L-R: Mirabilis californica (Wishbone bush), Eschscholzia californica (Collarless California poppy), Amsonia tomentosa (Woolly amsonia), Allionia incarnata (Windmills), Mentzelia multiflora ssp. longiloba (Yerba amarilla)


R
In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear. Where no credit is given for photos, they are in public domain mostly from Wikipedia.
  • racemo'sa/racemo'sum: with flowers in racemes. (ref. Cryptantha racemosa, Platanus racemosa, Pyrrocoma [formerly Haplopappus] racemosa, Sambucus racemosa var. microbotrys, Eriogonum racemosum, Gayophytum racemosum, Maianthemum racemosum, Pholistoma racemosum)
  • ra'dians: radiating outward. (ref. Navarretia nigelliformis ssp. radians)
  • radia'ta/radia'tum: spreading out like rays, usually the petals of florets. (ref. Madia radiata, Swertia radiata, Sedum radiatum)
  • rad'icans: with rooting stems.
  • radica'ta: having conspicuous roots. (ref. Hypochaeris radicata)
  • raduli'na/radulin'us: probably from the same root as radula, "a scraper, rasp or file," from the scabrous leaves. (ref. Eurybia radulina, Aster radulinus)
  • Rafines'quia: named for Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (1783-1840), a 19th century botanist and friend
      of James J. Audubon. The following is quoted from Wikipedia online: "[Rafinesque was] a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. Many would call him a genius, but also an eccentric, sometimes close to insanity. He was very successful in various fields of knowledge; zoologist, botanist, malacologist, meteorologist, writer, evolutionist, polyglot, translator. He wrote prolifically on such diverse topics as anthropology, biology, geology, and linguistics; but was honored in none during his lifetime. Today, it is generally recognized that this genius was far
    ahead of his time. Rafinesque was born in Galata, a suburb of Constantinople. He spent his youth in Marseilles, France and was mostly self-educated. By the age of twelve, he knew Latin and had built a herbarium. At the age of nineteen, he went to America but in 1805 left again to Palermo, Sicily, where he became a successful businessman, mostly in the trade of medicinal plants. He was also secretary to the American consul. During his stay, he collected flowers and took an interest in fish, naming a few. In 1815, after his common-law wife left him and his son (named after Carolus Linnaeus) had died, he returned to America. He lost all his books (50 boxes) and all his specimens, with more than 60,000 shells, when the ship foundered near the coast of Connecticut. In New York he became a member of the newly established "Lyceum of Natural History". By 1818, he had collected and named more than 250 new species of plants and animals. Slowly he was rebuilding his collection of objects from nature. In 1819 he became professor of botany at Transylvania University, Lexington (Kentucky), teaching French and Italian as well. He started at once describing all the new species of plants and animals he encountered. In 1825 his book Neogenyton, drew much criticism from fellow botanists, causing his writing further to be ignored. In the spring of 1826 he was dismissed from the university, for either having an apparent affair with the university president's wife or for attending even fewer classes than his students. He left for Philadelphia without employment. He gave public lectures and started publishing again, mostly at his own expense. His book Medical Flora, a manual of the Medical Botany of the United States of North America (1828-1830) became his most important work. In Herbarium rafinesquianum, he described numerous new plants. He also became interested in the collections of Lewis and Clark. Among them, he gave a scientific name to the Black-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus), the White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and the Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus). In the books he published between 1836 and 1838 he proposed hundreds of new genera and thousands of new species. However most of these names were not accepted by the scientific community. He even discovered an unnamed bat in John J. Audubon's house no less. He developed a theory of evolution much earlier than Darwin. In 1836 he also created a 19th century hoax, when claiming, in a document "Walam Olum," to be able to translate the writings of the early Delaware Indians. He died of stomach cancer unnoticed and penniless in an attic in Philadelphia. He was buried there at Ronaldson's cemetery. His considerable collections were sold as junk or destroyed. In 1924 his remains (or what was thought to have been his remains) were brought back to Transylvania University to rest in a place of honor, in a tomb marked by the epitaph 'A life of travels'. But most likely, Rafinesque lies in an unmarked grave in Philadelphia. In 1841 Thomas Nuttall proposed, in his honor, the genus name Rafinesquia, (family Asteraceae), with two species Rafinesquia californica Nutt. (California Plumeseed, California Chicory) and Rafinesquia neomexicana A.Gray (Desert Chicory, Plumeseed). Rafinesque himself had proposed this name twice, but was each time turned down. Asa Gray named in 1853 the second species. His scientific work has been gaining more and more recognition in recent years. He was an overly enthusiastic, but accurate observer driven by a monomaniacal desire to name every object he encountered in nature." (ref. genus Rafinesquia)
  • raich'ei: after Roger Raiche (1952- ), California field botanist and horticulturist, and co-founder with David McCrory of Planet Horticulture Garden Design, a Bay Area landscape firm that emphasizes unusual plants in naturalistic and ecologically minded garden designs. His twenty-three-year career at the UC Botanical Garden (Berkeley) transformed the California collection. He collected extensively, discovered three species, and introduced many new native cultivars. He is also a Fellow of the California Native Plant Society. In 1981 he first became fascinated with The Cedars, a little known serpentine canyon system in northwestern Sonoma County that had an other-worldly look and unusual and unique plants, and he has spent several decades exploring, documenting, and working with several conservation organizations  attempting to secure preservation of this unique and fragile ecosystem. He wrote about it in a 2009 article in Fremontia. (ref. Arctostaphylos stanfordiana ssp. raichei, Calochortus raichei, Clarkia concinna ssp. raichei)
  • Raillardel'la: a diminutive of Raillardia, a shrubby genus of Hawaii, named after Laurent Railliard (1792-1845), born in Dax, a midshipman then ensign on the scientific circumnavigation voyage of Louis de Freycinet in 1817-1820. He rose to at least the rank of Capitaine de corvette, or "Corvette Captain," the equivalent of a lieutenant commander. Botanical collections were made by Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré and it's possible this is where Railliard began his interest in botany. (ref. genus Raillardella)
  • Raillardiop'sis: like genus Raillardia, same derivation as above. (ref. genus Raillardiopsis)
  • rainbowen'sis: after Rainbow, California, a locality in northern San Diego Co. (ref. Arctostaphylos rainbowensis)
  • ram'mii: after Charles Adolph Ramm (1863-1951). The following is quoted from the San Francisco Chronicle: "Charles A. Ramm, Medalist of the State University in 1884, has gone to Baltimore to study for the priesthood in the Roman Catholic Church. He was born of German Lutheran parentage. He was educated as a civil engineer, for which profession he evinced a decided talent, taking a degree from the College of Civil Engineering. As a student at Berkeley he was a fast friend of the Rev. Edward L. Greene, Rector of St. Mark's Episcopal Church, of which he was a faithful attendant. Upon graduation he did not follow his profession, but was appointed Recorder of the University. On Easter, 1886, in company with Rev. Mr. Greene, whose difficulties with his parish have been aired in the courts and public prints, Mr. Ramm was baptized at St. Mary's Cathedral. Mr. Greene, who is now assistant professor of botany in the State University, it is stated, is also preparing for the Roman Catholic priesthood. Mr. Ramm will enter the theological seminary of St. Sulpice." And from American Catholic Who's Who: "Ramm, Rev. Charles A. Secretary to Archbishop Riordan of San Francisco, California; born in Camptonville, California, 1863; attended the public schools and Berkeley Gymnasium, the University of California and Johns Hopkins University; received the degree of Ph.B. [Bachelor of Philosophy] from the University of California, 1884; M.A. (1889) and S.T.B. [Bachelor of Sacred Theology] (1891) from St. Mary's Seminary; LL.D. (honorary) from the University of Nevada, 1908; appointed a member of the State Board of Charities and Corrections in 1906. Is much in demand as a lecturer. His lecture, "Why I Became a Catholic," was published by the Catholic Truth Association. Entered the Catholic Church 1886. Address."
    David Hollombe adds: "Ramm was a regent of the University of California, 1912-1944. He was ordained in 1892, elevated to Papal Chamberlain in 1918, and elevated to Domestic Prelate in 1919." (ref. Madia rammii)
  • ramo'sa/ramo'sus: branched. (ref. Eschscholzia ramosa, Tragia ramosa, Cordylanthus ramosus)
  • ramo'sior: from the Latin ramus, "a branch," and the -ior suffix indicating "more," thus "more branched." (ref. Rotala ramosior)
  • ramosis'sima/ramosis'simum/ramosis'simus: very branched. (ref. Coleogyne ramosissima, Cylindropuntia ramosissima, Hemizonia ramosissima, Lagophylla ramosissima, Phacelia ramosissima var. latifolia, Phacelia ramossisima, Psathyrotes ramosissima, Tamarix ramosissima, Cardionema ramosissimum, Gayophytum ramosissimum, Lepidium ramosissimum, Polygonum ramosissimum, Pseudognaphalium ramosissimum, Nemacladus ramosissimus)
  • ramulo'sa: Harris and Harris's Plant Identification Terminology says that 'ramulose' is the same as 'ramose,' that is, "with many branches," and Jaeger gives the derivation as from ramulosus, "full of branches." However, with other words such as 'strigulosa,' 'lanulosa,' 'spinulosa' and 'tomentulosa,' the suffix -ulosa has a sense of "slightly or minutely," so perhaps this would more correctly mean "slightly branched." On the other hand, people apply names and use forms of names with different things in mind, so this is not certain. (ref. Lessingia ramulosa)
  • ranuncula'cea: resembling a Ranunculus (ref. Sidalcea ranunculacea)
  • ranunculo'ides: like genus Ranunculus. (ref. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides)
  • Ranun'culus: from the Latin rana, "little frog," because many species tend to grow in moist places. (ref. genus Ranunculus)
  • ra'pa: an old Italian name for turnips. (ref. Brassica rapa)
  • rapa'ceus: relating somehow to turnips.
  • Raph'anus: from the Greek raphanos for "quick-appearing" because of the rapid germination of the seeds. (ref. genus Raphanus)
  • Rapis'trum: from the Greek rhapis, "rape," and astrum, "appearance." (ref. genus Rapistrum)
  • rariflor'um: with scattered flowers. (ref. Heterocodon rariflorum)
  • Rati'bida: a name used by C.S. Rafinesque. David Hollombe sent me the following: "Rafinesque's brief description in a paper in 'Journal de physique, de chimie et d'histoire naturelle et des arts' in 1819 mentions the rays as being bifid, although that explanation does not account for the 't'." Rafinesque often assigned unexplained names to plants. It is curious that about 60 sites online use the spelling Ratidiba rather than Ratibida. (ref. genus Ratibida)
  • rat'tanii/rattan'ii: after Volney Rattan (1840-1915), botanist, plant collector and schoolteacher at the State Normal School in San Jose, California, author of A Popular California Flora (1882), Flora Franciscana (1891-1897) and West Coast Botany: an analytical key to the flora of the Pacific Coast (1898). A website of the State Normal School gives the following thumbnail sketch: "Native of Wisconsin. Educated in public schools and State University of Wisconsin. Taught in public schools of Wisconsin, two years; country schools in California, five years; San José Institute, two years; Oakland Military Academy, three years; Principal of Santa Cruz schools, one and a half years; teacher of natural science in Girls' High School, San Francisco, thirteen years; teacher in Normal School since January, 1889. Specialties, botany and geography. Married September, 1872. Two children." (ref. Astragalus rattanii, Chamaesyce ocellata ssp. rattanii, Collinsia rattanii, Leptosiphon rattanii, Mimulus rattanii, Penstemon rattanii, Phacelia rattanii)
  • ra'venii: after Peter Raven (1936- ), a leading botanist and environomentalist, advocate for the preservation of
      biodiversity and the global ecosystem, President Emeritus of the Missouri Botanical Garden and Director for the past 30 years, President of the American Association for theAdvancement of Science, Engelmann Professor of Botany at Washington University, co-editor of Flora of China, a joint Chinese-American project to describe all the plants of China, author of Origin and Relationships of the California Flora with Daniel Axelrod, Biology of Plants with Ray Evert and Susan Eichhorn, Native Shrubs of Southern California, Biology of Plants coauthored with Ray F.
