L-R: Clarkia bottae (Farewell-to-spring), Blennosperma nanum (Blennosperma), Fritillaria biflora (Chocolate lily), Toxicoscordion fremontii (Star lily), Calochortus kennedyi (Desert mariposa lily)


T
In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear. Where no credit is given for photos, they are in public domain mostly from Wikipedia.
  • tabernaemonta'ni: after Jacob Theodor von Bergzabern (Jacobus Theodorus Tabernaemontanus) (1520-1590). The
      following is from Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names: "...personal physician to the Count of the Palatine at Heidelberg, West Germany. He was born in the town of Bergzabern in the Palatinate region of Germany and was a student of the German botanist Hieronymus Bock.  He Latinized his name as Tabernaemontanus [which means Tavern in the mountains] and is also commemorated by species named for him in Amsonia, Potentilla and Scirpus. He was the author of a celebrated herbal Neuw Kreuterbuch (1588-1591), of which the illustrations were issued separately at
    Frankfurt-am-Main in 1590 under the title Eicones Plantarum. The woodcuts were mostly copied from those in other herbals but make an attractive book. The London printer, John Norton, acquired them from the Frankfurt printer Nicholaus Bassaeus and used them in 1597 to illustrate Gerard's Herball." Many of the websites that mention von Bergzabern have to do with beer and brewing, a subject he was apparently very interested in. He studied at the University of Heidelberg, was married three times and had eighteen children. He spent a lifetime botanizing and practicing medicine and has been called the ‘Father of German botany.’ His work provided material for the better-known Herball of John Gerard (1597).  He supported himself by serving as a court physician to a number of German nobles such as Philip III, Count of Nassau-Weilburg and Marquard von Hattstein, bishop of Speyer. The genus Tabernaemontana was created in his honor by Charles Plumier and the name was adopted and published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. Scirpus tabernaemontani)
  • Taenia'therum: from the Greek tainia, "a band or ribbon," and ather, "an awn," referring to the flat or ribboned awn of the lemma. The genus Taeniatherum was published by Sergei Arsenjevic Nevski in 1934. (ref. genus Taeniatherum)
  • Tage'tes: named after the Etruscan god Tages who supposedly emerged from the earth as it was being ploughed and was imbued with the power of divination. The genus Tagetes was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tagetes)
  • tageti'na: possibly from genus Tagetes. (ref. Navarretia tagetina)
  • tahoen'sis: of or from the area of Lake Tahoe. (ref. Carex tahoensis)
  • Tam'arix: the Latin name for this plant derived from the Tamaris River in Spain. The genus Tamarix was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tamarix)
  • tanacetifo'lia: tansy-leaved, with leaves like Tanacetum. (ref. Machaeranthera tanacetifolia, Phacelia tanacetifolia)
  • Tanace'tum: from the medieval Latin name tanazita, in turn derived from Greek athanasia, "immortality," of uncertain application to this taxa. The genus Tanacetum was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tanacetum)
  • tandilen'sis: named for the Sierra de Tandil, near the center of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, where this taxon is native. (ref. Agrostis tandilensis)
  • taraxacifo'lia: with leaves like genus Taraxacum.
  • taraxaco'ides: having a resemblance to Taraxacum. (ref. Leontodon taraxacoides)
  • Tarax'acum: medieval name traceable through Arabic to the Persian talkh chakok, meaning "bitter herb. The Desktop Guide to Herbal Medicine by Brigitte Mars (2009) states “Opinions differ on the origin of dandelion’s genus name, Taraxacum. Some believe that it derives from the Persian talkh chakok, “bitter herb.” Others propose that it derives from the Greek taraxos, “disorder,” and akos, “remedy.” Still others believe it could be derived from the Greek taraxia, “eye disorder,” and akeomai, “to cure,” as the plant was traditionally used as a remedy for eyes.” The online Free Dictionary says “from Medieval Latin, from Arabic tarakhshaqūn, "wild chicory," perhaps of Persian origin. And the 1894 Vol. 4 of the Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales says “Though it is a plant which must have been well known to the ancients, no distinct reference to it can be traced, either In the classics of Greece or Italy, although a plant mentioned by Theophrastus is thought to be it. The word taraxacum is usually considered to be of Oriental origin, probably meaning “wild lettuce”, and we first meet with it in the works of Arabian physicians, who regarded it as a sort of wild endive. It is thus mentioned by Rhazes in the Tenth and by Avicenna in the Eleventh Century. Some commentators consider it to be one of the bitter herbs eaten with the Passover lamb by the Israelites when leaving Egypt.”  The dandelion has formerly gone by the Latin names of Taraxacum densleonis and Leontodon taraxacum which is what Linnaeus called it. Both names have reference to the French dent de lion and the Latin dens leonis, meaning "tooth of the lion," and are an allusion apparently to the jagged edges of the plant’s leaves. The dandelion had been known and utilized for centuries, and it had a widespread use in 18th century herbal pharmacology. Dandelion concoctions were common in European drugs of the early 19th century. Linnaeus called the common dandelion Leontodon Taraxacum, the specific name being adopted from an old time classical name. Leon is Latin for lion and -odon is Greek for tooth, so he thus used two linguistic sources for his genus name, and took the name Taraxacum from a Middle Eastern language, perhaps with the thought of illustrating the plant’s wide usage and appeal. The genus Taraxacum was published by Friedrich Heinrich Wiggers in 1780. (ref. genus Taraxacum)
  • Tarax'ia: so named because it had leaves similar to Leontodon taraxacoides. The Greek word taraxia means "eye disorder." Other words which this epithet may be related to are taraxis, "disorder" or "tumult," and a-taraxis, "tranquility," or "absence of disorder." The name was originally published by John Torrey and Asa Gray, and clearly has some relationship to the name of the dandelion, Taraxacum. (See Taraxacum). I thank a correspondent, Eric Neville, for inquiring about the name Taraxia and for sending me a source of information about it, which led me to investigate further this name and that of the related name Taraxacum. The genus Taraxia was published by Thomas Nuttall in 1893. (ref. genus Taraxia)
  • tardiflor'a: late-flowering or developing.
