910 devised an apparatus for the measurement of plankton in a water sample. This instrument was easier to use and less subject to "operator" error than the preceding model. Two years after his death, his Observations on Dinoflagellates was published.  He also published Studies on the vegetation of the Transcaspian lowlands in 1912 which was released in a dozen subsequent editions, and Studies in the Vegetation of Pamir in 1920, and helped to edit parts of the five-volume classic scientific work on flora and vegetation of Iceland entitled The Botany of Iceland. (ref. Salsola paulsenii) (Photo credit: Geni)
  • pauper'culus: somewhat poor. (ref. Astragalus pauperculus)
  • Paxisti'ma: from the Greek pachys, "thick, stout," and stigma, "stigma." (ref. genus Paxistima)
  • payne'i: after Theodore Payne (1872-1963). "Theodore Payne was born in Northamptonshire, England and served
      an apprenticeship in horticulture. He came to Los Angeles in 1893 and fell in love with the California flora, dedicating his life to its preservation. Even in the early years of this century, native vegetation was being lost to agriculture and housing at an alarming rate. He urged the use of California native plants and lectured across the state on preserving the wild flowers and landscapes native to California. In his own nursery and seed business, which he started in 1903, native wildflowers and landscapes were his specialty. In 1915 he laid out and planted 262 species in a
    five-acre wild garden in Los Angeles' Exposition Park. He later helped to establish the Blaksley Botanic Garden in Santa Barbara, planted 178 native species in the California Institute of Technology Botanic Garden in Pasadena, helped create the native plant garden at Los Angeles' Descanso Gardens, and advised the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden in Orange County. By the time he retired in 1958, Payne had made over 400 species of native plants available to the public." (From the website of the Theodore Payne Foundation).  "Theodore Payne was just 21 when he arrived at Modjeska Ranch in 1893. He had come from England and ended up in Santa Ana at a seed store when he heard of the need for a gardener for the great actress on her ranch in Santiago Canyon. He decided to take the position even though he had been told it was a wild place. Since he did not know exactly what he had gotten himself into he purchased a hand gun and set out for El Toro on the Train. Years later, in 1962, he was to write his memoirs in Life on the Modjeska Ranch in the Gay Nineties and speaks of the Ranch in terms of endearment. He spoke of Arden as a fascinating place with such lovable people to be associated with. Besides the natural beauty of the scene, he said the whole air seemed charged with gaiety and romance. He stated sometimes he wondered if it were not all just a beautiful dream. This wonderful little book is out of print at the present time and the copyright is owned by the Theodore Payne Foundation. The Helena Modjeska Foundation is in touch with them to see if it would be possible for this to be reprinted. In the meantime, you will find it in all the local libraries. [Used copies are available by doing a book search at abebooks.com] Matilija poppies were growing in this area when Mr. Payne lived on the Ranch. He tried valiantly to grow them at the request of Mr. Bozenta, as he called him. He was not successful and it wasn't until later that he learned if he had burned some straw or dried grass over the ground, he would have been successful in germinating the seed.. The poppy fascinated him, and in later years he collected the seed for exporting to Europe." (From website at http://www.canyonlife.com/STORY2.HTM).  In Theodore Payne's own words: "I was born at Manor Farm., Church Brampton, Northamptonshire, England, June 19, 1872, being the fifth of a family of six boys. My father died when I was less than three years old, so I do not remember much about him, but he and my mother had planned and planted a very beautiful garden. As a child I was passionately fond of flowers; I always found the first primroses to bloom in the spring. I knew all the haunts of the wild flowers in the neighborhood. My mother was fond of flowers and had studied botany; she taught me the names of the plants. I used to collect seeds of the different flowers in the garden and put them in packets for friends. I had my own little garden in which I worked and took a great deal of pride. So it became generally understood while I was still quite young, that when I grew up I would be a horticulturist. My early education was at home. We had one small room set aside as the school room, and a governess came in every day to teach us. The first one was Miss Tarry who came from a neighboring village. She did not have much success with me, I did not want to learn, I would much rather work in my garden or play out in the farm yard. She almost gave me up as hopeless. Then she left and Miss Warren took her place. We got along well, and I began to make some progress. My mother died when I was eleven years old and when I was twelve I was sent to Ackworth School in Yorkshire. It was Quaker boarding school and the school where my older brothers and also my father had gone before me. At Ackworth I joined a natural history society. While being interested in natural history generally, botany was my special choice and I was elected secretary of the botanical section. My collection of pressed wild flowers was awarded the first prize. It was here at Ackworth that I had my first lesson in conservation. A rare plant which had been known in only one locality had become almost extinct. Our natural history society obtained some roots from another source and we planted them in the place where they were becoming extinct. There was a limited number