    Evert and Susan E. Eichhorn, and Flora of the Santa Monica Mountains with Henry Thompson and Barry Prigge. He has also written many scientific and popular articles, especially on the family Onagraceae, and is well-known for his Butterflies and Plants: A Study in Coevolution, co-authored with Paul Ehrlich. Raven is typical of contemporary botanists who spend more time in laboratories and boardrooms than in the field, but his ambitious goal is to try to save some of the hundreds of thousands of plant species that he believes will disappear because of habitat loss. Raven was born in Shanghai, China to American parents. The jailing of his uncle and Japanese aggression against China caused the family to move back to the U.S. in the late 1930’s. He graduated with a BSc in biology from UC Berkeley in 1957 and a Ph.D. in botany from UCLA in 1960. He taught at Stanford and while there he and Paul Ehrlich coined the term coevolution to describe the process by which plants and their pollinators evolve in tandem, each developing traits and characteristics that allow them to utilize and benefit from the traits and characteristics of the other. He then became Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1971. The great significance of Peter Raven’s life work has been not to describe particular species or genera, but to study and analyze the evolution of plants and their relationships with pollinators, predators, and fungi, the hybridization of plants, endemism, and the biogeography of plants, in other words, the big picture of plants on earth. He has made immeasurable contributions to our understanding of the plant kingdom. Few other American botanists have been able to relate in such a knowledgeable fashion the flora of California and North America with that of other parts of the world. (ref. Arctostaphylos hookeri ssp. ravenii, Astragalus ravenii, Lomatium ravenii)
  • raven'nae: after the city of Ravenna which once served as the seat of the Roman Empire. (ref. Saccharum ravennae)
  • rawsonia'na/rawsonia'nus: after Lucy Adeline Briggs (Mrs. James Cole, Mrs. Julius Addison Rawson, Mrs. Thadeus Edgar Peckinpah, Mrs. James Knight Smallman) (1840-1920), an artist who lived in California and was known for her botanical studies, landscapes and portraits. Lucy was born in Middleboro, Massachusetts, 25 August, 1840. She married James Cole at New Bedford, Massachusetts, 6 March, 1860, Julius Addison Rawson (1825-1877) at San Francisco, 17 November, 1863, Thadeus Edgar Peckinpah (1849-1908), a native of Indiana, at San Francisco in 1886, and James Knight Smallman (1844-1934) at Napa, California, 7 April 1912. Her only child died from a congenital heart defect at age three days on 24 Oct. 1877 and her then husband, J.A. Rawson, died of pneumonia eight days later.  Lucy Briggs was born in Middleboro, Plymouth County, Massachusetts and was a lineal descendent of Miles Standish. She was an artist of some note in the Bay area and around Napa, and taught painting at Lynch’s Academy in Benicia. As a student of nature, she made a deep study of botany. She made a collection of paintings of California wildflowers that numbered over 300. She also took a great interest in photography. She discovered several new varieties that bear her name.  (ref. Collomia rawsoniana, Senecio rawsonianus)
  • ray'noldsii: after mapmaker William Frank Raynolds (1820-1894), explorer, engineer and Army officer whose career
      was spent in the topographic section of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and who explored the headwaters of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers with Jim Bridger in 1859-1860, mapping the country and collecting fossils. He was born in Canton, Ohio and entered West Point in 1839 at the age of 19, graduating with the class of 1843 along with Ulysses S. Grant. He almost immediately was assigned to the U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers. Among his first tasks was improving navigation on the Ohio River and surveying the northeastern boundary of the U.S. He
    served under Winfield Scott in the Mexican-American War. When the war ended, and American forces were occupying Mexican territory, Raynolds and others set out to map and explore nearby mountains. Raynolds's party is credited with being the first confirmed to climb to the summit of Pico de Orizaba which at 18,620 feet is the tallest mountain in Mexico and third tallest in North America. Raynold’s successful ascent was disputed by the Mexicans until an 1851 French expedition discovered an American flag on the summit with the year 1848 carved in the flagpole.  After resuming his survey of the northern border, he spent almost a decade checking out potential lighthouse locations along the shores of the Great Lakes and then along the Jersey coast and the Delmarva Peninsula. In 1859 he led an expedition along with Jim Bridger into the Yellowstone region of Montana and Wyoming, studying and mapping that area and assessing the navigability of rivers and tributaries, agricultural and mineral resources,  contacting native tribes. Because of his participation in the Civil War and a severe illness, research data and botanical specimens, as well as fossils and geological items that had been collected during the expedition, were sent to the Smithsonian Institution, but they and his report were not studied in detail until after the war. He was directly involved in a variety of capacities throughout the war, and afterwards supervised dredging and river navigability improvement projects on the Arkansas, Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, harbor dredging and construction projects. and extensive lighthouse building construction projects. He retired in 1844 after a 40-year military career, maintained good health and died in 1894, being interred in the town of his birth. (ref. Carex raynoldsii)
  • reb'mannii: after San Diego County botanist and plant taxonomist Jon Paul Rebman (1965- ),
    who has conducted extensive floristic research in Baja California and in San Diego and Imperial Counties. He has over 15 years of experience in the floristics of San Diego and Imperial Counties and 21 years experience studying the plants of the Baja California peninsula. His particular area of expertise is the Cactaceae of Baja Peninsula. He is the co-author of Checklist of the Vascular Plants of San Diego County, Baja California Plant Field Guide and is working on Ferns and Lycophytes of San Diego County with Annette Winner. He is Curator of Botany at the San Diego Natural History Museum. (ref. Pentagramma rebmannii)
  • rec'ta: see rectum/rectus below. (ref. Potentilla recta)
  • rectispi'na: with erect or ascending spines. (ref. Chorizanthe rectispina)
  • rectis'sima: very upright. (ref. Boechera rectissima)
  • rec'tum/rec'tus: upright. (ref. Eriogonum deflexum var. rectum)
  • recurva'ta/recurva'tum: curved backwards. (ref. Cryptantha recurvata, Pectocarya recurvata, Delphinium recurvatum)
  • recurvifo'lius: with recurved leaves. (ref. Calochortus clavatus ssp. recurvifolius)
  • recur'vus: bent over and downwards.
  • reddingia'num: after Benjamin Barnard Redding (1824-1882), sometimes spelled Reltding. The following is quoted
      from an entry on Redding in the online Virtual American Biographies: "Redding, Benjamin Barnard, pioneer, born in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, 17 January, 1824; died in San Francisco, California, 21 August, 1882. He was educated at Yarmouth Academy, and in 1840 went to Boston, where he became a clerk and afterward entered the grocery and ship-chandlery business. In 1849 he organized a company of men who sailed from Yarmouth for California, where they arrived on 12 May, 1850. He went to the Yuba River diggings, and afterward to the Pittsburg bar, working
    as a laborer. Subsequently he was employed in drawing papers for the sale of claims, acted as arbitrator, was elected a member of the assembly from Yuba and Sierra counties, and during the session wrote for the San Joaquin Republican and the Sacramento Democratic State Journal, of which he was an editor and proprietor. In 1856 he was Mayor of Sacramento, and from 1863 till 1867 he was Secretary of State. From 1864 until his death he was land agent of the Central Pacific railroad. Mr. Redding was a regent of the University of California, and a member of the California Academy of Sciences, and of the Geographical Society of the Pacific. He was also a state fish commissioner, holding this office at the time of his death. He was interested in all scientific work, especially in the paleontology of the coast, and collected numerous prehistoric and aboriginal relics, which he presented to the museum of the academy. He contributed a large number of papers to various California journals." (ref. Eriogonum spergulinum var. reddingianum) (Photo credit: Geni)
  • redivi'va/redivi'vus: from Latin redivivus, "restored, brought back to life," sometimes applied to rediscovered or resurrected species. (ref. Lewisia rediviva, Styrax redivivus)
  • red'olens: exuding fragrance, scented, aromatic, redolent. (ref. Acacia redolens, Dodecatheon redolens)
  • redow'skii: after Ivan Ivanovich Redovski (sometimes spelled Redowsky or Redovskii) (1774-1807), botanist, doctor, traveler, born in Lithuania of a German father and a Russian mother. He was schooled first at Memel in East Prussia, then studied botany and medicine at Leipzig and Konigsberg Universities. Upon completing his schooling, he taught in private houses and was competent in German, Latin, English, French, Italian and Spanish. He also played the violin, flute and piano.He settled in Moscow in 1799 where he was employed by Count Alexei Razumovski in his great botanical garden and library at Gorinka, near Moscow, for which he, Redovski, compiled a catalog of the plants including over 2800 species in the first edition and 3500 species in the second. He conducted extensive correspondence with the leading botanists and botanical gardens in Europe, received new books, seeds for the garden, and collected and systematized the herbarium. In 1805 he was appointed as naturalist to accompany an academic mission led by the Consul Count J.A. Golovkin and a diplomatic entourage to China to conduct talks with the Chinese on the determination of boundaries and trade and shipping on the Amur River. They went from Moscow to Irkutsk collecting plants, seeds, and roots for the Academy of Sciences. He surveyed the coast of Lake Baikal and reached Ulaanbaatar in January, 1806, but the Chinese refused them permission to proceed further and Golovkin turned back after being rebuffed. Redovski proceeded to collect plants in the Aldan Mountains, the Shantarsky Islands, Sakhalin, Kamchatka, and the Kuril Islands. His intention was to explore northeastern Siberia, Kamchatka, Shantar, the Aleutian and Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, and the eastern slope of the Yablonoviy Range, but he died in February, 1807. The cause of his death remains somewhat of a mystery. According to one source, he died of mercury poisoning, and according to another he drowned crossing a river. The best-known and most complete collection of Siberian plants gathered by Redovski is stored in the Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences as part of the collection of the German explorer Adelbert von Chamisso who bought Redovski’s collection during his round-the-world trip on the "Rurik" with Otto von Kotzebue. After Chamisso’s death the collection was aquired by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (ref. Lappula redowskii var. cupulata)
  • reduc'tum/reduc'tus: drawn back, reduced, made small. (ref. Chlorogalum purpureum var. reductum, Erigeron reductus)
  • reflex'a: bent sharply backwards. (ref. Drymocallis glandulosa var. reflexa, Mentzelia reflexa)
  • refrac'ta/refrac'tus: broken. (ref. Eremothera refracta, Wislizenia refracta, Pleuropogon refractus)
  • refugioen'sis: no doubt after a place name, for what I'm not sure as there is at least a Refugio Road, a Refugio Bay, and a Refugio Canyon in the Santa Ynez Valley where this taxon is reportedly located. (ref. Arctostaphylos refugioensis)
  • re'gelii/regel'ii: after Eduard August von Regel (1815-1892), Director of the botanic garden in St. Petersburg, Russia.
      He was trained as a gardener in Gotha, Göttingen, Bonn and Berlin, and was the head gardener at the botanical gardens in Zurich from 1842 -1855, also a lecturer at the university. He became the director of the botanical gardens in St. Petersburg in 1855. He was the founder of the Russian Horticulture Association and published the "Gartenflora". Numerous gardening publications and botanical works concerning a few plant groups (in particular Betulaceae, Allium) and the Central Asia flora are attributed to him. He was born in Gotha, Germany, and his career began at the age
    of 15 as an apprentice at the Royal Gardens there, then he worked for several years at the botanical gardens in Göttingen, Bonn and Berlin. Regel earned a degree from the University of Bonn. In 1842 he moved to Switzerland to become the head of the Old Botanical Garden, Zürich, and In 1855 moved to St. Petersburg, Russia, where he initially worked as a research director and later as senior botanist at the Imperial Botanical Garden. From 1875 until his death he served as the director of the Imperial Botanical Garden. He was an associate member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and published over 3000 articles in scientific journals. He described and named over 3000 plant species. (ref. Juncus regelii)
  • re'gia: royal. (ref. Juglans regia)
  • regi'nae: of the queen. (ref. Strelitzia reginae)
  • regiri'vum: from the area of the King's River in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Fresno. (ref. Eriogonum nudum var. regirivum)
  • regismonta'na: possibly of or from the area of King's Mountain which is near San Francisco where this taxon is reportedly located. (ref. Arctostaphylos regismontana)
  • reifschni'derae: after Olga Augusta Wuertz (Mrs. John C. Reifschneider) (1900-1978). She was born on a farm in
      Illinois and grew up and attended school in St. Louis, Missouri. She did not complete high school but married Jack Reifschneider and in 1920 moved to Ukiah, California. In 1929 they moved to Reno, Nevada, and opened an auto body shop. While there she pursued botany as a hobby. Quoted from the website of the Nevada Womens History Project: “Reifschneider took occasional college classes, but did not enroll full-time at UNR until 1944, the year her daughter Nita Reifschneider Spangler graduated with a journalism degree. The elder Reifschneider gained a bachelor’s degree
    in botany in 1949, and attended the Yosemite Field School for Ranger Naturalists that same year. While taking the Botany 1 course at the University of Nevada in 1946, she learned that very little was known about the earliest botanists in Nevada. She began keeping a list of people whose names appeared in Nevada plant genera and species. Through the years, the names grew into a collection of biographies. She performed some of her research at the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. Studies under prominent Nevada botanists such as William Dwight Billings, Philip A. Lehenbauer, and Ira La Rivers sparked her interest in the historical and biographical aspects of botany and eventually resulted in her book, Biographies of Nevada Botanists, published by the University of Nevada Press in 1965. The book has entries on 48 botanists, only five of whom were women — and she did not include herself. She pinpointed the specific year or years each person was directly involved with botanical work in Nevada and included a photograph if one was available. Although occupied as financial manager for her husband’s business until his retirement in 1968, Reifschneider maintained a second career as botanist and nature writer until her death in early 1978. Through contact with James R. Henrichs, Agnes (Scott Hume Train) Janssen, and W. Andrew Archer, who worked on the Nevada Indian Medicine Project in the 1930s and 1940s, she developed a lifelong interest in native medicinal plants. Reifschneider lectured and wrote articles on wildflowers, desert biology, and the environment, as well as Nevada history, petroglyphs, and Benjamin Franklin. In the field she was an avid plant collector and photographer. One small wildflower she collected near Pyramid Lake in 1956 was identified as a new species and given the name “Mimulus reifschneiderae.” Several of her articles were published in Nevada Parks and Highways magazine. Olga remained physically active most of her life. In 1974, she was swimming a mile every day. During a month-long vacation to Hawaii in 1976, she rode a mule down a 2,000 foot cliff on the island of Molokai. Her notes from the trip indicate the cliff trail was 3 ¼ miles long, with 26 switchbacks. Olga was a member of the Sierra Club, the Nevada State Historical Society, the Camera Club, the Nevada Horticultural Society, the National League of American Pen Women, the Nevada Corral/Westerners International, and the Order of Eastern Star. She was one of the original seventeen sponsors responsible for creating the Northern Nevada Native Plant Society in 1975 and retired from its Board of Directors in November 1977, a few months before her death. An oil painting of her by R. DeMorest is in Special Collections at UNR. (ref. Mimulus reifscneiderae) (Photo credit: Nevada Womens History Project)
  • Reinward'tia: after Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt (1773-1854), a professor and founder of the Bogor Botanic Garden, Java. (ref. genus Reinwardtia)
  • remis'sus: faint.