  • Targion'ia: named for Cipriano Antonio Targioni (1672-1748), Florentine physician and scientific instrument maker. He studied medicine at the University of Pisa, and upon returning to his native town, he was named supervisor of the observations and physical experiments carried out in the Galleria Medicea by order of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III de' Medici. He developed methods for preserving animal corpses for anatomical dissection. Targioni also conducted meteorological observations - on a systematic basis from 1728 on. The genus Targionia was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Targionia)
  • tarminia'na: apparently named after a Columbian agrnomist and professor named Tarmín de Jesus Campos Espinosa (1947- ) who was working with fruit researchers in Columbia and introduced them to the study of passion fruits. (ref. Passiflora tarminiana)
  • tatar'ica: from the common name of this species, Russian blue lettuce, I infer that that the name tatarica refers to the Tatars, a primarily Turkic peoples found in areas of the former U.S.S.R. Lonicera tatarica is native to Siberia and the assignment of the name of the native Lactuca tatarica was based on a plant from Siberia described by J. G. Gmelin as 'Sonchus foliis lanceolatis sessilibus dentatis, floribus corymbosis, caulibus glabris'. Linnaeus renamed it Sonchus tataricus and C.A. Meyer transfered it to Lactuca in 1831. (ref. Lactuca tatarica, Lonicera tatarica)
  • taur'icum: of or from the Crimean region of the Mediterranean, which in ancient times was referred to as Taurica Chersonesus. (ref. Onopordum tauricum)
  • Tau'schia: named after Ignaz Friedrich Tausch (1793-1848), a Bohemian professor of botany, naturalist, plant collector, director of the garden of the Duke of Canal de Malabaillas in Prague, and author of Hortus Canlius, seu Plantarum Rariorum…Icones et Descriptiones in 1823. Tausch was born in Bohemia to a master brewer, Josef Tauch. In his youth, Tausch visited a Piaristengymnasium, a higher educational institution, in the town of Schlackenwerth, sparking his curiosity in botany. From 1809 to 1812, he attended the Charles University in Prague, where he studied philosophy, medicine, and natural sciences. In 1815 he was appointed as a professor of economic and technical botany and from then until 1826 he served as a professor of botany at the botanical garden of Emmanuel Canal at Prague. He was a member of the Academy in Turin, and in 1843 became president of the Bohemian Horticultural Society. He discovered at least eleven species of plants, including Rhizobotrya alpina and Saxifraga hostii. He was the taxonomic authority of many botanical species. Plants bearing the specific epithet of tauschii are named in his honor, and in 1835, Diederich Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal named the genus Tauschia in the Apiaceae after him. He died at Prague. The genus Tauschia was published by Diederich Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal in 1834. (ref. genus Tauschia)
  • taxifo'lia: with leaves like those of the genus Taxus or yew. (ref. Suaeda taxifolia)
  • Ta'xus: the Latin name for the yew tree. The genus Taxus was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Taxus)
  • tay'lori: after Dean William Taylor (1948- ), a California botanist who is particularly interested in mountain regions like the Sierras and the White Mountains. He studied with G. Ledyard Stebbins and received his doctoral degree from UC Davis. He has been a lecturer at San Francisco State University, University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Santa Cruz, and a research botanist at Oregon State University. He was the first Vice-President of the California Botanical Society and is currently on the Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee of the California Native Plant Society. He has been deeply involved in the conservation of endangered plants. (ref. Erythranthe taylori, Erythronium taylori)
  • tay'lori/Taylor'ia: named after Thomas Taylor (1786-1848), English botanist, bryologist, and mycologist. He was born in a boat on the Ganges in India and around 1793 was sent back to Ireland for his education where he attended the French School in Cork. His father Joseph, who was a captain in the Bengal Artillery and a major of the British East India Company, did not return from India with the rest of his family until he resigned from the military in 1811, dying later that year. Thomas was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, graduating B.A. in 1807, and M.B. and M.D. in 1814. In 1809 Thomas married his first cousin, Emma or Harriet Taylor (1790-1875), daughter of Captain Thomas Taylor.  Emma was also born in India of part-Oriental extraction, and had been educated in Ireland. Thomas was subsequently elected a fellow of the King and Queen's College of Physicians, and during his residence in Dublin acted as physician in ordinary to Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital. In 1814 he was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society in 1814, and was also an honorary member of the Royal Irish Academy. In 1820 he was appointed as professor of botany and natural history at the Royal Cork Scientific Institute, and in 1830 the government withdrew its grant to the Institute at Cork, and Taylor retired to the family estate of Dunkerron, near Kenmare and Killarney in Co. Kerry.  He had a house built, and during this time he acted as a physician for his workers and the poorer members of his community. Also during this time he concentrated on botany, making local excursions in search of plants. His botanical researches were mainly among the mosses, liverworts, and lichens. The following is quoted from an article by Mark Lawley: “Like so many others in Ireland, economic circumstances of the 1840s and the potato-blight and famine affected his final years.  