of gardens for boys who were interested in horticulture. You could obtain the rights to one of these gardens by buying it from some other boy who was willing to relinquish his claim or who leaving school at the end of the term. Mine was handed down to me by my brother. I took great interest in this garden and had a fine display of flowers especially perennials. After leaving Ackworth, I was apprenticed for three years to the firm of John Cheal & Sons, Lowfield Nurseries, Crawley Sussex, to learn the nursery and seed business. The guardians of my father's estate paid a premium of fifty pounds (about $250) to this firm for teaching me the business. My indenture of apprenticeship was drawn up legally, signed by all parties before witnesses, and bore government stamps for the amount of fifty shillings. The firm paid me five shillings (about $1.25) a week for the first two years and six shillings a week for the last year. I went through all the different departments of this business, viz. Greenhouse department, growing plants under glass, propagating under glass, grafting rhododendrons, clematis, etc. Budding roses in the field both bush and tree types. Budding and grafting fruit trees, pruning and training fruit trees, espalier, cordon, bush and standard. Propagating ornamental trees and shrubs, layering, etc. Propagating perennial and rock garden plants." (An excerpt from the forthcoming In His Own Words by Theodore Payne quoted from the Theodore Payne Foundation website) (ref. Eriogonum parvifolium ssp. paynei) (Photo credit: Wildflowering LA)
  • pay'sonii/payson'ii: after Wyoming botanist and professor of botany Edwin Blake Payson (1893-1927). He was born
      at Norwood, Colorado, and graduated from the local high school. About that time he had aquired copies of P. A. Rydberg’s Flora of Colorado (1906) and Aven Nelson’s New Manual of Rocky Mountain Botany, and he began collecting and corresponding with Nelson at the University of Wyoming, who encouraged him to begin his college botany work at UW and provided him a subsidy to collect during the summer of 1913 on the nearby Uncompahgre Plateau. He collected again in the summer of 1914 near his father’s cattle ranch at Naturita, Colorado, and then in 1915
    he met J. Francis Macbride who had been unhappy in his botany studies at Harvard, and Payson took him on a collecting trip to the Grand Canyon and West Coast. The following summer a joint Harvard-Wyoming  sponsored collecting trip took the two budding botanists east from Boise, Idaho and down through the Sawtooth Mountains, bringing back a mass of material including a new genus, eventually named Anelsonia. He received his B.A. degree from the University of Wyoming in 1917. That year also saw him marry another botany student and the outbreak of World War I. Before Payson’s departure for military service he had been awarded a teaching fellowship at the Henry Shaw School of Botany, Washington University, St. Louis. Nelson assured him that upon completion of his graduate work at Washington University, he would have a position in the Wyoming botany department. Sergeant Payson remained in Europe at the end of the war and was an instructor in botany at the American Expeditionary Forces University in Beaune, France, in the spring of 1919, but by the end of the year he was back in St. Louis, gaining a Master’s degree in 1920 and a doctoral degree in 1921. He became an associate professor of botany at the University of Wyoming from 1921 to 1925 and then a full professor. During the summer of 1923 he had suffered a debilitating illness that possibly resulted from a tick bite, but as time passed he recovered. He was considered a brilliant botanist with a great future ahead of him, specializing in the families Brassicaceae and Boraginaceae. The summer of 1926 saw him collecting extensively in the Uinta Mountains of Utah, and then, during a meeting at the International Botanical Congress in Ithica, New York in August, 1926, he suffered an attack that appeared to be a minor stroke. Doctors in Denver diagnosed and began treatment for a curable neuritis. Aven Nelson had arranged for him to receive a Guggenheim Fellowship to enable him to collect on the Danish Faroe Islands and to study at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. His teaching continued in the spring of 1927 but he returned to Denver for reexamination and the rediagnosis was a non-functioning gall bladder. It and his appendix was removed but following the surgery he died unexpectedly at the age of 34. He was the first monographer of Lesquerella, and had published articles in American Journal of Botany, Botanical Gazette, Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, and the University of Wyoming Publications in Botany. His death was a great shock to Nelson who had assumed that Payson would be carrying on his work, and it was a great loss to western botany. (ref. Draba paysonii) (Photo credit: Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation)
  • pechoen'sis: of or from the area of the Pecho Hills, southwest of San Luis Obispo. (ref. Arctostaphylos pechoensis)
  • peckia'num: this name honors Morton Eaton Peck (1871-1959), field botanist, professor of botany at Willamette
      University in Salem, Oregon, and author of A Manual of the Higher Plants of Oregon. He was born near LaPorte in Iowa the son of an avid naturalist and taxidermist, and attended local schools before going to Cornell College in Mt. Vernon, Iowa, gaining a classical education and graduating with an A.B. in 1895, but soon turning to the natural sciences and especially to botany, no doubt influenced by his father. He commenced teaching at small colleges in Missouri (Marionville Collegiate Institute) and Iowa (Ellsworth College and Iowa Wesleyan University), was married in