  • remotifo'lium: with scattered leaves. (ref. Cirsium remotifolium)
  • remo'tus: scattered. (ref. Pinus remotus)
  • renifor'me/renifor'mis: kidney-shaped, alluding to the leaves. (ref. Eriogonum reniforme, Synthyris reniformis)
  • repan'da/repan'dum: with slightly wavy margins. (ref. Boechera repanda)
  • re'pens: having creeping and rooting stems. (ref. Acroptilon repens, Berberis aquifolium var. repens, Dichondra repens, Ludwigia repens, Rhynchelytrum repens, Trifolium repens)
  • repos'tum: possibly meaning "remote" and given because its range is 'remote' from that of L. lucidum (??). (ref. Lomatium repostum)
  • rep'tans: see repens above. (ref. Draba reptans, Sidalcea reptans)
  • Rese'da: from the Latin resedare, "to assuage or calm," because of supposed sedative properties. (ref. genus Reseda)
  • resupina'tum: Stearn says "bent back, put on its back, applied to organs turned upside down by a twist in their support," and Harris and Harris say that resupinate means "upside down due to twisting of the pedicel." (ref. Trifolium resupinatum)
  • reticula'ta: net-veined. (ref. Celtis reticulata, Viguiera reticulata)
  • retino'des: I'm not sure about this one. The -odes suffix indicates resemblance or similarity, but I have found two possible meanings of the root retin. Three other genera whose names begin with "Retin-" (Retiniphyllum, Retinispora, and Retinodendron) are explained by Umberto Quattrocchi as being from the Greek rhetine, "resin," whereas the genus Retispatha (without an 'n') derives from rete or retis, "a net." Jaeger's Source-Book of Biological Names and Terms also gives for retin- a derivation from rhetine. However the Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms gives two meanings for retin-: (1) from the Latin rete/reti, "a net or network;" and (2) from the Greek for pine resin. The original description of Acacia retinodes is based on specimens without fruit or seeds, and seems to mention a netlike arangement of some of the veins of the phyllodes, so this is a possible explanation, however Acacia retinodes like other wattles also produces harvestable quantities of gum (resin), and another species, Shorea retinodes from Indonesia, also produces high quantities of a clear resin called damar mata kucing. Thus it would seem that this derivation is the likeliest one. Thanks to José Manual Sanchez of Spain whose communication to me suggesting this explanation prompted me to do a little further research. (ref. Acacia retinodes)
  • retroflex'a/retroflex'us: reflexed. (ref. Carex retroflexa, Alternanthera retroflexus, Amaranthus retroflexus)
  • retrofrac'ta: twisted back. (ref. Boechera retrofracta X)
  • retror'sa/retror'sum: reflexed or turned backwards. (ref. Agoseris retrorsa, Geranium retrorsum)
  • retu'sum/retu'sus: notched at the tip. (ref. Sedum obtusatum ssp. retusum, Trifolium retusum)
  • revolu'ta/revolu'tum: rolled back from the margin or apex, revolute. (ref. Chamaesyce revoluta, Erythronium revolutum)
  • Rhagadio'lus: "crevice-like" from the Greek rhagas or rhagados, "a fissure or crevice," a reference to the strongly folded inner phyllaries. (ref. genus Rhagadiolus)
  • rhamno'ides: resembling Rhamnus.
  • Rham'nus: an ancient Greek name for the buckthorn. (ref. genus Rhamnus)
  • rhizoma'ta: with rhizomes. (ref. Poa rhizomata, Sidalcea calycosa var. rhizomata)
  • Rhodio'la: a diminutive of the Greek rhodon, "rose," a name used by old herbalists referring to the rose-scented roots of the type species. (ref. genus Rhodiola)
  • Rhododen'dron: from the Greek rhodos, "rose," and dendron, "tree." (ref. genus Rhododendron)
  • rhodosper'ma: red-seeded. (ref. Plantago rhodosperma)
  • rhodotri'cha: red-haired.
  • rhoe'as: a Latin name for the common red poppy, probably from rho, "red." (ref. Papaver rhoeas)
  • rhombifo'lia: with diamond-shaped leaves. (ref. Alnus rhombifolia, Sida rhombifolia)
  • rhombipet'ala: with diamond-shaped petals. (ref. Eschscholzia rhombipetala)
  • rhomboid'ea: diamond-shaped. (ref. Clarkia rhomboidea)
  • rhothophi'lum: from the Greek rhothos, "a rushing or dashing noise," as of breakers and surf, or rothos, "a torrent," and -philum, in compound words signifying "love of, loving," hence meaning approximately "surf-loving" which is appropriate for this dunes plant. (ref. Cirsium rhothophilum)
  • Rhus: derived from rhous, an ancient Greek name for Sumac. (ref. genus Rhus)
  • Rhynchely'trum: from the Greek rhynchos, "horn, beak, snout," and elytron, "sheath, cover, scale, husk," referring to the beaked upper glume in some species. (ref. genus Rhynchelytrum)
  • Rhynchospo'ra: from the Greek rhynchos, "horn, beak, snout," and spora or sporos, "seed, spore," thus "beaked seed." (ref. genus Rhynchospora)
  • Ri'bes: from the Syrian or Kurdish ribas, which was derived from an old Persian word. (ref. genus Ribes)
  • richardson'ii: this name honors Sir John Richardson (1787-1865), a Scottish naturalist, meteorologist, doctor,
      cartographer and Arctic explorer.  According to David Hollombe, Geranium richardsonii was a replacement name for Geranium albiflorum Hooker, a species published in Sir William Jackson Hooker's major work, Flora boreali-americana, which came out in two volumes and twelve parts from 1829-1840.  Although the type specimen for G. albiflorum was collected by Thomas Drummnd, Richardson's collections were a major part of the book.  I found the following on Dr. Jim Endersby's excellent website on Joseph Dalton Hooker and is from Leonard Huxley's Life
    and Letters of JD Hooker:  "Sir John Richardson (knighted 1846) saw much active service as naval surgeon, 1807-15, then returned to Edinburgh and took his M.D., at the same time studying botany and mineralogy.  He was Naturalist to Sir John Franklin on two Arctic expeditions, 1819-22 and 1825-27.  [Only a handful of the original members of Sir John Franklin's first Arctic expedition returned.  John Richardson was one of them.  His journal recounts their journey across the Barren Grounds, providing many details not found in Franklin's own 1823 narrative and raising questions about Franklin's ability as a leader. Entitled Arctic Ordeal, The Journal of John Richardson, Surgeon-Naturalist with Franklin, 1820-1822, 'His journal made such an outstanding contribution to ornithology, ichthyology, botany, and geology that much of modern Arctic research is founded upon his observations.'  From McGill-Queen's University Press]  For ten years he was head of the Melville Hospital at Chatham, and from 1838 was physician to the Royal Hospital at Haslar, where young naval surgeons awaiting their gazetting to ships were under him.  Again, in 1848-9, he led the expedition in search of Franklin.  [Franklin's third Arctic expedition had begun in 1845 and it eventually became clear that it had been lost with no survivors.  Richardson could not find any remains of the expedition.  He wrote of this in his book Arctic Searching Expedition.] His second wife, m. 1833, d. 1845, was a niece of Franklin’s. In addition to his works on Polar Zoology and Travel, his special subject was Fishes."  Richardson made accurate surveys of more of the coastline of the Canadian Arctic than any other explorer.  On Franklin's second expedition, Richardson explored to the Coppermine River and Great Slave Lake. The Colorado rubber plant, Hymenoxys richardsonii, discovered by William Jackson Hooker, was named by him in Richardson's honor. His name is also on the Richardson's ground squirrel, Citellus richardsoni, a squirrel of the NorthWest which Richardson first discovered, and on the Richardson Mountains of Canada. Richardson was also the author of the Fauna boreali-americana published from 1829 to 1835, Icones Piscium (1843), the second edition of Yarrell's History of British Fishes (1860) and The Polar Regions (1861). He was an amazing person with eclectic interests in rocks, mammals, fish and plants.  (ref. Descurainia richardsonii, Geranium richardsonii, Potamogeton richardsonii)
  • richardson'is: see previous entry. (ref. Muhlenbergia richardsonis)
  • Ric'inus: so named because there is a Mediterranean sheep tick named Ricinus and the seeds of this family resemble a tick. (ref. genus Ricinus)
  • ri'gens: rigid, stiff. (ref. Muhlenbergia rigens)
  • rig'ida/rig'idum/rig'idus: rigid, referring to the stiff leaves. (ref. Chorizanthe rigida, Dendromecon rigida, Hilaria rigida, Rupertia [formerly Psoralea] rigida, Stachys rigida, Epilobium rigidum, Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. setigerus, Lotus rigidus, Nemacladus rigidus)
  • rigidis'sima: very rigid.
  • rigid'ulum: somewhat rigid. (ref. Panicum rigidulum)
  • Rigiopap'pus: from the Greek rigios, "stiffened," and pappos, "pappus." (ref. genus Rigiopappus)
  • rimico'la: from the Latin rima, "a fissure," and the -cola suffix indicating "a dweller of," this taxon's preferred habitat is granite crevices. (ref. Potentilla rimicola)
  • rin'gens: gaping, referring to the corolla. (ref. Mimulus ringens)
  • ripar'ia: of or growing near river banks.