In 1843 he was appointed medical officer of the Kenmare Poor Law Union, for which he was paid £40 a year, and in 1847 he was appointed consultant to the new fever hospital at Kenmare, where unassisted he attended 200 patients every day at the height of the epidemic.  He wrote to Hooker in May 1847 that “more than 40 medical officers of Union Work Houses have already perished of Fever caught in the discharge of their duties.”  His work did indeed prove his undoing, and he died of fever on February 4th or 6th 1848.  Dunkerron passed to Thomas’s son, Joseph, who was in turn was succeeded by his son, Thomas, who sold off the woods and allowed the house and grounds to fall into decay before selling them.  Most of the remaining descendants subsequently emigrated to Canada.” The genus Tayloria was published by William Jackson Hooker in 1816. (ref. genus Tayloria, also Fisidens taylori)
  • tay'loris: named for botanist Thomas Mayne Cunninghame Taylor (1904-1983), author of The Sedge Family, The
      Pea Family of British Columbia, Pacific Northwest Ferns and their Allies, The Rose Family of British Columbia, The Lily Family of British Columbia, and The Ferns and Fern-Allies of British Columbia. He was a contributor to the University of British Columbia herbarium, and was a major contributor to the knowledge of the flora of Canada, especially of British Columbia. He was born in Pretoria, South Africa, and came to Canada at an early age where his father managed a large fruit orchard. He graduated from the University of British Columbia in
    1926 and pursued graduate studies at the Universities of Wisconsin and Toronto, receiving the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Botany from the University of Toronto in 1930. He taught at the botany department there for nearly 20 years, then returned to the University of British Columbia as a professor of botany eventually becoming head of the department and retiring in 1968. He travelled extensively both in North America and abroad including three trips, one lasting ten weeks, to Japan where he studied the art and philosophy of Japanese gardening. He retired to Victoria where he developed a garden of rhododendrons and unusual trees and shrubs. (ref. Carex leptalea var. tayloris) (Photo credit: Virginia Tech University Libraries)
  • tazet'ta: apparently an Italian vernacular name from tazza, "a small cup," referring to the form of the corona, which is a petal-like or crown-like structure between the petals and stamens in some flowers. (ref. Narcissus tazetta)
  • Teco'ma: abbreviated from the Mexican name tecomaxochitl. The genus Tecoma was published by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789. (ref. genus Tecoma)
  • Tecomar'ia: takes its name from Tecoma, a species which it closely resembles. The genus Tecomaria was published by Édouard Spach in 1840. (ref. genus Tecomaria)
  • tecopen'sis: named after Tecopa, a hot springs community southeast of Death Valley National Park. (ref. Cordylanthus tecopensis)
  • tector'um: relating to the roofs of houses, this was a name used by Linnaeus for various Swedish plants that grew on thatched roofs. (ref. Bromus tectorum, Crepis tectorum)
  • Teesdal'ia: after Robert Teesdale (1740-1804), an English botanist, seedsman and horticulturist from Yorkshire. He was a friend of James Edward Smith, and contributed to Smith and Sowerby's English Botany, a major publication of British plants comprising a 36 volume set, issued in 267 monthly parts over 23 years from 1791 to 1814. He also put out Catalog of the More Rare Plants in the Neighborhood of Castle Howard. He was a founder member (1788) of the Linnean Society and gardener to the Earl of Carlisle at Yorkshire. The genus Teesdalia was published in 1812 by William Townsend Aiton. The genus Teesdalia was published by William Townsend Aiton in 1812. (ref. genus Teesdalia)
  • tegelberg'ii: named for Gilbert Harold Tegelberg (1896-1983), American horticulturist. He was born in Iowa, was married in Los Angeles, and died in San Bernardino. He was a Fellow of and held several positions for the Cactus and Succulent Society of America, such as librarian and vice-president. (ref. Dudleya tegelbergii)
  • tegetario'ides: like tegetarius. This taxon is similar to Astragalus kentrophyta var. tegetarius. (ref. Astragalus tegetarioides)
  • tegetar'ius: from the Latin tegetarius, "a mat maker," from teges or tegetis, "a covering, mat." (ref. Astragalus kentrophyta var. tegetarius)
  • tehamen'se: of or from Tehama County in northern California north of Sacramento. (ref. Hesperolinon tehamense)
  • Telli'ma: anagram of Mitella. The genus Tellima was published by Robert Brown in 1823. (ref. genus Tellima)
  • telmatei'a: of or referring to wet meadows or pools. (ref. Equisetum telmateia ssp. braunii)
  • tembloren'se: same as next entry. (ref. Eriogonum temblorense)
  • temblorien'sis: named for the Temblor Range in south-central California bordering on the San Joaquin Valley and the Carrizo Plain. (ref. Clarkia tembloriensis)