    1905, and received an A.M. degree from Cornell in 1911. The Oregon University website says “During his tenure at [Ellsworth] College, his expeditions included a float trip down the Mississippi River, a train ride to New Orleans, and passage on a United Fruit Company steamer to British Honduras. He also journeyed to Belize with his new wife, Jessie Grant, a former botany student.” He collected birds, mammals, plants and slime molds. Many of the specimens were later purchased by Eugene S. Ellsworth for the Natural History Museum at Ellsworth Community College which was founded in 1890 in Iowa Falls, Iowa. He also received honorary doctorates from Cornell in 1940 and from Willamette University in 1955. He accepted a position as a professor at Willamette University in 1908 where he was the only biology teacher in the school and was later chairman of the biology department, remaining there until his retirement in 1941. During this time he conducted botanical field trips to areas from Cape Lookout on the Oregon coast to the Three Sisters near Bend. The Oregon Encyclopedia further says: “His knowledge of the flora of the Wallowa, Steens, and Cascade ranges, Lincoln Constance wrote, was ‘incomparable’ and was achieved after often difficult travel by foot or horseback in remote areas. Peck's expertise in floristics, taxonomy, and phytogeography are evident in his Manual of the Higher Plants of Oregon and the Peck Herbarium of Willamette University (WILLU), which honors his extensive collections. Many praised his floristic manual for its format and lightweight size, its phylogenetic keys, new records, and thorough descriptions of plants and physiographic provinces. Arthur Cronquist, a well-known systematist and eventual director of New York Botanical Garden, noted that Peck’s collection of Oregon plants was ‘the most complete, so far as I know that exists.’ Three years before his death in 1959, Peck characterized the herbarium as the ‘sole interest to which I have a modicum of energy remaining to devote...for which I daily feel indebted.’ " His wife, Jessie Grant Peck, accompanied him on collecting trips and was an instructor of biology and a herbarium assistant at Willamette University. His health began to fail in 1952 and he was twice before his death in 1959 incorrectly pronounced as having passed. (ref. Lomatium peckianum) (Photo credit: Oregon Encyclopedia)
  • pecten-veneris: Venus comb. (ref. Scandix pecten-veneris)
  • Pectian'tia: from Latin pecten or pectinis, "a comb," and anti, "opposite, opposing, set against," referring to stamens opposite to petals. (ref. Pectiantia)
  • pectina'cea: same as following entry. (ref. Eragrostis pectinacea)
  • pectina'ta/pectina'tus: comb-like. (ref. Lessingia glandulifera var. pectinata, Monarda pectinata, Potamogeton pectinatus)
  • pectinif'era: bearing a comb-like structure.
  • pectinisec'ta: from the words for "comb" and "cut," so presumably meaning cut in the fashion of a comb. (ref. Potentilla pectinisecta)
  • Pec'tis: from the Greek pecteo, "to comb," the leaves of most species being pectinately ciliate, that is, fringed with hairs on the margin with narrowly close set divisions like the teeth of a comb. (ref. genus Pectis)
  • Pectocar'ya: from the Greek pectos, "combed," and karua, "nut," because of comb-like margins on some of the nutlets. (ref. genus Pectocarya)
  • pecuniar'ia: possibly from the Spanish pecuniaria, "financial, pecuniary or related to money," from the Latin pecuniarius, "of money". David Hollombe has informed me that this taxon was found beside Dollar Lake. (ref. Arabis breweri var. pecuniaria)
  • peda'ta/peda'tum: like a bird's foot, with divisions radiating from a single point. (ref. Sidalcea pedata, Adiantum pedatum)
  • pedemonta'na: Stearns gives "of Piedmont, Italy" as the meaning of this name, but I think for this particular taxon, the meaning derives rather from pes or pedis, "a foot, the base of anything" and montana, "pertaining to mountains," and thus "at the base of the mountains." This taxon inhabits the foothills of the Sierra Nevadas. Another ssp. of G. capitata is mediomontana, "in the middle elevations of the mountains." (ref. Gilia capitata ssp. pedemontana)
  • pedicella'ta/pedicella'tus:  from the Latin for "with a pedicel" because of the thread-like stalks of the flower. (ref. Calystegia malacophylla ssp. pedicellata, Phacelia pedicellata)
  • Pedicular'is: from the Latin pediculus meaning "louse," referring to the old English belief that when cattle grazed on these plants, they became infested with lice. The common head and body louse that typically infect human beings is called Pediculus humanus. (ref. genus Pedicularis)
  • pediculif'era: bearing lice. (ref. Euphorbia pediculifera)
  • Pedio'melum: from the Greek for "plain apple." (ref. genus Pediomelum)
  • peduncula'ta: with a distinct stalk, referring to the prominent flower stems. (ref. Nemophila pedunculata, Viola pedunculata)
  • Pega'num: from the ancient Greek name peganon for rue. (ref. genus Peganum)
  • peirsonia'na: see peirsonii below. (ref. Phacelia peirsoniana)
  • peir'sonii/peirson'ii: after Frank Warrington Peirson (1865-1951), a California collector who worked mostly in the
      San Gabriel Mountains and Inyo County with his half-sister Mable Burnham Peirson (1876-1966), a high school biology teacher. He grew up in Ithaca, New York, and was educated at Haverford College just outside of Philadelphia, graduating in 1889. He lived in Altadena, California, for most of his adulthood (1902-1951) where his sister also lived (they may have lived together since I have no evidence that either was ever married). He made many collecting trips in the San Gabriel Mountains, and in 1934 spent time on Santa Cruz Island collecting plant specimens “with a family