  • rip'leyi: after Harry Dwight Dillon Ripley (1908-1973), linguist, plant collector, artist and author, a cousin of
      the long-time Smithsonian director, S. Dillon Ripley, born in London in 1908, began his plant collecting in Northern Africa and Spain in 1932 with his friend Rupert Barneby (see barnebyana), with whom he attended school at Harrow. The two men moved to Los Angeles, California in 1939 and travelled extensively in the western United States and Mexico, collecting plants for their garden and for herbaria. They moved to Wappingers Falls, New York in 1943, again establishing major gardens. Ripley wrote a greart deal about rock gardens and the plants he grew, was fluent
    in 15 languages and dialects and could read and write in 30, and was nearing completion at the time that he died of a work entitled Etymological Dictionary of Vernacular Plant Names, which is currently in the library of the New York Botanical Garden. Cymopteris ripleyi which he discovered in 1941 was one of the six species named for him. In 1962 they revisited Spain and Portugal and went back to Mexico to search for plants in 1964. He was also a respected artist and held a number of one-man shows at the Tibor de Nagy Art Gallery of which he was a major supporter. He and Barneby mixed in social circles that included such people as W.H. Auden, Christoper Isherwood and Aldous Huxley. His father died when he was just four. He was really more of a horticulturist than a botanist. He died at the age of 65, his health broken by alcohol. (ref. Cymopteris ripleyi, Gilia ripleyi) (Photo credit: New York Botanical Garden)
  • riva'lis: growing by streams. (ref. Potentilla rivalis)
  • rivular'is: growing by streams. (ref. Lupinus rivularis)
  • rix'fordii: after Gulian Pickering Rixford (1838-1930), botanist, collector and horticulturist among whose interests were the study of fruits like figs and persimmons, and whose collection resides at the California Academy of Sciences. Rixford was one of those courageous souls who helped Alice Eastwood save valuable botanical specimens by carrying them out of the Academy building after the 1906 earthquake.  "Gulian Pickering Rixford, Honorary Member of the California Avocado Association, ninth recipient of the Meyer Medal awarded by the American Genetic Association for distinguished service in plant introduction, and for over twenty years a faithful employee of and indefatigable worker for the United States Department of Agriculture, was fatally injured in a train accident at Los Altos on Oct. 27, 1930 at the age of ninety years. Mr. Rixford was born at East Highgate, Vermont, on Sep. 21, 1838. The family moved to Canada in 1850, where young Gulian received his education first at the Academy, Stanbridge East, Province of Quebec, and later at McGill University, Montreal.  He graduated in May, 1864, and soon after graduation married Caroline Corey.  As Provincial Land Surveyor, he worked for an engineering firm for two years, laying out a street railway in Quebec, a railroad from St. Johns, Province of Quebec, to Swanton, Vermont, and a bridge or two, said to be still in service.  In 1867, the Rixford family, including one son, migrated to California via the Isthmus of Nicaragua.  One other son and two daughters were born in California. After a short period of employment in a machine shop, Mr. Rixford accepted a position with the San Francisco Bulletin, serving for twelve years as commercial reporter and editor, and for nine years as business manager.  During this period his interest in horticulture prompted him to offer seeds and cuttings of plants rather than the usual trinkets as premiums for subscriptions to the newspaper.  The introduction of the Smyrna fig, in 1880, is an outstanding monument to his early horticultural achievements, although many other new plants and flowers now commonly grown were brought to California through his efforts.  Mr. Rixford retired from business in 1889, although for several years he was manager of the Inyo Marble Company.  For five years he served as Secretary of the California Academy of Science, and for many years has been a member of its Council. Owing to his active cooperation with horticulturists of the United States Department of Agrticulture, he received, in 1908, a position as Crop Physiologist in the Office of Crop Physiology and Breeding Investigations.  This enabled him to continue his fig studies as well as to carry on work with citrus fruits, pistachio nuts, avocados, passion fruits, dates, and various other subtropical fruits.  Reports of a survey and study of avocado variety adaptations in Central and Northern California were written for the California Avocado Association and the agricultural press during his ninetieth year."  (From An Appreciation in the California Avocado Association Yearbook 1930). (ref. Eriogonum rixfordii, Scopulophila rixfordii)
  • rob'binsii: after physician and amateur botanist James Watson Robbins (1801-1879). He was born in Colebrook, Connecticut, and received his undergraduate and doctoral degrees from Yale, graduating in 1822, and teaching school in Connecticut and Virginia and for several years, while at the same time collecting plants in New England, Virginia, Maryland and near Lake Superior. In 1824 he served as a private tutor in Pamunkey, Maryland at the home of Congressman William Brent of Louisiana, and then was at a school in Gordonsville, Virginia, where he included among his students the future General Robert E. Lee. In 1825 he returned to New Haven and studied medicine, graduating in 1828 from Yale Medical School where he came under the influence of Professor Eli Ives. He spent six months of the following year in a botanical exploration of the New England states. He settled in Uxbridge, Massachusetts where he practiced medicine for 30 years all the while being devoted to botany. In 1859 he accepted an appointment as physician and surgeon of several copper mining companies near Portage Lake, Lake Superior, Michigan. Wikipedia says: “During his professional life he had devoted himself largely to botany, gathering a valuable library, second, it is believed, to no private botanical library in the country; and in the four years of his residence near Lake Superior, he made extensive botanical researches, and these were followed by a tour in 1863-4 down the Mississippi to Texas and Cuba, which resulted in very valuable collections. He then returned to Uxbridge, where he spent the remainder of his life, mostly retired from medical practice and devoting his leisure to his favorite pursuit. He died there, January 10, 1879, in his 78th year, of a disease of the kidneys, caused by the presence of trichinae. He was unmarried.” Near the end of his life he mainly focused on the study of "aquatic phaenogamous plants," especially the genus Potamogeton. He was the first to describe Potamogeton robbinsii and toward the end of his life he was engaged in a systematic study of a large collection of California flora. He was the author of Potamogetons of California. (ref. Potamogeton robbinsii)
  • robertia'num: derives from the medieval Latin name herba roberti or herb robert (Geranium robertianum) probably
      after Robertus (Saint Robert de Turlande) (c.1000-1067), a French ecclesiastic and monk who was the founder of the Carthusians and died in 1067. He is best known for the establishment of the Benedictine convent of La Chaise-Dieu ('Home of God') and for his total commitment to the poor. Quoted from Wikipedia: “Robert's education was overseen at the Church of Saint-Julien in Brioude where he later became its canon after he was ordained to the priesthood in 1026 - it was there that he founded a hospice for the poor of the region. He later became a monk at Cluny and
    placed himself under the direction of Saint Odilo. He travelled to Rome and later Monte Cassino in the Papal States to educate himself in the rule of Saint Benedict of Nursia who established the Benedictines. On 28 December 1043 - with the knights Stephen Chaliers and Dalmas - he travelled to a vacant area of land around a ruined chapel that was to become his future Benedictine convent. In 1046 he and two of his companions received the permission of Pope Gregory VI to establish a hermitage and embark on a life of commitment to the poor. It was Gregory VI who suggested that the trio consider the contemplative life as a greater method of achieving their aim of providing for the poor; this prompted him to move to Auvergne. He has been credited to the construction and the restoration of around a total of 50 churches in his region. Around 1049 he had amassed numerous followers to the extent that he had to use donations from the faithful given to him to construct a new Benedictine convent; construction began in 1049 and concluded in 1050. The convent received the endorsement of the Bishop of Clermont before he set out for monarchial approval. He approached King Henry I and requested that he promulgate a decree that provided protection and approval to the new convent. Robert de Turlande died on 17 April 1067 and his funeral was set on 24 April due to the large numbers of people who desired visiting his remains. Hundreds of miracles were reported to have been performed due to his intercession which started a local 'cultus' to him. He was interred in his own convent though most of his relics were burnt due to the Huguenots. There were 300 monks at the convent at the time of his death. On 19 September 1531 he was proclaimed a saint in a celebration that Pope Clement VI presided over in Avignon while the papal see was stationed there. Robert served as a spiritual inspiration to the pontiff who himself desired to be interred at La Chaise-Dieu after his own death in 1532. The pope had started his religious career there as a monk.” Other sources have suggested that the name relates to [St.?] Rupert, Archbishop of Salszburg who died 717, Robert, Duke of Normandy (died 1134), or the French monk St. Robert of Molesme (died in 1110). (ref. Geranium robertianum)
  • Robin'ia: named for Jean Robin (1550-1629) of Paris, French botanist, herbalist, gardener to Henri IV and Louis
      XIII, curator of the botanical garden of the Paris Faculty of Medicine who first cultivated the locust tree in Europe in the 16th century after receiving plants from Canada. His son, Jean Robin, Jr., also called Vespasien, (1579-1662) was appointed a lecturer in what would become the Jardin Royal des Plantes, travelled abroad to collect plants, and added significantly to the Paris gardens. Robin Sr. had constructed a private garden at the downstream end of the Île de la Cité in Paris which contained rare plants from the Orient, Africa, the West Indies and some from North and
    South America. He carried on an exchange of plants, sending specimens to John Gerard and John Tradescant the Elder in England and Gaspard Bauhin in Switzerland, and receiving Virginia plants from England. He published a number of works including Catalogue of plants local or exotic cultivated in Paris in 1601, The garden of the good christian King Henry IV in 1608 and The garden of King Louis XIII in 1623. The Encyclopedia Britannica says that the best known species of Robinia, pseudoacacia, was introduced into Europe at the Jardin du Roi at Paris in 1636. Henry IV's queen personally visited Robin's garden on the Île de la Cité and promoted flower painting and flower embroidery as well as gardening. The genus Robinia was originally named in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. (ref. genus Robinia)
  • robinson'ii: after Benjamin Lincoln Robinson (1864-1935), American botanist. The following is quoted from the
      Archives of the Gray Herbarium at Harvard: "Benjamin Lincoln Robinson was born on Nov.8, 1864, in Bloomington, Ill., the youngest of eight children. He received his early education at home and then attended public schools and Illinois Normal School. He entered Williams College in 1883, but was dissatisfied with the school and left after three months. The following fall he entered Harvard, graduating in 1887. Shortly after graduation he married Margaret Louise Casson, and they traveled to Europe together in the summer of 1887. They settled in Strassburg, where
    Robinson began graduate studies in Oct. 1887. Robinson received his Ph.D. in Strassburg in 1889 and in 1890 returned to Cambridge, where he became Sereno Watson's assistant at the Gray Herbarium. Upon the death of Watson in 1892, Robinson took over as curator, a post he retained for most of his life. After becoming curator, much of Robinson's energies were directed toward completing work begun by his predecessors and toward improving the physical plant of the herbarium. Robinson took up Watson's work on Gray's Synoptical Flora of North America and had the first two fascicles published in 1895 and 1897, respectively. He continued to work for a while on a third fascicle, but it was never published. With the collaboration of Merritt Lyndon Fernald, Robinson prepared a revised edition of Gray's Manual, which was published in 1908. From about 1900 to 1909 Robinson tried to have a new herbarium building constructed in the general location of the current herbarium; eventually he settled for reconstructing the building at the Botanic Garden. Robinson did much of the design work himself, and the rebuilding took place from 1909-1915. Robinson's main personal research interest was the Eupatorium tribe of the Compositae. Robinson worked on a treatment of the Eupatoriums for Engler's Pflanzenreich, possibly in response to a Dec. 5, 1904, letter from Engler (see Gray Herbarium, Administrative Correspondence File under Engler) requesting a "Tüchtigen Systematiker" at Harvard to work on Eupatorium. The work was never published, as either Robinson or Engler decided that more work had to be done on certain areas of Eupatorium before a satisfactory treatment could be prepared, and monographing Eupatoriums dominated Robinson's research for the rest of his life. Earlier research work included a Flora of the Galapagos Islands, published in 1902, based on the collections of the Hopkins-Standford Expedition. Robinson made a collection trip to Newfoundland in 1894 and collected plants near his summer home in Jaffrey, N.H., but otherwise did not do much collecting. Although he was appointed Asa Gray Professor in 1899, Robinson was not active in teaching. Robinson was involved in a number of scientific organizations, was a founding member of the New England Botanic Club, and served as editor of Rhodora for many years. He took an active role in the discussions of nomenclature that were being carried out in the International Botanical Congresses, and he participated in at least two Congresses that took place in Europe (1905 in Vienna, 1910 in Brussels). He traveled to Europe a half-dozen times, visiting herbaria, making notes and taking photos of specimens, especially of Eupatorium. Robinson spent the last few years of his life in poor health and died on July 27, 1935, at Jaffrey, N.H." (ref. Lepidium virginicum var. robinsonii)
  • robison'ii: after botanist and geographer William Condit Robison (1914-1992). Thanks to David Hollombe for the following: "A.B. botany UCLA 1936; M.A. geography Berkeley, 1949; PhD geography, Boston U., 1960; Geographer Quartermaster Corps, U.S. Army, 1951-1962; lecturer in geography, University of New England, Australia 1962-1964; Supervisory geography U.S. Army Natick Labs 1964-1971; Supervisory Geography chief of Geosystems Branch U.S. Army topography labs 1971-; researcher on conservation policy & effects of human activity on vegetation. Collected with Epling and others while at UCLA." He was the author in 1949 of Historical Geography of the Santa Cruz Mountain Redwoods. (ref. Monardella robisonii)
  • robus'ta/robus'tum: stout or strong in growth. (ref. Camissoniopsis robusta, Grindelia robusta, Sidalcea robusta, Verbena robusta)
  • robus'tior: I can only assume that this name has something to do with a quality of being robust, and if the meanings of brevior as "shorter" and latior as "broader" are correct, this would then mean "more robust."