  • templeton'ii: named after John Templeton (1766-1825), early Irish naturalist and botanist often referred to as the 'Father of Irish Botany.' He was born in Belfast in 1766. His father was a Belfast merchant. He married Katherine Johnson of Seymour Hill, on the outskirts of Belfast, who was also the child of a Belfast merchant in 1799. The union of the two merchant families provided sufficient funds for the young Templeton to pursue his interests in natural history. He was educated at a private school and began studying botany after his father’s death. In 1794 he made the acquaintance of a botany professor, Thomas Martyn, at Cambridge. He also came to know the zoologist George Shaw and the cryptogamist James Dickson, and was selected as an associate of the Linnean Society. On a subsequent visit to London he was introduced to met Dr. (afterwards Sir) J. E. Smith, Dr. Samuel Goodenough, Aylmer Bourke Lambert, James Sowerby, William Curtis, Robert Brown, and Sir Joseph Banks. He declined Banks' offer to underwrite a trip for him to visit Australia. His interest in natural history was not limited to botany and he also studied birds extensively, and chemistry as it applied to agriculture and horticulture, meteorology and phenology.  He contributed monthly reports on natural history and meteorology to the Belfast Magazine which was begun in 1808, and was promoted to a position at the Belfast Botanic Garden in 1809. He was an early member of the Belfast Society for Promoting Knowledge, and when the Belfast Natural History Society was established in 1821, he was chosen its first honorary member. Though he visited Scotland and Wicklow, Templeton lived mainly in Ulster, and never visited the south or west of Ireland. He also contributed papers to the 'Transactions' of the Linnean Society on the migrations of birds and on soils, and to those of the Geological Society in 1821 on peat-bogs. Several volumes of his manuscript Flora Hibernica, sadly never finished, with colored drawings, are preserved in the Ulster Museum in Belfast. Robert Brown dedicated to him the Australian leguminous genus Templetonia. From 1806 to 1825 he kept a detailed journal which is now in the Ulster Museum. Wikipedia provides the following: “Influenced by the French Revolution, which many saw as lighting a beacon of enlightenment before the counter-revolutionary Civil War and the ensuing ‘Terror’, Templeton was an early member of the organization called United Irishmen. At once a fervent advocate of Irish independence from the United Kingdom he changed the name of the family home to 'Cranmore' (Irish: crann mór; 'big tree') from its original ‘Orange Grove.’ Disillusionment came with the murders of a number of Protestants at Wexford bridge and the rise of sectarian Irish nationalism, though he remained a strenuous and enlightened advocate of civil and religious liberty. Never of strong constitution, he was not expected to survive, he was in failing health from 1815 and died in 1825 aged only 60.” He supported many Belfast societies, such as Belfast Literary Society and Belfast Natural History Society, which became the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society in 1842, and was a founder, with other far-sighted Belfast men, of the Royal Belfast Academical Institution. His son was the  naturalist, artist and entomologist Robert Templeton. (ref. Entosthedon templetonii)
  • temulen'ta/temulen'tum: from the Latin temulus for "drunken, nodding, top-heavy." (ref. Festuca temulenta)
  • ten'ax: gripping, tenacious or sticky in one sense, and firm, persistant or stubborn in another, from teneo or tenere, "to hold." (ref. Iris tenax, Xerophyllum tenax)
  • tenebro'sa: growing in shady places.
  • tenel'la/tenel'lum/tenel'lus: from the Latin meaning "quite delicate, dainty." (ref. Chorispora tenella, Gentianella tenella, Hesperocnide tenella, Osmadenia tenella, Physaria tenella, Lithophragma tenellum, Plagiobothrys tenellus, Psilocarphus tenellus)
  • te'ner: slender, tender, soft. (ref. Erigeron tener, Astragalus tener)
  • tene'rrima/tener'rimus: very slender. (ref. Gilia tenerrima, Poa tenerrima, Rorippa tenerimma, Sonchus tenerrimus)
  • ten'ue: see tenuis. (ref. Galium porrigens var. tenue)
  • tenui-: prefix indicating the characteristic of being slender.
  • tenuicau'lis: with fine stems.
  • tenuiflor'a/tenuiflor'us: with fine or delicate flowers. (ref. Gilia tenuiflora, Carduus tenuiflorus)
  • tenuifo'lia/tenuifo'lius: with finely-divided, slender leaves. (ref. Calystegia macrostegia ssp. tenuifolia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Ipomopsis tenuifolia, Malacothrix saxatilis var. tenuifolia, Potamogeton alpinus ssp. tenuifolius)
  • tenuilo'ba: with finely-divided or slender lobes. (ref. Mirabilis tenuiloba)
  • tenuiloba'tum: see tenuiloba above. (ref. Solanum tenuilobatum)
  • tenu'ipes: with a slender stalk. (ref. Hydrophyllum tenuipes)
  • tenu'is: slender. (ref. Castilleja tenuis, Lessingia tenuis, Nemacladus tenuis, Malperia tenuis, Orcuttia tenuis)
  • tenuisec'ta/tenuisec'tum: thinly or narrowly cut. (ref. Verbena tenuisecta, Cirsium arizonicum var. tenuisectum)
  • tenuis'sima/tenuis'simus: very slender. (ref. Iris tenuissima, Potamogeton pusillus var. tenuissimus)
  • tenuitu'ba: from the Latin tuba, "a trumpet" and the prefix tenui- which means "slender or narrow" referring to the flowers. (ref. Ipomopsis tenuituba)
  • tephro'des: from the Greek tephros for "ash-colored" in reference to the leaves. (ref. Helianthus niveus ssp. tephrodes)
  • terebinthifo'lius: this is a bit of a puzzle. Terebinthinaceus means pertaining in some way to turpentine, and turpentine (at least the Chian variety) derives from the turpentine tree, Pistacia terebinthus, a member of the sumac family and a native of the Mediterranean region, specifically but perhaps not limited to the island of Chios. So perhaps terebinthifolius means "having leaves like the turpentine tree." (ref. Schinus terebinthifolius)
  • terebinth'inus: resembling or appearing like turpentine. (ref. Cymopteris terebinthinus)
  • te'res: cylindrical, circular in cross-section. (ref. Diodia teres)
  • tereticor'nis: with terete or cylindrical horns. (ref. Eucalyptus tereticornis)
  • teretifo'lia/teretifo'lium/teretifo'lius: terete-leaved, that is, with leaves that are smooth and cylindrical, usually circular in cross-section. (ref. Ericameria teretifolia, Erysimum teretifolium, Chrysothamnus teretifolius)
  • terna'ta/terna'tum: with parts in groups of three, referring often to the leaflets. (ref. Keckiella ternata, Eriogonum ternatum)
  • terna'tea: of the island of Ternate in the Moluccas. (ref. Clitoria ternatea)