    member,” likely his sister. He was also known for being one of the first to collect in the Rock Creek basin area of the eastern Sierras. His Rock Creek collecting trips were in the 1930’s and early 1940’s, and he self-published Plants of Rock Creek Lake Basin, Inyo County, California: A Checklist in 1938, reporting a total of 344 taxa. He also wrote Trees and Shrubs of the San Gabriel Range in 1934. He maintained a private herbarium with extensive collections from the San Gabriel Mountains and elsewhere in souther California that is now housed at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. His sister graduated from Cornell University in 1900 with a degree in botany and while teaching at the Girls Collegiate School in Los Angeles worked for the summer program at Cornell in 1904.(ref. Calystegia peirsonii, Lupinus peirsonii, Pseudobahia peirsonii, also Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii, Chylismia claviformis ssp. peirsonii)
  • Pelargo'nium: from the Greek pelargos for "stork," alluding to the bill-shaped fruit [Note: It is interesting that several of the members of this family take their names from long-billed birds, i.e. pelargos (stork), geranos (crane), and erodios (heron)]. (ref. genus Pelargonium)
  • Pellae'a: from the Greek pellaios, "dark," possibly alluding to the stalks of this fern which are generally dark. (ref. genus Pellaea)
  • pel'lita/pelli'ta: from the Latin pellis, "skin or hide," thus meaning covered with skin or hide, or having skin or hide. (ref. Carex pellita)
  • Peltan'dra: from the Greek pelte, "a shield, target," and aner or andros, "stamen, man," hence "hidden or shielded anthers or stamens." (ref. genus Peltandra)
  • pelta'ta/pelta'tum: shield-shaped. (ref. Nymphoides peltata, Pelargonium peltatum)
  • pelvifor'mis: basin-shaped.
  • pendletonen'se: named for Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base in San Diego County. (ref. Eryngium pendletonense)
  • pen'dula: same as pendulina. (ref. Senna pendula)
  • penduliflor'a: with blossoms that "hang down" as they age. (ref. Emmenanthe penduliflora)
  • penduli'na: hanging, pendulous. (ref. Arabis pendulina)
  • pendulocar'pa: with fruits hanging down. (ref. Boechera holboellii var. pendulocarpa)
  • pen'dulum/pen'dulus: hanging down, from the Latin pendere, "to suspend", the -ulus suffix indicating a tendency or action. (ref. Eriogonum pendulum, Scirpus pendulus)
  • penicilla'ta: having a tuft of hair somewhat like a paintbrush. (ref. Pectocarya penicillata)
  • peninsular'e/peninsular'is: growing on a peninsula; for example, referring to the first collection of the species Allium peninsulare in Baja California, a peninsula. (ref. Allium peninsulare var. peninsulare, Arctostaphylos peninsularis, Navarettia peninsularis)
  • Pennise'tum: from the Latin penna, "feather," and seta, "a bristle," thus literally, "feather-bristled," because some species have plumose or feathery bristles. (ref. genus Pennisetum)
  • Pen'stemon: the usual derivation for this name published in many sources including Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names for Gardeners is from the Greek penta, "five," and stemon, "stamen," for the fifth stamen, referring to the staminode, and alluding to the fact that it has five stamens, but this appears to be not exactly the case. One piece of evidence that this might have been true is that the genus name was spelled at one time, apparently incorrectly by Linnaeus, Pentstemon, which would correspond with the root penta. But John Mitchell's original publication in 1748 had the spelling that we are now familiar with, Penstemon, and a number of people such as Francis Whittier Pennell, Walter Fertig and others have opined that the “pen” in Penstemon comes not from penta ("five") but from the Latin paene meaning “nearly” or “almost”, while stemon comes from the Greek for “thread”. Fertig in an online USDA Forest Service article on Rydberg's penstemon says “Nearly a thread is a reference to the staminode, which is almost a functional stamen." So both derivations have to do with the stamens, and particularly the fifth stamen, but the root words are different. One caveat here is that botanical names are not generally composed of roots from different languages as would seem now to be the case here. (ref. genus Penstemon)
  • pensylvan'ica/pensylvan'icum: of or from Pennsylvania. (ref. Cardamine pensylvanica, Parietaria pensylvanica, Polygonum pensylvanicum)
  • Pentachae'ta: from the Greek penta, "five," and chaeta, "bristle or long hair," referring to the five pappus scales. (ref. genus Pentachaeta and species Layia pentachaeta, Thymophylla [formerly Dyssodia] pentachaeta var. belenidium)
  • pentac'tis: five-rayed, from penta, "five," and actis, "a ray or beam." (ref. Deinandra [formerly Hemizonia] pentactis)
  • pentago'na: five-angled. (ref. Cuscuta pentagona)
  • Pentagram'ma: possibly from two Greek words meaning "five stripes." (ref. genus Pentagramma)
  • pental'epis: five-scaled. (ref. Ambrosia salsola var. pentalepis)
  • pentan'dra/pentan'drum: with five stamens. (ref. Mitella pentandra, Parvisedum pentandrum)
  • pentasper'ma: five-seeded. (ref. Plantago elongata ssp. pentasperma)
  • peplo'ides: means "resembling Peplis (now Lythrum) portula" and describes the appearance of the plant when it grows on exposed mud, rather than under water. (ref. Callitriche peploides, Ludwigia peploides)
  • pep'lus: this is one that I'm still puzzling over. One source has peplum as a garment worn by women in ancient Greece, which was cloth caught at the shoulders and draped in folds to the waist, and another gives peplis as a name used by Dioscorides as a Mediterranean coastal spurge and peplus as a name he used for the northern equivalent of peplis. (ref. Euphorbia peplus)
  • per-: sometimes used as an intensive prefix meaning "well, very much, completely."