  • robus'tius: robust. (ref. Eriogonum hoffmannii var. robustius)
  • roderick'ii: after California botanist and horticulturist Wayne Vernon Roderick (1920-2003), who specialized in bulbs, corms and tubers. He got his start at his childhood home of Petaluma by emulating his florist mother and chicken farmer father both of whom were avid gardeners. According to an article by the National Park Service on the Fleming Garden in Berkeley, one of the oldest, largest, and finest privately-owned native plant gardens in California, he “had his first garden by the age of 5, his first rock garden by 16, and his first strains of flowering perennials by 18. In high school, he collected a schoolrecord number of wild flowers for a class project and studied Jepson's Manual of the Flowering Plants of California on his own. Roderick‟s first semester of botany, taught by Milo Baker at Santa Rosa Junior College, was cut short by the bombing of Pearl Harbor. He served as an Army cook in Hawaii 1941-43, and visited gardens while there. He was sent home to convalesce in a tent on the family farm when he contracted tuberculosis, and then worked about 18 months as a fireman at the Army's Two Rock Ranch Signal Intercept Station (now known as the Coast Guard Training Center in Petaluma). After World War II, he and his father ran Roderick family nursery 1945-59, until the death of his father.” As senior nurseryman, he built and managed the California native plant collection of the Botanical Garden at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1960 to 1976. Then he became director of the Regional Parks Botanical Garden, a position which he held until he retired in 1982. The following is quoted from a memorium article by Ron Lutsko in the October, 2003, issue of Fremontia: "He was an insatiable plant adventurer, beginning each year with trips to Mexico and deserts of the southern U.S., then progressing up in latitude and altitude as the season drew on. By October or November he had collected enough seed and dried plant materials to put out his internationally distributed seed list and to provide local institutions with educational and ornamental material. He frequented England, Greece and Turkey. He has also visited China, the Middle East, most of the Mediterranean basin, South Africa, Costa Rica, Chile, Mexico, and of course most of the U.S., particularly the west. He knew the British and American botanical institutions intimately and was active in many horticultural societies and groups throughout the world." He was Director of CNPS from 1967 to 1975.  He was also a member of the (British) Alpine Garden Society, the western chapter of the American Rock Garden Society, the Association of Arboreta and Botanic Gardens, the Board of the Ruth Bancroft Garden, the Horticulture Committee for The Jepson Manual, Heather Farms, the Pacific Horticulture Foundation, and the San Francisco Businessmen's Garden Club. He was co-author of Wild Lilies, Irises, and Grasses: Gardening with California Monocots. (ref. Ceanothus roderickii)
  • roez'lii: after Benedikt (also called Benito) Roezl (1824-1885), a Bohemian Czech born in Prague who collected
      in Mexico and South America, and travelled extensively in the U.S. The following is quoted from an article by Ruth Ann Moger in Canadian Orchid Congress Newsletter (9:2): "Roezl was the son of a Czech gardener, and apprenticed, at the age of twelve, in the gardens of the Count of Thun in Bohemia. He subsequently worked in several important continental gardens, including those of Baron von Hugel at Vienna and Count Liechtenstein in Moravia, and the famous nursery of Van Houtte at Ghent. In 1854 he emigrated to Mexico, where he founded a nursery and issued a
    catalogue of the Mexican conifers he had for sale. In 1861 he introduced the cultivation of the Rame (Boehmeria tenacissima) as a textile plant. When he was forty-four years old he lost his left arm in an accident with a machine he had invented to extract fibers from plants. He then started his life of a plant collector working for Henry Sander of St. Albans in England. Roezl traveled Central America and the west coast of North America; he sent home 10,000 orchids from Panama and Colombia in 1869. The rare Telepogon orchids that he collected at 11,000 feet died as soon as they were brought down to warmer levels, but he sent 3,000 Odontoglossums to Europe. He combed the Sierra Madre for orchids, 3,500 of which reached London in fine condition. He went across the Isthmus of Panama to Guayra and Caracas and sent eight tons of orchids and ten tons of other plants back to London. In Mexico, in the vicinity of the volcano of Colina, the Indians learned that Roezl would pay for orchids and they brought him 100,000 plants. (If parts of Mexico are desert and devoid of vegetation, is it because Roezl was there?) In 1871, Roezl brought back to England dried specimens of Dracula chimaera which he had collected in Columbia. When the German Professor Reichenbach introduced Dracula chimaera to Victorian horticulture, he described the flowers as a marvel that had lurked for thousands of years unseen in solitude. Live plants proved a challenge during transportation. Its is frightening to think how many draculas and other fragile orchids succumbed. Even though there is evidence that the plants seem to have been recognised as delicate and treated with more care, the vast majority still perished during the long journey from their homeland. Of 27,000 plants dispatched by Roezl in a consignment from New Granada (in present day Columbia), just two plants survived the long and disastrous journey to England. In 1874 Roezl returned to Europe and spent the rest of his life living off his modest fortune at Smichow near Prague." He visited California in 1869-70, 1872, 1874 and 1875. He collected in the Alleghany, Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains, the Columbia River basin, and in Utah and Nevada. He went to San Francisco and then made a southern trip to San Diego the purpose of which was to collect Delphinium cardinale, and he sent to Europe 2,000 roots of what he supposed to be that species, but when they grew and flowered turned out to be one of the blue larkspurs, probably parryi. He also collected Yucca schidigera and Hesperoyucca whipplei. He did not seem to like to stay in one area for too long and travelled around and back and forth continuously, collecting amazing numbers of plants and seeds, and sending thousands of plants to Europe. He discovered and published with his contemporary and colleague Maximilian Leichtlinii the name Lilium humboldtii. He was a fantastically prodigious collector, one time collecting 2,000 bulbs of Lilium washingtonianum and 150 kg of Pinus lambertiana seeds. Orchids were his main love and he collected tens of thousands of specimens of many different species. Many specimens were lost either due to frost or heat, and he was supposedly robbed 17 times. (Wikipedia; Botanical Gazette, Dec. 1909; Scientific American, supplement, Dec. 1885). (ref. Ribes roezlii)
  • rol'lei: after Wayne E. Rolle (1951- ), graduate of Southern Oregon State University in 1986 and a Forest Botanist for the Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon beginning in 1988. (ref. Arabis rollei)
  • Romanzof'fia:after Count Nikolay Petrovich Rumyantsev (formerly Nikolai Petrovich Romanzoff) (1754-1826),
      Chancellor of the Russian Empire, and sponsor of the second Russian Pacific expedition which rounded Cape Horn and visited Chile, Easter Island, the Marshall Islands, Hawaii, and the North American coast, making an unsuccessful search for a northwest passage. The expedition was particularly significant for producing descriptions of Alaska and California (including the first scientific account of the California state flower, the California poppy. He was born in St. Petersburg the son of field marshal Pyotr Aleksandrovich Rumyantsev. The Encyclopedia
    Britannica says the following: “Under Emperor Paul I, Nikolay became a senator; under Alexander I, he was director of water communications (1801–09), minister of commerce (1802–11), and president of the state council (from 1810). In diplomatic affairs he served Russia as envoy to the elector of the Rhenish Palatinate (1781–95) and to the German Diet (appointed 1799). As foreign minister (appointed 1808), he worked for closer relations with France; he was so dismayed by Napoleon I’s invasion of Russia (1812) that he suffered an apoplectic stroke and lost his hearing. Subsequently, his influence in the government declined, and he retired in 1814. The Rumyantsev Museum was founded in 1831, five years after his death.” And Wikipedia adds: “During the years of his foreign service, Nikolay Petrovich amassed a huge collection of historical documents, rare coins, maps, manuscripts, and incunabula which formed a nucleus of the Rumyantsev Museum in Moscow (subsequently transformed into the State Russian Library). Showing a keen interest in Russian history, Rumyantsev produced the first printed publications of several old Russian chronicles and ancient literary monuments of the Eastern Slavs. He presided over a circle of young antiquaries (such as Pavel Stroev and Ivan Snegirev) that later drifted into the Slavophile camp. (ref. genus Romanzoffia)
  • romanzoffia'na: see previous entry. (ref. Spiranthes romanzoffiana, Syagrus romanzoffiana)
  • Rom'neya: after Dr. John Thomas Romney Robinson (1792-1882), prominent Irish astronomer and physicist. The
      namer of the plant Romneya coulteri, the Matilija poppy, William Henry Harvey, wished originally to name it for Dr. Thomas Coulter (see coulteri) who first collected it, but the name Coulteria was an already established genus, so he decided to honor him instead by selecting the name of his great friend and fellow Irishman Robinson for the genus, and that of Dr. Coulter for the species, and in so doing to link their names forever. Robinson and Coulter had met and become friends while at Trinity. Robinson was born in Dublin the son of an English portrait painter, and his family shortly
    after moved to Dromore in County Down, Northern Ireland, then to Lisburn, and finally to Belfast.  He showed an early appreciation for music and for poetry, having a volume of poems published when he was only 13. He was schooled at Belfast Academy then studied divinity at Trinity College, Dublin, graduating in 1810 and obtaining a fellowship in 1814 at the age of 21. He took holy orders as an anglican priest while at Trinity and became rector of Enniskillen and then of Carrickmacross. He was for some years a deputy professor of natural philosophy (physics) at Trinity. In 1823 he secured an appointment as astronomer in charge at the Armagh Observatory and lived there for the remainder of his life. From 1851 to 1856 he was President of the Royal Irish Academy and helped to organize the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Astronomy occupied the bulk of his attention and he compiled a catalog of well over 5000 stars, but his contributions in the fields of science and mechanics included anemometers, pendulum clocks, the determination of longitude, the conductivity of metal, rain guages, meteorology, electricity, magnetism, turbines, air-pumps, gasometers, fog signals. captive balloons and the theories and properties of light. He married twice and had at least one daughter. He was a prolific author and died in Armagh at the age of 89. (ref. genus Romneya)
  • Romule'a/Romu'lea: after Romulus, the legendary founder and first king of Rome in legend. Wikipedia says: “Various
      traditions attribute the establishment of many of Rome's oldest legal, political, religious, and social institutions to Romulus and his contemporaries. Although many of these traditions incorporate elements of folklore, and it is unclear to what extent a historical figure underlies the mythical Romulus, the events and institutions ascribed to him were central to the narrative of Rome's origins and cultural traditions. The myths concerning Romulus involve several distinct episodes and figures: the miraculous birth and youth of Romulus and his twin brother, Remus; Remus'
    murder and the founding of Rome; the Rape of the Sabine Women; the war with the Sabines; Titus Tatius; the establishment of Roman institutions; and the death or apotheosis of Romulus, and succession of Numa Pompilius. Romulus is said to have disappeared in a whirlwind during a sudden and violent storm, as he was reviewing his troops on the Campus Martius. There were rumours that he had been murdered by the nobles, and that his body had been secretly dismembered and buried by them on their estates. However, a certain Proculus Julius claimed to have seen him ascending to the heavens as a god.” Romulus was said to live sometime in the mid- to late-8th century BC. The genus Romulea was published by Giovanni Francesco Maratti in 1772 and I have no idea why it should have been so named, except that the type species of Romulea, bulbocodium, is common around Rome. (ref. genus Romulea)
  • roof'ii: after James Bernard Roof (1910-1983), founding director of the native plant garden in Tilden Park in the hills behind Berkeley. The following is quoted from an obituary by Alice Howard in Fremontia volume 11 No. 1, April 1983: "With the death of James B. Roof in early January, California lost the last of its pioneering native plant horticulturists and the California Native Plant Society lost a dedicated native plant conservationist. Born four years after the San Francisco earthquake in a refugee's shack, Jim grew up in the southwest part of San Francisco amidst what was in those days mostly open country. He was early aware of native plants near his home; he remembered being impressed at the age of five or six by a big madrone not far away. He reveled in the fields of spring wildflowers through which he waded to play around Lake Merced. His first experience with transplanting seedlings came at the age of ten or eleven when he dug up volunteers of Monterey cypress growing along a flume going to the lake. Interest in learning names of trees and shrubs started at age twelve while Jim was on a family trip to the Rockies and the Grand Canyon. His father, a master carpenter who had come to San Francisco to help rebuild it, got him a book to help, but no one in the family really shared Jim's horticultural and botanical enthusiasm. His family endeavored to discourage him by dwelling on the lack of jobs in that field. When barely in his teens, Jim and friends were distracted from their studies in school by views of Mt. Tamalpais through the windows. They often "played hookey" to go there unbeknownst to their parents. When the Great Depression caused him to lose his outside-of-school job with the San Francisco Examiner (about the time he finished high school and other jobs were not to be had), Jim joined the many others who fled to Mt. Tamalpais as a place to live off the country during hard times. The mountain dwellers banded into small groups with common interests; Jim fell in with actors and others of literary-theatrical interests. Whether his life-long interest in the performing arts stemmed from this exposure or whether he chose that group because he already had the interest is not certain. But he was an aficionado of the theater, opera, and ballet and a supporter of the annual mountain play on Tamalpais in his later years. Eventually, during this period, he repaired to Point Reyes, for the sea proved a more bountiful supplier of provender than the land as greater numbers of people competed for sustenance. The special place Tamalpais and the Point Reyes Peninsula had in Jim's heart deriving from the years in Marin County was apparent to all who knew him. In the early 1930s peregrinations in search of a little occasional cash to purchase necessities beyond the bounties of forest and sea led Jim to the Binkley Ranch in Lake County, where the warm-hearted Binkley family took him in, commencing a life-time friendship. Later he got a job as a forester with the Marin Water District helping plant trees on watershed lands, an activity he later rued as he grew aware of the destruction such artificial afforestation brought to native grasslands and their wild-flowers. Plantations of Monterey cypress, Monterey pines, and eucalyptus were the object