  • tern'ipes: from the Latin terni, "three," and the suffix -pes, referring to the stalk, or foot of something, hence, "three-stalked." (ref. Aristida ternipes)
  • terraci'na: uncertain meaning, but possibly having something to do with terraces (?), or a reference to Terracina, a seaside resort area between Rome and Naples, which perhaps makes more sense since this species is originally from the Mediterranean. (ref. Euphorbia terracina)
  • terres'tris: in Latin means "on land." (ref. Brodiaea terrestris ssp. kernensis, Tribulus terrestris)
  • tescam'nis: I was contacted by Diana Hurlbut at the New York State Museum where the author of this taxon was a curator to the effect that the protologue for this species in Rhodora states that "the specific epithet is derived from tesca, 'desert,' [or wilderness, wastelands] and amnis, 'swift-flowing river,' in allusion to the species’ typical habitat along arid-region streams." According to Bill Jennings, one of the authors, "Most specimens are from lower elevations near rivers, in the Intermountain Region." (ref. Platanthera tescamnis)
  • teso'ta: corruption of the Spanish tieso meaning "stiff or firm". Tesota is a southwest Native American name for this tree. (ref. Olneya tesota)
  • Tessar'ia: named for doctor and writer Lodovico Tessari, author of Materia Medica Contracta, Synonyma, Natalia, Pharmaceutica, Qualitates, Principia, Praeparata, Vires, Usus Communes, Usus Praecipuos, Composita published in 1762. The genus Tessaria was published by Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón in 1794. (ref. genus Tessaria)
  • tessella'ta: tessellate or checkered, patterned like a mosaic, in allusion to the arrangement of warts on the back of the nutlets. (ref. Amsinckia tessellata)
  • testicula'tus: like testicles. (ref. Ranunculus testiculatus)
  • Tetracoc'cus: "four seeds," from the Greek tetra, "four," and kokkos, "a kernel, grain, or berry," (from Edmund Jaeger's A Source-Book of Biological names and Terms) because of the four-lobed or four-seeded ovary in the original species, T. dioicus.  My original information followed Philip Munz, who used the word kakkos for "fruit," but I have been kindly informed by Dr. Stavros Kakkos of my mistake, and in checking other sources find the proper word source to have been kokkos.  Thank you, Dr. Kakkos. The genus Tetracoccus was published by Georg Engelmann in 1885. (ref. genus Tetracoccus)
  • Tetrady'mia: from the Greek tetra, "four," and dymos, "together," from the four-flowered heads of the first known species of this genus. The genus Tetradymia was published by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1837. (ref. genus Tetradymia)
  • tetrago'na: probably the same as the next entry. (ref. Crassula tetragona)
  • Tetrago'nia: four-angled. The genus Tetragonia was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tetragonia)
  • tetragonio'ides: like genus Tetragonia. (ref. Tetragonia tetragonioides, or literally the Tetragonia that looks like Tetragonia)
  • tet'rahit: the Missouri Plants website suggests that this means "four-parted." The name Tetrahit was apparently used as a generic name by French physician and botanist Matthias de l'Obel (1538-1616), but I have no further information on its derivation or meaning. (ref. Galeopsis tetrahit)
  • tetramer'a/tetramer'es: from tetras, "four," and meris, "part," thus meaning "with four parts. (ref. Phacelia tetramera, Tetradymia tetrameres)
  • tetrancis'tra: from the Greek tetra, "four," and ankistron, "fish-hook," thus meaning 4 fish-hooks for the 3-4 hooked central spines. (ref. Mammillaria tetrancistra)
  • tetran'dra: from the Greek tetra, tetras, "four" and aner, andros, "man, male, stamen." (ref. Primula tetrandra)
  • Tetraneur'is: from the Greek tetras, "four," and neuron, "nerve." The genus Tetraneuris was published by Edward Greene in 1898. (ref. genus Tetraneuris)
  • tetraphyl'lum: four-leaved (ref. Polycarpon tetraphyllum)
  • Tetrap'teron: Greek for "four-winged." The genus Tetrapteron was published by Warren Lambert Wagner and Peter C. Hoch in 2007. (ref. genus Tetrapteron)
  • tetrasper'ma: four-seeded. (ref. Vicia tetrasperma)
  • Teu'crium: there seems to be a lot of confusion about this name, although most of the confusion may be on my part alone. The Jepson Manual simply says an ancient Greek name. The Botanary website says "Named for Teucer, a Trojan king who used the plant as a medicine; or possibly for Dr. Teucer, a botanist and physician." Stearns' Dictionary of Plant Names says: "Possibly named for Teucer, first king of Troy." The Columbia Encyclopedia gives two alternate meanings: "1. Ancestor and king of the Trojans, who are also called the Teucri. He was the father-in-law of Dardanus. 2. Son of Telamon and Hesione. He was the greatest archer in the Trojan War and a faithful comrade of his half brother, the Telamonian Ajax. When he returned home he was banished by his father, who mistakenly thought that Teucer was responsible for the death of Ajax. Teucer went to Cyprus, where he founded the town of Salamis and ruled as king." Umberto Quattrocchi states: "From the Greek teukrion, possibly for Teucer (Teukros), the founder of the town of Salamis in Cyprus." Encyclopedia Mythica says: "Teucer was the son of the river Scamander and the nymph Idaea, and was the legendary ancestor of the Trojans; hence the Trojans are often called 'Teucrians.' He should not be confused with the Teucer who was the son of Telamon and the brother of Ajax, and who fought against Troy during the Trojan War." And Wikipedia states that Teucer was "The son of Hesione and Telamon, Teucer fought with his half-brother, Ajax the Great, in the Trojan War and is the legendary founder of the city Salamis on Cyprus." It appears that there were two separate figures, Teucrus, who was the ancestor of the Trojans, and the Greek Teucer who fought in the Trojan War and founded Salamis. However, another website stated that the Teucer who was the founder ancestor of the Trojans also fought in the Trojan War against the Greeks, and I don't see how that would have been possible. As to which of these figures is honored by the name Teucrium, Pliny wrote that Teucer discovered Teucrium during the same period in which Achilles discovered Achillea, so he would be refering to the one who fought in the Trojan War. The genus Teucrium was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Teucrium)