  • peramoen'us: very pleasing. (ref. Streptanthus albidus ssp. peramoenus)
  • Peraphyl'lum: from the Greek pera, "excessively," and phyllon, "leaf," thus "very leafy." (ref. genus Peraphyllum)
  • peregri'na/peregri'num/peregri'nus: foreign or exotic, wandering or straggling in growth. (ref. Veronica peregrina ssp. xalapensis, Gnaphalium peregrinum, Erigeron peregrinus)
  • peren'nans: perennial. (ref. Boechera perennans)
  • peren'ne/peren'nis: perennial. (ref. Erysimum perenne, Lolium perenne, Festuca perennis, Bellis perennis)
  • Pere'zia: named for Lorenzo Perez, a 16th century Spanish apothecary, writer on materia medica, and author of a history of drugs in 1575. (ref. former genus Perezia, now renamed Acourtia)
  • pere'zii: after Jorge Victor Perez (1869-1920), a physician and horticulturist from the Canary Islands. (ref. Limonium perezii)
  • perfolia'ta/perfolia'tum: refers to a leaf which has its margins entirely surrounding the stem in such a fashion that the stem seems to pass through the leaf. (ref. Chorizanthe perfoliata, Claytonia perfoliata, Mucronea perfoliata, Oxytheca perfoliata, Lepidium perfoliatum)
  • perfora'tum: perforated, with the paired leaves joined at the base and thus 'perforated' by the stem. (ref. Hypericum perforatum)
  • Perical'lis: from the Greek perikalles, "very beautiful." (ref. genus Pericallis)
  • Peric'ome: from the Greek peri, "around," and come, "a tuft of hair," referring to the ciliate akene margins. (ref. genus Pericome)
  • Periderid'ia: either from the Greek peri, "around," and derris, "a leather coat." (Munz), or (2) from the Greek for "around the neck," from the involucre (Jepson).  Derris also means in Greek a leather covering, and thus an allusion to the tough seed pods. (ref. genus Perideridia)
  • perinci'sum: from the Latin per-, a prefix meaning 'very much, completely,' and incisus, 'cut,' referring to the leaflets especially of the upper leaves that are deeply incised. (ref. Geum macrophyllum var. perincisum)
  • Perit'oma: from the Greek for "cut-around," peri meaning "around" and tome or tomos meaning "division, section, to slice." The calyx base is circumscissile. (ref. genus Peritoma)
  • Perit'yle: from the Greek peri, "around," and tyle, "a callus," and meaning "around the margin," referring to the thick calloused margin of the achenes. (ref. genus Perityle)
  • peritylo'ides: like genus Perityle. (ref. Phacelia perityloides var. perityloides)
  • perpal'lidus: very pale.
  • perplex'ans: intricate, involved, puzzling, tangled. (ref. Ceanothus perplexans)
  • Per'sea: from the Greek name persea used by Theophrastus and Hippocrates for some unknown Egyptian tree, possibly Cordia myxa. (ref. genus Persea)
  • per'sica: from the Latin persica, "peach," in ancient times called persike or persica malus, "Persian apple," a fruit that reached Europe from China by way of Persia. (ref. Prunus persica, Veronica persica)
  • Persicar'ia: the medieval name of a knotweed, from Persica, peach, alluding to the shape of the leaves. (ref. genus Persicaria)
  • persicario'ides: resembling Persicaria, whose generic appellation is derived from the medieval name of a knotweed. (ref. Rumex persicarioides)
  • per'sicus: belonging to, of or from Persia.