of his scorn in later years, as was the propensity of state and federal government to cover coastal dunes with aggressive South African iceplant. His developing horticultural skills brought him to the attention of Charles Kraebel, who hired him to work at the nursery of the U.S. Forest Service's California Forest and Range Experiment Station in Berkeley. He was the propagator in studies on seed germination that expanded into the erosion control work that gave employment to many plant hunters and other workers during the Depression and the days of the WPA and CCC. The plant hunters, sometimes including Jim, brought seeds and other propagative material to the nursery, where Jim germinated the seeds and grew the plants, eventually becoming superintendent. Aided by sharp observational powers and keen analytical skills, he honed his horticultural talents and botanical interests in the company of Rimo Bacigalupi, Kraebel, Howard McMinn, Nicholas Mirov, Maunsell van Rennselaer, Lester Rowntree, and others. Eager for knowledge, he also started attending botany classes at the University of California at this time. It was McMinn, professor of botany at Mills College in Oakland and author of the Illustrated Manual of California Shrubs, who pressed for a native-plant botanic garden in the northern part of the state to complement the ones at Rancho Santa Ana and Santa Barbara in the south. He prevailed upon Roof, the Forest Service, and the East Bay Regional Park District to join forces to turn the outstanding collection of plants in the Forest Service's nursery into the nucleus of the Regional Parks Botanic Garden. Important support for the idea came from early park district directors August Vollmer, former Berkeley police chief and pioneer criminologist at the University of California, and Aurelia Reinhardt, president of Mills College. Harry Shepherd, professor in UC's School of Landscape Design, also gave important support. Building the garden began on January 1, 1940, together with much landscape planting in the parks outside the area of the garden, and often involved large crews of CCC and WPA workers. The Strybing Arboretum in San Francisco also benefited by receiving Forest Service plants. With some time out for landscaping gun emplacements around the headlands of San Francisco Bay to camouflage the sites as World War II approached, things proceeded rapidly until mid-1942, when Roof was drafted to see service with the Army Corps of Engineers in the European theater. Lack of labor to care for the young garden during the war years meant almost beginning anew in early 1946. Roof returned to a jungle of weeds, poison oak, willows, and waist-high grasses. With little regular help, let alone large crews from the CCC or WPA, he started right in to reclaim the garden. It was at this time that he initiated landscaping in geographic provinces. By 1952 things were well enough under control that it was possible to begin regular field collecting trips. Roof early began to emphasize rarities, complete representation of particular plant groups, and choice forms with horticultural possibilities. However, he never lost sight of the fact that he had a California native plant botanic garden; it was not his purpose to create or facilitate through hybridization forms not occurring in nature. He denied any special affinity for manzanitas, the group most closely associated with his name, saying only that he needed to understand them in order to identify them accurately. Eventually he had in cultivation sixty-six of the sixty-nine taxonomically recognized kinds in California and several from beyond its borders. Watching for areas scheduled for development was an important part of Jim's "rescue" trips for rare plants and forms in order to bring them into cultivation prior to their extirpation in the wild. Perhaps the first of these was Arctostaphylos franciscana (A. uva-ursi var. franciscana), which he took from the Laurel Hill cemetery in the late 1930s as it was being converted to residences. The Franciscan manzanita now exists only in cultivation. Similarly he brought into cultivation Oenothera deltoides subsp. howellii and Erysimum capitatum var. augustatum from the Antioch Dunes in the late 1960s as their last remnants were being trucked away, Clarkia franciscana and Arctostaphylos pungens var. ravenii from the San Francisco Presidio, Lilium pitkinense from the Pitkin Marsh, and Mahonia sonnet from the banks of the Truckee, among others. A number of plants from the Regional Parks Botanic Garden selected from the wild by Jim were the source of material introduced to the commercial trade by others and erroneously credited to them. Jim himself especially liked Ceanothus porrectus, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. leobreweri (now extinct in the wild), A. uva-ursi var. repens, and Eriogonum ursinum. He was the first to find the key to growing at low elevations such high mountain plants as Phyllodoce breweri, Cassiope mertensiana, Kalmia polifolia var. microphylla, dwarf willows, Aquilegia pubescens, and some of the pines, such as bristle-cone, whitebark, and limber. The Sierran meadow he created in the Botanic Garden, complete with quaking aspen, which was not supposed to do well at low elevations, was featured in sketches in the chapter on native plants in early editions of the Sunset Western Garden Book. He wrote on native plants in articles in Leaflets of Western Botany, The Four Seasons and The Changing Seasons, the Journal of the California Horticultural Society, and periodicals of CNPS. Jim's Guide to the Plant Species of the Regional Parks Botanic Garden was much more than a checklist of the species to be found there. Occasional inclusion of the human stories associated with many of the plantings made it also pleasurable to read. It is regrettable that Jim was never able to revise it to add the many acquisitions, some of great significance, between 1959 and his retirement as director of the Garden in 1976. Never one to shrink from controversy and always independent in thought and action, Jim, as the result of careful observation, was preaching the benefits of prescribed burning years before it began to compete with the Forest Service's long-standing Smokey-Bear philosophy of fire suppression. One learned much from hearing him hold forth on the philosophical differences between parks and recreation and the consequences of recent tendencies to confuse the two. The California Native Plant Society benefited from Jim's knowledge from its inception in 1965 as an out­growth of an effort to defend the Regional Parks Botanic Garden from a non-supportive new administration. He served on the statewide board several terms as vice president, was a director for many years, and continued to be horticultural advisor up to his death. He served two terms as president of the San Francisco Bay Chapter and, sponsored by the Marin Chapter, was named a fellow of the Society in 1976. He also played a key role in passage of the state's endangered plant law. It was a remark of his that made me seek out Senator John Nejedly to sponsor the legislation. Without Senator Nejedly's legislative skills and influence, the struggle for the bill would surely have been a much longer and harder one. A person of complete integrity and the courage of his convictions, Jim was also an outstanding raconteur with something approaching total recall of the events of a varied and interesting life. It is most unfortunate that he and I were not able to complete the oral history taping we had begun when he learned of his final adversary. We turned instead to an effort once again to save native plants - preparation of recovery plans for the Presidio manzanita and the Truckee mahonia for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Endangered Species Program. Jim was a genius in his field, though he would have said he was only doing what careful observation of the plants in their native habitat told him to do. We are not likely to see another like him. Tax-deductible contributions in his memory may be sent to Western States Legal Foundation, 506 15th Street, Oakland 94612, earmarked for defense of San Bruno Mountain, another endangered enclave close to Jim's heart." (ref. Arctostaphylos manzanita ssp. roofii)
  • roosior'um: after Dr. Alfred Raphael Roos (1889-1980), his son Dr. John Christian Roos (1918-2008) and Lucille J. Parks Roos (Mrs. John Christian Roos) (1922- ). From an article in the L.A. Times 10/13/1980 entitled "Doctor Wore Out Two Cars Seeking Causes of Allergies": "In another time and another place, Alfred Roos might have accepted chickens and eggs for his medical services in the great country-doctor tradition. He didn't, however, because chickens in the early 1920s in Southern California were rapidly being displaced by homes and factories. What Dr. Roos did do was donate tens of thousands of hours and what could have been millions of dollars in income to fighting allergies in children. Hailed by his colleagues at a 1955 tribute as a 'giant of goodness.' the devout Seventh-day Adventist continued nearly to the time of his death Oct. 6 at age 91 to give of his services. Interviewed in 1970 when he was 'only' 81, Roos talked of the years he had spent at California and White Memorial Hospitals, where a memorial service will be held for him today. Roos came relatively late to medicine. He entered Loma Linda University School of Medicine in 1913, when he was24. Earlier he had 'taught botany and it was that avocation which moved him to become one of the first men in medicine to pursue a link between pollens and allergies.' After reading a textbook on bacteriology and immunology, he began to theorize that pollen extracts could be used to protect people with allergies. That hypothesis was to take him across the United States to collect pollens from which he distilled his own extracts. He tested those extracts by pricking the top layer of skin on a patient's arm to see what reactions developed. If a slight swelling showed, Roos then knew that the patient was allergic to grass or bark or pollen. The next step was treatment with dilutions of the extract to build an immunity. Fifteen years, two cars and 150,000 miles later Roos had finished his basic research in which he made more than 100,000 skin tests. Out of his work grew the allergy clinic at White Memorial which he founded and where he even lived in the later years of his life, continuing his volunteer efforts for community children. Allergies, he told an interviewer, remained an elusive target throughtout his life. He liked to tell of the 'brain tumor' victim referred to him by doctors who had made a diagnosis but couldn't locate her tumor. Roos found it was the grass and desert pollens near her home that made her blind and mute for days at a time, not the hypothetical tumor that had been diagnosed. Roos saw young asthmatic victims grow to become track stars through his treatments and more than four decades ago was one of the first scientists to determine that non-smokers in close proximity to smokers could also suffer respiratory ailments. At 6-foot, 4-inches Roos was an imposing figure who until a few years ago was still working 50 and 60 hours, six days a week. 'I have not yet become accustomed to the 40-hour week,' he said then. Besides, he said, 'I never think of the time. The work is so rewarding.'" He was also a member of the Samuel B. Parish Botanical Society of Southern California and author of a book on a botanical survey of Southern California showing the distribution of plants of allergic importance and their extensions throughout the Pacific Southwest, 1938." John Christian Roos was born in Los Angeles and got his B.A. at Pacific Union College in 1941 and his M.D. in 1944 at the College of Medical Evangelists (later to become Loma Linda University). His specialties were human pathologic anatomy, taxonomic botany and plant exploration, and he had a particular interest in and spent a lot of time botanizing in the White and Inyo Mountains. His wife Lucille graduated from Pacific Union College in 1943. His write-up on Find-a-Grave says: “Dr. Roos enjoyed nature, plants, camping, back packing and hiking. His special interest was the study of botany, discovering several new species of plants in SE California while on his outdoor explorations. He was still climbing 11,000-foot mountains at the age of 85 and continued his interest of nature at his home after his retirement. Dr. Roos attended La Sierra University and Pacific Union College for his undergraduate studies. He earned his M.D. degree from Loma Linda University School of Medicine in 1944, and then immediately joined the Army as a Battalion Surgeon in the 540th Field Artillery Battalion. He served in France in World War II. In 1947 he fell in love and married Lucille J. Parks a nurse at Loma Linda University Medical Center. Dr. Roos specialized in Pathology medicine. He practiced in Loma Linda and Hemet, California, and then in Roseburg, Oregon. In Roseburg he practiced at the Douglas Community Hospital, Mercy Medical Center and the Roseburg V.A. Hospital retiring in 1988. He spent many years serving the community as a Medical Examiner here in Douglas County as well as in California.” The 'orum' ending of the specific epithet is used when there are several people being honored. (ref. Cryptantha roosiorum)
  • Rorip'pa: an Anglo-Saxon word rorippen whose meaning has been lost. (ref. genus Rorippa)
  • Ro'sa: an ancient Latin name whose meaning has been lost. (ref. genus Rosa)
  • rosa'cea/rosa'ceus: rose-like. (ref. Sphaeralcea ambigua var. rosacea)
  • rosamonden'se: after Rosamond Dry Lake north of Lancaster. (ref. Eriastrum rosamondense)
  • ros'ea/ros'eum: rosy-colored. (ref. Althaea rosea, Antennaria rosea ssp. confinis, Atriplex rosea, Oenothera rosea, Sedum rosea, Eriogonum roseum)
  • ros'ei: named for Lewis Samuel Rose (1893-1973). David Hollombe provides the following from Cantelow & Cantelow in Leaflets of Western Botany, 1957: "Rose, Lewis Samuel. Botanist; born in San Francisco, Calif., 25 Nov. 1893, where he still resides. Graduate of Univ. Calif., Berkeley, 1917; collected and studied algae in Japan, 1917-18 (specimens in Univ. Calif. under the name of L. S. Rosenbaum); life member and Fellow of Calif. Acad. Sci.; friend and benefactor to the university herbarium to which he has given without remuneration over 25 years of his time and energies, enlarging it and making it more serviceable; since 1930 he has been collecting western American plants ond exchanging them on all continents, the specimens received by exchange presented as a gift to the Academy; it is estimated he has given the herbarium over 70,000 specimens, far more than any other donor." He died in 1973. The article doesn't mention that he also created a card file of all species, subspecies, etc. described from the western US, sorted by state and county. (ref. Arctostaphylos tomentosa ssp. rosei, Lupinus rosei, Minuartia rosei)
  • rosen'se: named after Mt. Rose in Washoe County, Nevada. (ref. Eriogonum rosense)
  • Rosmari'nus: from the Latin ros, "dew," and marinus, "of the sea." (ref. genus Rosmarinus)
  • rossianor'um: meaning 'of the Russians,' referring to collector Ilya Gavrilovich Voznesensky (1816-1871), (photo
      at left),  Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer (1782-1854), (photo at left), and Carl Anton Andreevic von Meyer (1795-1855). Voznesensky, a zoologist, botanist, geologist, artist and ethnologist, was born in St, Petersburg and began his working career at age of five as an apprentice of a type-setter in the Academy of Science printing shop. Following his interest in zoology, he became an assistant preparator at the Zoological Museum in St. Petersburg. His careful work was noticed during the museum’s 1829-1830 expedition to Caucasus and he was appointed to lead an expedition to the Russian Far East and Russian America (Alaska and California) with the instruction to collect plant, animal and ethnographic materials. The expedition embarked from St. Petersburg in 1839 on the ship Nikolai I and collected over 400 species of new plants and animals. From the headquarters of the Russian-American Company at Sitka, he made two visits to California, one time spending 15 months, and several trips to different parts of Alaska, returning to St. Petersburg in 1849. The expedition established the world's largest collection of ethnological