  • tev'isii: named for Lloyd Pacheco Tevis (1890-1963), born in San Francisco, California. His two grandparents were the famous pioneer, banker, capitalist and 20-year President of Wells Fargo Lloyd Tevis, and the early Governor of California and Minister to Central America Romualdo Pacheco. Lloyd Pacheco Tevis was encouraged as a young man to collect wildflowers in the Lake Taho region. His son was Lloyd Pacheco Tevis, Jr., biologist, author, horseman, hiker, and gardener, co-author with Tracey Storer of California Grizzly, still considered the authoritative text on this extinct mammal, and a founder of the City of Rancho Mirage and the Living Desert Reserve in Palm Desert. He died in Monterey County. (ref. Polemonium tevisii)
  • texa'na/texa'num/texa'nus: of or from, or somehow relating to, Texas. (ref. Bergia texana, Erodium texanum, Nuttallanthus texanus)
  • texen'sis: same as previous entry. (ref. Carex retroflexa var. texensis)
  • tex'tilis: from the Latin textilis, "woven or braided." (ref. Juncus textilis)
  • thach'eriae/thacheria'num: after Olive Day Thacher (1891-1971), member of the California Botanical Society, recipient in 1915 of a BS in botany from the University of California, and daughter of Sherman Day Thacher who in 1889 founded the Thacher School in Ojai, which was then known as the School for Out-of-Door Life and Study. She collected Ribes thacherianum on Santa Cruz Island in 1921. (ref. Lathyrus strictus var. thacheriae, Ribes thacherianum)
  • thalia'na: after Johann Thal (1542-1583), German physician and botanist. He was born in Erfurt, Thuringia in central Germany, the son of a Protestant pastor. He was first schooled in Erfurt then went to the monastery school at Ilfeld (1558-1561), a then famous school under the direction of Michael Neander, a man Thal worshipped as a second father after the early death of his own father. Soon after entering that school, he had become enamored of botany and the natural world and had determined 72 grass species in the surrounding area and created his own herbarium. He then studied medicine at the University of Jena beginning in 1561 and practiced his profession in Stendal and then in Stolberg as a doctor in the city (1572), Whether he actually received any kind of medical degree is unclear. He worked for five years producing a compilation of the plants of the Harz Mountains and northern Thuringia region. While authors who preceded Thal had limited themselves to medicinally active plants, Thal's work was unique because it included all occurring plants. He first discovered what came to be called Arabidopsis thaliana in the Harz Mountains. He originally called it Pilosella siliquosa, and it went through several name changes before finally being named in his honor in 1842. This species has turned out to be an incredibly significant and important model organism in developmental biology. In 1583 he had a carriage accident and fractured his lower leg, dying as a result of his severe injuries three weeks later. His work Sylvia Hercynia was published posthumously in 1588. (ref. Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Thalic'trum: from thaliktron, a name used to describe a plant with divided leaves, and a name given to the genus by Dioscorides, the Greek physician and pharmacologist who wrote the Materia Medica, which remained the leading pharmacological text for sixteen centuries. The genus Thalictrum was published by Carl Linnaes in 1753. (ref. genus Thalictrum)
  • Thamnos'ma: from the Greek for "odorous shrub." The genus Thamnosma was published by John Torrey and John Charles Frémont in 1845. (ref. genus Thamnosma)
  • -thamnus: a shrub. (ref. genera Chrysothamnus, Malacothamnus)
  • thap'sus: David Hollombe provides this derivation: "Nikander, Theocritus and Theophrastus wrote about Thapsos, a plant from Thapsos, Sicily. The root was used to produce a yellow dye. Some sources claim it was Cotinus coggygria." The name Verbascum thapsus was published by Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. Verbascum thapsus)
  • tharp'ii: named for Benjamin Carroll Tharp (1885-1964), American botanist and teacher. The Handbook of Texas
      from the Texas State Historical Association provides the following information: “Benjamin Carroll Tharp, botanist and teacher, was born in Pankey, Grimes County, Texas, on November 16, 1885, the son of Edwin Harris and Angelina Victoria (McJunkin) Tharp. He enrolled in Sam Houston Normal Institute in 1908 and graduated in 1910. He entered the University of Texas in 1911 and received a B.A. degree in 1914 and an M.A. degree in 1915. He was plant pathologist at the Texas Department of Agriculture from 1915 to 1917 and associate professor of biology at