  • persis'tens: persistent. (ref. Calochortus persistens)
  • persona'tus: from the Latin personatus, "masked." (ref. Penstemon personatus)
  • perstric'tus: a modern Latin dictionary says this is the perfect participle passive of the transitive verb perstringo, "to graze or touch lightly," also with the meanings "to belittle or censure," or "to dull or deaden (senses)," but none of these may explain its botanical meaning which is more likely to derive from strictus, "upright, stiff," and the intensive prefix per-, thus meaning "very stiff or very straight." (ref. Astragalus douglasii var. perstrictus)
  • peruvia'num: of or from Peru. (ref. Lycopersicon peruvianum)
  • -pes: a suffix referring to the stalk, see brevipes, latipes, longipes, ternipes.
  • pes-cap'rae: means "foot of the goat," alluding to the shape of the leaflet. (ref. Oxalis pes-caprae)
  • Petalon'yx: from the Greek petalon, "petal," and onyx, "claw," thus claw-petalled. (ref. genus Petalonyx)
  • Petalo'stemum: from the Greek words for "petal" and "stamen" because of the unusual union of these parts, this is a genus whose only southern California representative, searsiae, has now been placed by Jepson into the genus Dalea. (ref. genus Petalostemum)
  • petasa'ta: probably from the Latin petasatus, "prepared for a journey, having a cap on." (ref. Carex petasata)
  • Petasi'tes: a Greek name derived from petasos, "a hat with a broad brim," alluding to the large leaves. (ref. genus Petasites)
  • petasi'tis: hat-like.
  • Peter'ia: after Robert Peter (1805-1894), a Kentucky botanist and chemist, "...born in Launeeston, England, 21
      January, 1805. He received his earliest education principally in England, and subsequently by self-instruction. About 1821 he came to the United States and settled in Pittsburgh, where he learned the drug business. While so engaged he devoted much attention to botany, and to the conchology of the rivers... also founding a botanical society, and becoming associated in the organization of the Philosophical Society and the Philological Institute of Pittsburgh. At the invitation of Amos Eaton, he studied for a session at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, in 1828, where he
    received the title of Lecturer on Natural and Demonstrative Science. In 1830-1831 he was called to deliver experimental lectures on chemistry at the Western University of Pennsylvania, and also at the Mechanics' Institute in Pittsburgh. In 1832 he delivered a course of chemical lectures at the Eclectic Institute of Lexington, Kentucky, and was engaged to assist in the chemical instruction of the medical department of Transylvania University, also becoming professor of chemistry in Morrison college of that university. He then entered the medical department, was graduated in 1834, and in 1838 was appointed professor of chemistry and pharmacy in that institution. In 1839 he visited Europe in order to secure books, anatomical preparations, and apparatus for the university, and at the same time he attended lectures in Paris and London. He was associated in founding the Kentucky School of Medicine at Louisville in 1850, but three years later returned to the Medical School of Lexington. During the greater part of the civil war he was employed as acting assistant surgeon in charge of the United States general hospitals in Lexington. In 1865 he was appointed professor of chemistry and experimental natural philosophy at Kentucky University, which in 1866 acquired the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky, in which he remained until 1887, when he was made Emeritus. Dr. Peter was chemist to the Kentucky Geological Survey in 1854-1860, and in 1859-1860 conducted the chemical department of the geological surveys of Indiana and Arkansas. This work was interrupted by the civil war, but resumed in 1875, and since that year he again filled the post of chemist to the Kentucky Geological Survey. In this capacity he accomplished numerous analyses of soils, ores, waters, and other materials which were published in the reports of the surveys. He edited the "Transylvania Medical Journal" in 1837-1838, and besides many articles on chemistry, geology, and medicine, in periodicals and the transactions of societies of which he is a member, he prepared the "Geological Formations of Kentucky" for Collins's History of Kentucky. [Other publications of his were] "A Digest of the Report of the Geological Survey of Arkansas" and a "Digest of the Reports of the First Geological Survey of Kentucky," prepared under the auspices of the United States Geological Survey." (Quoted from Virtual American Biographies) (ref. genus Peteria) (Photo credit: Eastern Kentucky University)
  • petiolar'e/petiolar'is: with conspicuous petioles. (ref. Helichrysum petiolare, Helianthus petiolaris ssp. canescens)
  • Petrador'ia: from the Greek petra, "a rock," and Doria, an early name for the goldenrod, named for Andrea Doria (1468-1560), admiral of the Republic of Genoa. (ref. genus Petradoria)
  • petrae'a/petraeus: rock-loving. (ref. Pterixia petraea)
  • petrophi'la/petrophi'lus: from the Greek petros, "rock," and phileo, "to love," because of its habitat. (ref. Holmgrenanthe petrophila, Erigeron petrophilus)
  • Petrophy'ton: from the Greek petra, "rock," and phyton, "plant," thus rock plant.