    artifacts of Russian America. Voznesensky was not only a skilled naturalist but a talented draftsman and his penned images were detailed and artistic. His achievements were quickly recognized and he was appointed a Curator of the Zoological Museum, an important position but one which prevented him from curating and publishing anything about his collection. He married in 1858 but his wife died three years later and he raised his daughter alone until his death in 1871. He was one of the founders of the Russian Entomological Association. His collections, curated finally at the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography and Zoological Museum in St. Petersburg, continue to contribute to our knowledge of the cultural and natural history of Alaska and California. Friedrich Ernst Ludwig Fischer (1782-1854), was born in Halberstadt, Germany and was awarded a medical doctorate from the University of Halle, later working as director of Count Razumoffsky's botanical garden in Gorenki near Moscow. In 1823 he was appointed by Alexander I as Director of the imperial botanical garden in St. Petersburg where he established a herbarium and library, and planned numerous scientific expeditions into the interior of Russia. He retained his position there until 1850. During his final years, he served as a medical councillor for the Ministry of the Interior. He was first a corresponding member and then a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Carl Anton Andreevic von Meyer (1795-1855), Russian botanist and explorer born in Vitebsk, Belarus, studied at the University of Dorpat (now Tartu in Estonia) under Professor Karl Friedrich von Ledebour in 1813 and 1814. He travelled with Fischer to the Crimea in 1818 and later visited the Baltic region between 1821 and 1824. JSTOR says: “In 1826 Meyer, Ledebour and Alexander von Bunge undertook a great expedition together to the Russian Altai Mountains, the Kirghiz steppe (Kazakhstan) and finally reaching Barnaul. Funded by the university, the plants collected on this trip amounted to 1,600 phanerogamic specimens and formed the basis of the Flora Altaica published by the trio in four volumes between 1829 and 1833. In 1829 he was once again collecting in the Caucasus for the Russian Empire, exploring the Mt. Elbruz region with M. Kupfler he gathered some 200 specimens and published the accompanying report the following year. Meyer was soon invited to work as a botanist for the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg (1835) where he began to work closely with Fischer, publishing various botanical papers and later taking over from him as director of the Imperial Botanic Garden (1850). In 1844 he had also succeeded Carl Bernhard von Trinius as director of the Academy of Sciences' Botanical Museum and was the only botanist to have held both positions. Meyer headed the garden and museum simultaneously until his death. During his life Meyer made many other important taxonomic and floristic contributions, including works on the Cruciferae and Polygonaceae and floras for Vyatka and Tambov regions.” The 'orum' ending of the specific epithet is used when there are several people being honored. (ref. Plagiobothrys reticulatus var. rossianorum)
  • ros'sii: same as previous entry. (ref. Carex rossii)
  • rostella'ta: from the Latin rostellum, "a little beak, a small snout," in turn from rostrum, "the beak of a bird." (ref. Eleocharis rostellata)
  • rostra'ta/rostra'tum: beaked, see next entry. (ref. Clarkia rostrata, Tracyina rostrata, Solanum rostratum)
  • rostriflor'us: from the Latin rostrum, "a bill, snout or beak," and rostratus, "beaked," plus florus, "flowered," thus meaning "with beaked flowers." (ref. Penstemon rostriflorus)
  • rosula'ta: with leaves in a rosette. (ref. Navarretia rosulata, Sibara rosulata)
  • Rota'la: from the Latin rota, "wheel," and rotalis, "wheeled, wheel-like," referring to the whorled leaves. (ref. genus Rotala)
  • rothrock'ii: after Dr. Joseph Trimble Rothrock (1839-1922), forester, professor of botany at the University of
      Pennsylvania and surgeon on the Wheeler Exploring Expedition of 1873-1875. He was born in McVeytown, Pennsylvania, and was a sickly child, being taken out of school and put to work on a local farm. He like to spend time outdoors in nature and this improved his health. He earned a B.S. degree in botany at Harvard in 1862 where he fell under the sway of the famed Asa Gray. In 1863 he enlisted in the Union Army and fought in the major battles at Antietam and Fredericksburg, where he was seriously wounded. He left the Army in 1864 and participated as botanist for the
    1865-1866 Collins Overland Telegraph Expedition in British Columbia.  He received a doctor of medicine degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1867 and began a practice in Centre County, Pennsylvania.  From 1867 to 1869 he was a professor of botany, human anatomy and physiology at the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania (now Penn State). He married in 1869 and he and his wife Martha had five children, three of whom lived to adulthood. He moved to Wilkes-Barre in 1870 and helped to found the Wilkes Barre Hospital. He served as botanist and surgeon on the Wheeler Survey, a geographical and geological exploration and survey to various wild regions west of the 100th meridian under Lieut. George M. Wheeler. In 1875 he spent a week on Santa Cruz Island with several other botanists collecting plant specimens, and the following year he established the North Mountain School of Physical Culture in Luzerne County.  During that same year he was appointed by the American Philosophical Society a lecturer on forestry. From 1877 to 1893 he was a professor of botany at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1880 he studied at the University of Strassburg in Germany, specializing in botany. He visited European managed forests while there. In 1886 he served as the first President of the Pennsylvania Forestry Association, and in 1895 he became Pennsylvania’s first Commissioner of Forestry, a position he held until 1904. In 1901 he was responsible fot the beginnings of what would become the Mont Alto Sanatorium. He became known as "the father of Pennsylvania forestry," and was a Michaux Forestry Lecturer, editor of Forest Leaves, member of the Pennsylvania Forest Commission, and administrator of tuberculosis sanitariums. Two of his major accomplishments as commissioner were his land acquisition program and the creation of a forest academy to train foresters for state service. He was the author of Flora of Alaska (1867) and Botany of the Wheeler Expedition (1878). (ref. Artemisia rothrockii, Galium rothrockii, Keckiella rothrockii var. jacintensis, Nama rothrockii) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • Rottboell'ia: after the Danish botanist Christen Friis Rottbøll (1727-1797), a Danish physician, traveller, Director
      of the Copenhagen Botanic Garden and pupil of Linnaeus. He was born at Hørbygård, Denmark. He was a student of Carl Linnaeus and studied first theology and then medicine at the University of Copenhagen, taking his doctoral degree in 1755. From 1757 to 1761 he travelled to Holland and France to continue his study of medicine and also to study chemistry and botany. The latter subject he undertook at Uppsala University in Sweden. From 1761 he was at the Botanic Garden in Copenhagen and became its Director in 1770. In 1776 he was appointed professor at the Chair of
    Medicine and received a title of ‘royal advisor.’ Smallpox was one of his main preoccupations and he reformed the vaccination program that was in effect in Copenhagen. He published the first comprehensive list of the flora of Greenland. The genus Rottboellia was named in 1781 by Carl Linnaeus the Younger. (ref. genus Rottboellia)
  • rotunda'ta: rounded.
  • rotundifo'lia/rotundifo'lium/rotundifo'lius: with rounded leaves. (ref. Boykinia rotundifolia, Eremalche rotundifolia, Mentha rotundifolia, Phacelia rotundifolia, Geranium rotundifolium, Symphoricarpos rotundifolius var. parishii)
  • rotun'dus: rounded. (ref. Cyperus rotundus)
  • rowean'us: after Edwin Denys Rowe (1881-1954). The following is from an obituary in the the Santa Barbara News-Press, 18 March 1954: "E.D. Rowe, chairman of the County Park Commission, a member of the Lompoc City Planning Commission, and a veteran Santa Barbara county horticulturist, died in his sleep early this morning at his home. He was 73 years of age. Mr. Rowe was born Jan. 18, 1881, in England. He attended the famous Mill Hill Public School. He served an apprenticeship in gardening and the studied agricultural chemistry in London. At the age of 22 he went to Germany, where he spent two years getting acquainted with advanced horticultural methods there. Following that, he emigrated to the United States. He had planned to spend a year here, learning about landscape gardening and business methods before returning to England and entering business for himself. He arrived in Ventura on Christmas Eve, 1903, with $1 in his pocket. He had lived in California since that time. He came to the Santa Barbara-Montecito area in 1904 and had charge of landscaping several large estates. He worked for several years with Peter Riedel, well known for his work with Franceschi Park. In 1912 Mr. Rowe went into the landscaping business here on his own. During the depression he worked for eight years for the National Park Service when CCC boys were brought to Lompoc to restore La Purisima Mission. He had charge of planting the gardens there to native California plants. The gardens are becoming more famous every year. In his work with the restoration of La Purisima Mission, Mr. Rowe experimented with native plants and their need for water until the mesa above the mission has become a "forest" of between 800 and 900 trees. These trees, which today tower 20 to 30 feet in the air, were surplus trees of from three to five inches, left over from the Mission project. During the war years he worked as a farm labor placement official in the Lompoc and Santa Ynez areas. And for a time he worked on county parks, such as Santa Rosa and Nojoqui. After the war he started his own nursery in Lompoc, where he propagated native plants and did estate landscaping." (ref. Ceanothus papillosus var. roweanus)
  • rubel'la/rubel'lus: pale red, becoming red (ref. Arenaria rubella, Elatine rubella, Mimulus rubellus)
  • ru'bens: red (ref. Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens)
  • ru'ber: see rubra below (ref. Centranthus ruber, Lupinus ruber)
  • rubes'cens: becoming red or reddish. (ref. Heuchera rubescens, Nemacladus rubescens)
  • rubicun'da: from the Latin rubicundus for "rubicund, red." (ref. Clarkia rubicunda)
  • rubicun'dula: reddish. (ref. Castilleja rubicundula)
  • rubisep'alum: with reddish sepals. (ref. Trichostema rubisepalum)
  • ru'bra/ru'brum: from the Latin ruber or rubra meaning "red." (ref. Actaea rubra, Claytonia rubra, Festuca rubra, Spergularia rubra, Chenopodium rubrum)
  • rubriflor'us: red-flowered. (ref. Lotus rubriflorus)
  • Ru'bus: a Latin name for "bramble" or "blackberry" from ruber, "red." (ref. genus Rubus)
  • Rudbeck'ia: named for Swedish professor of botany and advisor and mentor of Carl Linnaeus, Olaus (Olof) Olai
      Rudbeck (1660-1740), Rudbeck the Younger, and for his father Olaus (Olof) Johannis Rudbeck (1630-1702), Rudbeck the Elder. Rudbeck the Younger was a physician, a keen ornithologist, and a professor of anatomy as well as botany at Uppsala University, a position he took over from his father, and was the author of De fundamentali plantarum notitia. He was the botany professor of Carl Linnaeus. He specialized in anatomy, botany, zoology, and pharmacology. Later in his life he turned his attention to the study of languages. His sister, Wendela, married Peter Olai Nobelius
    from whom was descended Alfred Nobel of the Nobel Prize fame. Rudbeck the Younger was born in Uppsala who travelled abroad as a youth for several years, was taught botany and anatomy by his father and and aided him in the organisation of his Campus Elysii (an ambitious project to describe and illustrate all plants known at the time, which was unfortunately largely destroyed in the great fire of Uppsala in 1702), published his doctoral thesis Propagato Plantarum botanico-physica in 1686, and got his doctor’s degree in Utrecht in 1690. Succeeding his father as chair of botany and medicine at Uppsala University in 1692, he remained in this position until his death in 1740. He travelled to Lapland in 1695, joining an expedition commissioned by the King, for which his mission was to study nature, the mountains in particular. He returned with an impressive album of colored plant and bird illustrations but regrettably his manuscripts and collections were all but destroyed in the same fire in 1702 that took his father’s Campus Elysii. He had 24 children with three different wives. His son Johan Olof Rudbeck (1711-1790) became a
      well-known natural scientist. Rudbeck the Elder was born in Västerås and graduated from Uppsala University in 1648. He travelled to Holland in 1653 and it was in the botanical garden at Leiden that his love of botany was born. With the seeds and plants he brought back from Holland, he established the first botanical garden in Sweden at Uppsala, which was originally called Rudbeck's Garden but was renamed a century later for Linnaeus. He became a professor of medicine at Uppsala University in 1660 and was for several periods rector magnificus of the same university.
    Wikipedia says: “Rudbeck's research led to the Queen's support of his career. To facilitate his studies of human anatomy, he had a cupola built on top of Gustavianum, a university edifice, and in it was built an arena-like Theatrum anatomicum, where dissection could be carried out in front of students. The cupola still remains and is a landmark in Uppsala. The "Gustavianum" stands in front of the cathedral, and is still part of the university.” Rudbeck is known mainly for his contributions in the fields of human anatomy and linguistics, but he was also accomplished in many other fields including astronomy, music and botany. Over a 20-year period he wrote a massive 2,500-page tome in four volumes called Atlantica purporting to prove that Sweden was the historical Atlantis and that Swedish or Sami was the original language of the Bible's Adam from which Hebrew was descended. He was also one of the pioneers in the study of lymphatic vessels. Al Schneider sent me a quote from Wilfrid Blunt’s The Compleat Naturalist: A Life of Linnaeus which he has in his wonderful website "Wildflowers, Ferns and Trees of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Utah": “So long as the earth shall survive and as each spring shall see it covered with flowers, the Rudbeckia will preserve your glorious name. I have chosen a noble plant in order to recall your merits and the services you have rendered, a tall one to give an idea of your stature, and I wanted it to be one which branched and which flowered and fruited freely, to show that you cultivated not only the sciences but also the humanities. Its rayed flowers will bear witness that you shone among savants like the sun among the stars; its perennial roots will remind us that each year sees you live again through new works. Pride of our gardens, the Rudbeckia will be cultivated throughout Europe and in distant lands where your revered name must long have been known. Accept this plant, not for what it is but for what it will become when it bears your name.” This was in a letter which Linnaeus sent to his mentor Rudbeck, and I think is evidence that Linneaus originally at least intended the name to honor Rudbeck the Younger. However in Hortus Cliffortianus, published in 1737, Linnaeus says: "I have named plants of this genus [Rudbeckia] for the most noble Rudbecks, their knowledge of genera renowned throughout the world." (ref. genus Rudbeckia)
  • rudera'le: growing in waste places. (ref. Lithospermum ruderale)
  • ru'dis: rough, untilled, coarse. (ref. Aeschynomene rudis, Arctostaphylos rudis)
  • rufid'ula: somewhat red. (ref. Saxifraga rufidula)
  • rufres'cens: reddish.