    Sam Houston from 1917 to 1919, when he joined the University of Texas faculty as an instructor in botany. His work on the ecological survey in 1921, concerning the age of trees along the Red River, contributed to the settlement of the Texas-Oklahoma boundary dispute. Tharp received a Ph.D. degree in 1925 from the University of Texas and in that year was named an associate professor; he was a full professor from 1933 until his retirement in 1956, at which time he was named professor emeritus. He was also assistant dean of the College of Arts and Sciences from 1928 to 1934. Tharp's approach to Texas vegetation was essentially that of a naturalist, and he probably knew the vegetation of the state better than anyone in his own time. He was director of the University of Texas Herbarium from 1943 until 1956, and his studies and collection of the Texas flora resulted in publications that strongly influenced such writers as Roy Bedichek, J. Frank Dobie, and Walter P. Webb. Tharp's first comprehensive treatment of the vegetation of Texas was "The Structure of Texas Vegetation East of the 98th Meridian," published in the University of Texas Bulletin (1926). The Vegetation of Texas (1939) was a more comprehensive study. "A Pollen Profile from a Texas Bog," published jointly with J. E. Potzger of Butler University in 1947, was one of the first studies in the southern United States to determine vegetational shifts and climate changes through the use of pollen profile sequences. Tharp's last major work was Texas Range Grasses (1952). He was co-editor of Mary S. Young's 1914 journal of botanical explorations in Trans-Pecos Texas, published in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly in 1962. Tharp, who has been called the "Father of Texas Ecology," was a life member of the Texas Academy of Scienceqv and a member of other state and national societies. He was a Democrat, a Mason, and a deacon of the University Baptist Church in Austin. He married Norris Ophelia Wallis on September 16, 1914; they had two sons. He died in Austin on November 29, 1964, and was buried in Austin Memorial Park.” (ref. Peltandra tharpii) (Photo credit: BioOne)
  • -theca: cover, case, container. (ref. genus Heterotheca, also Spergularia macrotheca)
  • Thelesper'ma: from the Greek thele, "nipple," and sperma, "seed," and referring to the roughened achenes. The genus Thelesperma was published by Christian Friedrich Lessing in 1831. (ref. genus Thelesperma)
  • Thelypo'dium: from the Greek thelys, "female," and pus, "foot," from the presence of the stipe or stalk above the receptacle. The genus Thelypodium was published by Stephan Friedrich Ladislaus Endlicher in 1839. (ref. genus Thelypodium)
  • Thelyp'teris: from the Greek thelys, "female," and pteris, "fern." The genus Thelypteris was published by Casimir Christoph Schmidel in 1763. (ref. genus Thelypteris)
  • theophras'ti: named after the Greek philospher and botanist Theophrastos (371-c.287 B.C.). The following is quoted
      from a website called Theophrastus of Eresos: "Around 320 BC the Greek philosopher Theophrastus begins the science of botany with his books De causis plantarum/The Causes of Plants and De historia plantarum/The History of Plants. In them he classifies 500 plants, develops a scientific terminology for describing biological structures, distinguishes between the internal organs and external tissues of plants, and gives the first clear account of plant sexual reproduction, including how to pollinate the date palm by hand. Theophrastus (or Theophrast or Theophrastos)
    (371 or 372 -287/286) BC, the son of Melantas, born in Eresos on Lesbos, was a student of Aristotle and succeeded him as a director of the Lyceum in Athens. He took over the philosophy of Aristotle in parts reshaping, commenting, and developing it in an original way. His thinking leads to empirism by means of observation, collection, and classification. He was around 35 years the director of the Lyceum and he was a teacher of up to 2000 students. His true name was Tyrtamos of Eresos. Due to his oratory talents he was nicknamed Euphrastos, the well-spoken, eventually to become famous as Theophrastus, divine spoken. Having joined Plato’s Academy at the age of 17 he soon fell to Aristotle’s spell and accompanied him, still a young man, in his self-chosen exile on the Troad then on his home island Lesbos. He then disappeared from the record for three or more years – during which time some believe he traveled far, to Crete and Libya to come again at Aristotle’s side in Stageira. From there on he never again left his master except for his short last exile, succeeding him as the headmaster of the peripatetic school until his death in 287, at the venerable age of 85. He is said to have been a congenial chap, sworn bachelor and gourmet, and to have died of the sequels of the wedding party of one of his pupils. The main innovation of Theophrastus is his attempt to find a connection between the 'first principles' (the intelligible world, ratio) and the perceivable objects of nature; this distinction remains the main motive of occidental philosophy during the next two millenia with different solutions. Theophrastus is also called 'father of botany' and can be regarded as the founder of ecology, too. He described the origin of plants from seeds, he carried out germination experiments, discussed the influence of abiotic habitat factors on plants, the ecology of domestic plants, pollination of plants with the example of the fig, he invented a growth form terminology which is still valid (root, shoot). He described more than 500 species and varieties of plants from lands bordering the Atlantic and Mediterranean. He classified plants into trees, shrubs, under shrubs, and herbs. He noted that some flowers bear petals whereas others do not, and observed the different relative positions of the petals and ovary. In his work on propagation and germination, Theophrastus described the various ways in which specific plants and trees can grow: from seeds, from roots, from pieces torn off, from a branch or twig, or from a small piece of cleft wood." (ref. Abutilon theophrasti)
  • Theres'ia: named for his wife Therese Auguste Weichardt Koch (1818-1886) by German physician and botanist Karl Heinrich Emil Koch in 1849. The genus Theresia was published by Karl Heinrich Emil Koch in 1849. (ref. genus Theresia)
  • therma'le/therma'lis: of warm springs. (ref. Gnaphalium canescens ssp. thermale, Phacelia thermalis)