  • Petrophy'tum: see above. (ref. genus Petrophytum)
  • Petrorha'gia: from the Greek petros, "rock," and rhagas, "a chink or break" from rhegnymi, "to break asunder," thus meaning "rock fissure" in reference to the habitat of some species. (ref. genus Petrorhagia)
  • Petroseli'num: from the Greek petros, "a rock," and selinon, "parsley or celery," this is the name used by Dioscorides, although the Jepson Manual curiously says "stone wreath." (ref. genus Petroselinum)
  • Petu'nia: from petun, a native American name for tobacco. (ref. genus Petunia)
  • Peucephyl'lum: from the Greek peuke, "fir," and phyllon, "leaf," because of its superficial resemblance to a fir tree. (ref. genus Peucephyllum)
  • Phace'lia: based on the Greek phakelos, meaning "cluster," and alluding to the densely crowded flower spikes of most species. of the genus (ref. genus Phacelia)
  • phaeacan'tha: from the Greek root phae- or phaios meaning "dusky, dark or gray" and acanthos, "spine," thus dark- or gray-spined.  Thanks to Philippe Faucon at Desert-Tropicals.com for information regarding this name. (ref. Opuntia phaeacantha)
  • phaeocar'pa/phaeocar'pum/phaeocar'pus: with dark fruit. (ref. Malacothrix phaeocarpa)
  • phaeoceph'ala/phaeoceph'alus: with dark heads. (ref. Carex phaeocephala, Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus)
  • Phalacros'eris: from the Greek phalakros, meaning "bald," and seris, "a species of chicory or endive." (ref. genus Phalacroseris)
  • Phalar'is: an ancient Greek name used by Dioscorides for a kind of grass with shiny spikelets, according to Umberto Quattrocchi from phalaros, "having a patch of white, crested," and/or phalos, "shining, bright, white." (ref. genus Phalaris)
  • Phaseo'lus: from the Greek phaselos, "a little boat or light vessel," referring to its similarity to a bean pod, this name became the Latin phaseolus used for a kind of bean. (ref. genus Phaseolus)
  • -phila/philum: from phileo, "to love," this is an ending which conveys the sense of loving some particular habitat or other, as in eremophila, "desert-loving," nemophila, "loving a glade or wooded meadow," or psammophila, "sand-loving" or halophilum, "salt-loving."
  • philadel'phica/philadel'phicus: of or from Philadelphia. (ref. Physalis philadelphica, Erigeron philadelphicus)
  • Philadel'phus: a Greek-derived name after Ptolemy Philadelphus, Greek King of Egypt 309-247 BC. (ref. genus Philadelphus)
  • phil'brickii/philbrick'ii: after Ralph Nowell Philbrick (1934-2017), botanist at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden
      and collector on the Channel Islands. In 1967 he edited The Proceedings of the Symposium on the Biology of the California Islands. From 1974 to 1987 he was the Director of the SBBG. He was born in San Francisco and settled in the Pasadena area with his family  after the birth of his younger brother. The family had an avocado ranch in Fallbrook where he spent weekends and summers. He graduated from high school in Pasadena and attended Pomona College where he developed an interest in botany, graduating in 1956 and going on to earn a Master’s degree at
    UCLA and a Ph.D. in botany from Cornell University in 1963 where he also worked as a research associate at the Bailey Hortorium. He was appointed to a teaching position at UC Santa Barbara  and then began working at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden as a taxonomist. His obituary in the Santa Barbara News-Press says: “While at the Botanic Garden, Ralph's botanical interests focused on the flora of the California Channel Islands. He made many collecting trips to the islands as well as those off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. He co-authored numerous botanical publications on the islands, established the first California Islands Symposium in 1965, and launched a new, larger island section at the Botanic Garden. In 1973, Ralph became Director of the Botanic Garden and held that position until 1987. Under his leadership, the Garden's education, outreach, and plant breeding programs expanded. Scientific research on the California Islands led to the Garden's eventual recognition as a center for island research. The library, herbarium, and living collections grew substantially during his tenure, as did its acreage. Ralph had a keen interest in the aesthetics of the Garden grounds and was responsible for several horti- cultural selections from the islands. Ralph also served as a Planning Commissioner for Santa Barbara County from 1981 to 1987. After he left the Garden, he started a biological consulting business, conducting botanical surveys, and preparing reports for local projects. He moved to the San Marcos Trout Club in 1983 and enjoyed living close to nature in his rustic handcrafted cabin. Ralph was an outdoor enthusiast, cyclist, and avid runner. He began competing in local runs in his mid-40s and he never lost his enthusiasm and passion for the sport. He continued to train hard and run races up until last year. He was well-known and respected in the Santa Barbara running community and he inspired many younger runners with his drive, hard work to achieve his goals, and determination to be the best he could be. Ralph also had a strong interest in writing and dabbled in both prose and poetry. He authored a vast number of short pieces on a wide variety of topics. Many of his writings reflected his long-time interest in the history of people and places. He spent many years researching the genealogy of his family and writing stories about his findings.” The Santa Barbara Independent said about him: “After leaving the Botanic Garden in 1987, Ralph continued his botanical research along the Baja and Alta California coasts. His name can be found on plant checklists completed for Santa Barbara Island in 1993, Todos Santos and San Martin islands of Baja California in 1994, and San Benito and Natividad islands of Baja California in 2002. Just before he died, he finalized an annotated checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of Anacapa Island. In both his professional and personal life, Ralph will be remembered as a man who, every day, did his absolute best to make the world a healthier, more peaceful, and more beautiful place. He inspired all who knew him.” He died July 10, 2017. (ref. Malacothrix foliosa ssp. philbrickii) (Photo credit: Santa Barbara Independent)
  • philoxero'ides: like or having the form of genus Philoxerus, in the Amaranthaceae.