  • rugo'sa/rugo'sum: wrinkled. (ref. Sphaeralcea ambigua var. rugosa, Rapistrum rugosum)
  • rugulo'sus: slightly wrinkled. (ref. Juncus rugulosus)
  • Ru'mex: the ancient Latin name for the docks or sorrels. (ref. genus Rumex)
  • runcina'ta: saw-toothed, with the teeth pointing toward the base. (ref. Crepis runcinata)
  • Ruper'tia: named after Rupert Charles Barneby (1911-2000), botanist at the New York Botanic Garden who named
      1,160 new species of plants. Born in England, he travelled throughout the American southwest with his companion Dwight Ripley collecting plants. He was a prolific author and became a specialist on Astragalus. The following is quoted from the Botanical Electronic News, No. 261, December, 2000: "Dr. Rupert Charles Barneby, Curator Emeritus in The New York Botanical Garden's Institute of Systematic Botany and one of the Garden's most senior and distinguished scientists, died Tuesday, December 5. He was 89 years old. Barneby's association with the
    New York Botanical Garden spanned nearly a half century. He arrived as a visiting scholar in the 1950s and shortly thereafter accepted a staff position as Honorary Curator of Western Botany. He went on to become a Research Associate and an Editorial Consultant for Brittonia, the Garden's esteemed scientific journal covering systematic botany. A self-taught botanist, Barneby rose to become a world expert in Leguminosae (the bean family) and Menispermaceae (the moonseed family). He spent his career at the Garden curating and studying the world's best collection of New World Leguminosae. Gregory Long, President of The New York Botanical Garden, said, "Rupert Barneby was one of the most productive botanists of the twentieth century, a giant in the field of botanical research. Over the last half century, he has been an inspiring mentor, a meticulous scholar, and a creative editor who has made an enormous contribution to the botanical world. We at The New York Botanical Garden are indeed fortunate that his kind, generous, gentle manner graced our lives." In 1999, the International Botanical Congress presented Barneby with its prestigious Millennium Botany Award for a lifetime of contribution to science. In 1980, he was the winner of the Henry Allan Gleason Award, an annual award from The New York Botanical Garden for an outstanding recent publication in the field of plant taxonomy, plant ecology, or plant geography. In 1989, the American Society of Plant Taxonomists awarded Barneby with the Asa Gray Award for his contributions to systematic botany. In 1991, The Garden honored Barneby by institutionalizing his legacy through the establishment of the Rupert C. Barneby Fund for Research in Legume Systematics. The Engler Silver Medal, botanical science's highest honor for publications, was awarded to Barneby in 1992 for his monographic work Sensitivae Censitae: A Revision of the Genus Mimosa Linnaeus (Mimosaceae) in the New World. Since the publication of his first botanical paper in 1941, Barneby published more than 6,500 pages of papers, monographs, and journals. Among his most influential works are Atlas of North American Astragalus; Daleae Imagines; Intermountain Flora, Volume 3, Part B; and Silk Tree, Guanacaste, Monkey's Earring: A Generic System for the Synandrous Mimosaceae of the Americas, (3 Volumes). "Rupert Barneby was an incredible scholar and one of the nicest people I have known. He was one of the most productive and erudite students of botany and horticulture on the staff of The New York Botanical Garden in its 109-year history. He will be remembered by thousands of colleagues for his uncommon generosity in sharing his inexhaustible knowledge and precise editorial skills. He has left an authoritative legacy of publications and will be sorely missed by botanists around the world," said Professor Sir Ghillean Prance FRS, VMH, the former Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Barneby was known for his talent for discovering or rediscovering rare and local species. In the course of his five decades of research, Barneby described and named over 1,100 different plant species new to science. A botanist is fortunate to have a new species of plant named in his honor. Barneby had not only 25 different species named after him, but also, three genera (groups of species sharing common characteristics, such as roses or oaks) of plants -- Barnebya, Barnebyella, and Barnebydendron. Barneby was a member of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the International Association for Plant Taxonomy, and the New England Botanical Club, and a Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences. "Rupert Barneby was a great student of plants in the style of George Bentham and the other encyclopedic workers of the nineteenth century, who would tirelessly analyze all we knew about enormous groups of plants and reduce that knowledge to lucid prose, working day after day, month after month, and year after year. He always had time to encourage and help students and colleagues, giving them the benefit of his extraordinary classical education, friendly personality, and love for plants. He will be greatly missed," said Dr. Peter Raven, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden and close friend and colleague. He lived among literati as easily as he did among scientists. Considered his close friends were W.H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood, Julian Huxley, and others. Rupert Barneby was born October 6, 1911, in Monmouthshire, England. He attended Cambridge University where he received his B.A. in History and Modern Languages in 1932. He came to the United States in 1937 and established permanent residency in 1941. In 1978, he was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Science degree from The City University of New York." (ref. genus Rupertia)
  • rupes'tris: growing among rocks [compare campestris]. (ref. Eucnide rupestris)
  • rupico'la: growing on ledges or cliffs. (ref. Mimulus rupicola, Poa glauca ssp. rupicola)
  • rupifra'gum: rock breaking, i.e. growing in rock crevices.
  • rupi'num: from the Latin rupes, "rock," thus referring in some way to rocks, perhaps suggesting that as a habitat. (ref. Eriogonum rupinum)
  • Rup'pia: named after Heinrich Bernhard Ruppius (1688-1719), a German botanist. (ref. genus Ruppia)
  • rus'byi: after Henry Hurd Rusby (1855-1940). The following is quoted from a website of the New York Botanical
      Garden: "Henry Hurd Rusby (1855-1940) was influential in promoting the study of economic botany at The New York Botanical Garden throughout the first fifty years of its existence. As a youth growing up in Franklin (now Nutley), New Jersey, Rusby demonstrated a passionate interest in plants. At the age of 21 his personal herbarium won him first prize at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876. At that time he became acquainted with Dr. George Thurber, who was the President of the Torrey Botanical Club. Rusby joined the Torrey Botanical Club in 1879 and
    around that time began studying medicine at the Medical College of New York University. In 1880, while still a medical student, he spent 18 months collecting plants in Texas and New Mexico as an agent for the Smithsonian Institution. In 1883 he returned to the Southwest to study and collect medicinal flora of Arizona for Parke, Davis & Co. Rusby graduated from medical school in 1884 and in 1885 he embarked on a two-year excursion for Parke, Davis & Co., traversing the South American continent and exploring remote regions of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and Brazil. Although trained as a physician, Rusby chose to forego medicine in favor of his interest in plants. In 1889 he was made Professor of Botany and Materia Medica at the College of Pharmacy at Columbia University. He served 26 years as Dean of the Faculty until his retirement in 1930, and as Dean Emeritus until his death in 1940. Rusby's association with The New York Botanical Garden began even before the Garden was formally established. As a member of the Torrey Botanical Club, he met Nathaniel Lord Britton. It had long been a goal of the club to establish a botanic garden. In 1888 a botanic garden committee of eight distinguished club members, including Britton and Rusby, was formed. Rusby is listed among the numerous incorporators and was instrumental in arranging to have the Columbia College herbarium and botanical library deposited at the Garden. In 1898 Rusby was appointed Honorary Curator of the Economic Botany Museum and served on the Board of Managers until 1933. Rusby's neotropical explorations, particularly in the Amazon region set the precedent for the systematic and economic botany that has characterized subsequent research at The New York Botanical Garden. The productivity of his trips was due to his endurance and resourcefulness as an explorer. In 1921, when Rusby was 65 years old, he embarked on his last field trip to South America as the Director of the Mulford Biological Exploration of the Amazon Basin. Henry Rusby died on November 18, 1940, at the age of 85." (ref. Sphaeralcea rusbyi var. eremicola) (Phot credit: Alchetron)
  • rustica'na: pertaining to the country. (ref. Armoracia rusticana)
  • Ru'ta: the classical Latin name. (ref. genus Ruta)
  • ru'tila: reddish.
  • ruygt'ii: after botanist Jake A. Ruygt (1952- ), member of the Land Trust of Napa County and co-compiler of A Flora of Napa County and 100 Napa County Roadside Wildflowers. (ref. Trichostema ruygtii)
  • ryd'bergiana: see following entry. (ref. Heuchera rubescens var. rydbergiana)
  • ryd'bergii: named after Per Axel Rydberg (1860-1931), a member of the New York Botanical Gardens in the late
      19th and early 20th centuries, who wrote the first book on the flora of the Rockies from Canada to Mexico, and several other floras. "P. A. (Per Axel) Rydberg, the first curator of The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium, was a plant taxonomist whose specialty was the flora of the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains areas. He began working for The New York Botanical Garden in the summer of 1897 as a member of the first Garden field expedition, and joined the permanent staff in 1899 when they were first organized. In the course of his career, he was to publish over 7,000
    pages of research, making him one of the most productive scientists at The New York Botanical Garden. Born in Sweden, Rydberg emigrated to America in 1882. He first worked in the iron mines of Michigan where he hoped to become a mining engineer but he suffered a serious accident which left him with a lifelong limp and forced him to turn to intellectual pursuits. From 1884 to 1890, he taught mathematics at the Luther Academy in Wahoo, Nebraska, while he studied at the University of Nebraska. He received his B.S. in 1891, and the strong influence of his botany professor, Charles Edwin Bessey, helped to determine his lifelong devotion to plant studies. Soon after he graduated, Rydberg received a commission from the United States Department of Agriculture to undertake a botanical exploration of western Nebraska. He received another one in 1892 to explore the Black Hills of South Dakota, and in 1893 he was in the Sand Hills, again in western Nebraska. During this time he continued to teach at the Luther Academy. In 1895, Rydberg received his M.A. from the University of Nebraska.The university published his monograph on Rosales, one of only three parts published of a projected 25-part series on the flora of Nebraska. That summer, he was collecting once again for the United States Department of Agriculture in Montana with Cornelius Lott Shear. When autumn arrived, he moved to New York to pursue a Ph.D. degree at Columbia University under the guidance of Nathaniel Lord Britton. During this time he also was teaching natural sciences and mathematics at the Upsala Institute (later Upsala College) in Brooklyn and in Kenilworth, New Jersey. In the summer of 1897 he was sent to collect in Montana and the Yellowstone Park region with Ernst Athearn Bessey, son of his mentor Charles Edwin Bessey. The two men were part of the first field program expedition of The New York Botanical Garden. Dr. Rydberg received his Ph.D. in 1898 and during that summer was employed once again by the Garden to process the collections obtained from the Montana and Yellowstone park expedition. Early in 1899, the Garden organized its first permanent staff and he became one of the nine original members. His title initially was Assistant Curator and this was changed in 1908 to Curator of the Herbarium. He would hold that title until his death in 1931. In 1900 Dr. Rydberg conducted field work in southeast Colorado with King Vreeland. In 1901 he visited Kew Gardens in England and made a return trip to Sweden as well. In 1905 he was collecting in Utah with visits to the University of Wyoming, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. In 1911 he undertook an exploration of southeast Utah with Albert Osbun Garrett and in 1925, the Allegheny Mountains with John Tuttle Perry. A trip in 1926 took him to Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and the Dakotas. His final field expedition was in 1929 to Kansas and Minnesota but it was cut short due to illness and only included work in Kansas. Dr. Rydberg was elected to membership in the Torrey Botanical Club in 1896. In 1900 he joined the American Association for the Advancement of Science and was elected a fellow the following year. Also that year, he was chosen as an Associate of the Botanical Society of America. In 1907 he became a member of the American Geographical Society and the Ecological Society of America. The family of Dr. Rydberg destroyed most of his personal papers at the time of his death. The few that remain consist of miscellaneous correspondence and research notes, along with the manuscript proofs for several papers and publications, including his dissertation, Monograph of the North American Potentilleae, and the first edition of one of his most well-known works, Flora of the Rocky Mountains. Also included in this collection are a group of research materials related to the publication of a bio-bibliography of Dr. Rydberg written by Arnold Tiehm. This appeared under the title Per Axel Rydberg: a biography, bibliography and list of his taxa. It was published in 1990 as volume 58 of the series Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. Dr. Rydberg’s field notebooks have been removed to the Collectors’ Field Notebooks series. (Quoted from a website of the New York Botanical Gardens) (ref. Penstemon rydbergii, Horkelia rydbergii) (Photo credit: University of Maryland)
  • Rytidosper'ma: from the Greek rhytis or rhytidos, "a wrinkle," and sperma, "a seed." (ref. genus Rytidosperma)


Spring wildflowers in Short Canyon, Kern County
Home Page