  • -philus: a suffix which frequently means loving or having an affinity for, as in hydrophilus, "water-loving," petrophilus, "rock loving."
  • phleo'ides: resembling genus Phleum. (ref. Gastridium phleoides, Koeleria phleoides, Lycurus phleoides)
  • Phle'um: from the Greek phleos, an ancient name for a kind of swamp-growing grass. (ref. genus Phleum)
  • Phlo'mis: from the Greek name phlomis, for some plant possibly not of this genus. (ref. genus Phlomis)
  • Phlox: from the Greek phlox, "flame," ancient name of Lychnis of the Caryophyllaceae. (ref. genus Phlox)
  • Phoenicau'lis: from the Greek phoinix or phoinikos, "purple, red, crimson," or possibly derived from phaneros, "evident, conspicuous, visible," and kaulos, "stalk or stem," thus meaning "visible stem." (ref. genus Phoenicaulis)
  • Phoe'nix: a Greek name for the date palm, of uncertain meaning. (ref. genus Phoenix)
  • Pholis'ma: from the Greek pholis, "scale," because of the scale-like leaves. (ref. genus Pholisma)
  • Pholis'toma: from the Greek pholis, "scale," and stoma, "mouth," hence meaning "scale-mouthed, because of the scales in the throat of the flower. (ref. genus Pholistoma)
  • -phora/-phorum/-phorus: suffix meaning "to carry or bear, movement" (e.g. adenophora, "bearing glands," trichophorum, "bearing hairs," cephalophorus, "bearing heads").
  • Phoraden'dron: from the Greek phor, "a thief," and dendron, "tree," hence "tree thief" because it draws nourishment from its host tree. (ref. genus Phoradendron)
  • pho'xus: from the Greek phoxos, "tapering, pointed."
  • -phragma: indicating the presence of some kind of a partition. (ref. genus Lithophragma)
  • Phragmi'tes: from the Greek phragma, "a fence or screen, hedge," hence growing in hedges. (ref. genus Phragmites)
  • Phryma'ceae: the website of the Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium at the University of Wisconsin says that the genus name Phryma was "erroneously given by Bauhin as the Latin equivalent of the Greek Phyrama, an inferior grade of the resin of the metops 'tree,' a north African umbellifer. Literally, something mixed and kneaded, dough." The name Phryma was published by Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. family Phrymaceae)
  • Phy'la: from the Greek phyle, "tribe," probably from the flowers being tightly clustered in heads. (ref. genus Phyla [formerly Lippia])
  • Phyllod'oce: honors the Greek sea nymph mentioned by the Roman writer Virgil. (ref. genus Phyllodoce)
  • phylloman'ica: with wild or excessively leafy growth. (ref. Carex echinata ssp. phyllomanica)
  • Phyllospa'dix: from the Greek phyllon, "leaf," and spadix, "a palm frond or palm branch," and the Latin spadix or spadicis, "a palm branch broken off together with its fruit," referring to the inflorescence, according to Umberto Quattrocchi. (ref. genus Phyllospadix)
  • phyllosta'chya: with leafy spikes.
  • Phyllosta'chys: from the Greek phyllon, "leaf," and stachys, "a spike." (ref. genus Phyllostachys)
  • phylloste'gia: from the words for "leaf" and "a covering."
  • phyl'lus: leaves, foliage.
  • physalifo'lium: with leaves like those of genus Physalis. (ref. Solanum physalifolium)
  • Phy'salis: from the Greek physalis, "a bladder or bubble," because of the inflated calyx. (ref. genus Physalis)
  • physalo'des: presumably meaning "bladder-like." (ref. Nicandra physalodes)
  • Physar'ia: from the Greek phusa or physa, "bellows" because of the inflated pod. (ref. genus Physaria)
  • Physocar'pus: from the Greek phusa or physa, "bladder, a pair of bellows" and karpos, "fruit," thus "bladdery fruit." (ref. genus Physocarpus)
  • physo'des: bladder-like. (ref. Rupertia physodes)
  • Phytolac'ca: from the Greek phyton, "plant," and Latin lacca, "crimson lake," because of the color in the berries. (ref. genus Phytolacca)
  • phytolaccifo'lium: with leaves like genus Phytolacca. (ref. Aconogonon [formerly Polygonum] phytolaccifolium)


Calleguas Creek, Ventura County
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