  • thermop'ola: David Hollombe at first thought this was for Thermopolis, Wyoming, but then found out that "the type locality was on the Snake River near the southern entrance to Yellowstone and the range was originally thought of as a narrow band from Yellowstone to Salt Lake City, all far to the west of Thermopolis, but I think there is still a reference to hot springs, just different ones." (ref. Artemisia arbuscula ssp. thermopola)
  • Thermop'sis: from the Greek thermos for lupine and opsis, "like," bearing yellow lupine-like flower heads. The genus Thermopsis was published by Robert Brown in 1811. (ref. genus Thermopsis)
  • Thing'ia: named for Thing of the Addams Family. Mark Hershkovitz in the journal Phytoneuron published this generic name in 2019. He says: “The generic name metaphorically refers to one of the colloquial names for the type species, ‘dead man’s fingers.’ Thus, the genus is named for the literary figure, Thing, of the Addams Family cartoon, television series, and movie. ‘Thing’ is an animated but (at least in the movie) disembodied human hand. This suggests that the hand derives from a deceased human, hence possesses “dead man ́s fingers.” The generic combination also suggests an appropriate vernacular name, ‘ambiguous thing,’ reflecting the ambiguity of the status of this species following cladistic classification of Montiaceae.” The genus Thingia was published by Mark A. Hershkovitz in 2019. (ref. genus Thingia)
  • Thlas'pi: from the Greek thlaein, "to crush," from the flattened silicle, and the Greek name for a cress. The genus Thlaspi was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Thlaspi)
  • thom'asii: after George Henry Thomas (1816-1870), United States Army officer stationed at Fort Yuma about
      1850, and later as a general a Civil War hero called the Rock of Chickamauga. He was born of French Huguenot ancestry at Newsom’s Depot, Virginia on an upper class plantation which eventually reached a size of almost 700 acres and included 24 slaves. After his father died, he and his family had to flee their home and hide in the woods during the slave uprising of Nat Turner in 1931. This episode appeared to create in him a negative view of slavery, although he continued to own slaves. Thomas was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New
    York, in 1836 by Congressman John Y. Mason, where one of his roommates was William Tecumsah Sherman. He served in the Seminole Wars in Florida and then during Mexican-American War. In 1851 he was appointed as a cavalry and artillery instructor at West Point, where he established a close professional and personal relationship with another Virginia officer, Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee. One of his students who received his recommendation for assignment to the cavalry was Jeb Stuart. Despite his southern heritage chose to side with the Union during the Civil War, in which he had a distinguished career. He had an uncomfortable relationship with General Grant which may partially explain why he did not seem to get the credit for his war service that he deserved, but he was widely regarded as the next best general to Grant and Sherman on the Union side. He had an interest in botany and plant collecting, and it was because of plants he collected near Fort Yuma that John Torrey honored him with the specific epithet thomasii. He died of a stroke in 1870. (ref. Eriogonum thomasii)
  • thompson'iae: after Ellen Louella Powell Thompson (Mrs. Almon Harris Thompson) (1843-1911), called "Nellie," American naturalist and botanist, and an active advocate for women's suffrage. She was born in New York and was a founding member of the Women's Anthropological Society of America, Washington DC. She was the sister of John Wesley Powell and having a degree in botany she accompanied her husband, Almon Harris Thompson, on an expedition through the Escalante Wilderness in 1872. Thompson had been appointed by Powell to lead the expedition after he left to return to Salt Lake City to visit his wife and new child. They charted the course of the Escalante River which was the last named river in the United States. At one point the expedition climbed a pass between two peaks: Mt. Ellen and Mt. Pennell. "Prof" Thompson named Mt. Ellen after his wife, "Nellie." She was the first person to do botanical studies in the region. On his expedition of the year before, Powell had named one of his boats the Nellie Powell. Another brother was William P Powell, superintendent of Washington DC public schools. She attended Wheaton College in Wheaton, Illinois, in the mid-1850s and taught school from the age of 16. In 1862 she was married to professor, topographer, explorer, geologist, geographer and Civil War veteran Almon Harris Thompson, who was a colleague and friend of her brother John. Ellen Thompson accompanied her husband on expeditions to map the western United States. During this period, she made friends with members of a number of Indian tribes, learning the language of the "Pah Utes" and studying their customs. When her husband entered the Army, she took her husband's position as superintendent of schools, and spent one summer caring for the sick and wounded soldiers. She had at least five taxa named after her. (ref. Penstemon thompsoniae, Peteria thompsoniae)
  • thompsonia'nus/thomp'sonii: named for John William Thompson (1890-1976), teacher and botanist. He was born in Dexter, Missouri, and was raised by his grandparents on a farm. He had no formal schooling, and taught himself to read from old almanacs. Moving to Oregon at the age of 15, he worked in a mill, then entered grammar school two years later, completing his courses in two years. He then took the teachers’ examination which he passed successfully. At 34 he enrolled at Willamette University and received a Masters degree in botany. He first taught in several Oregon and Washington communities, and then began teaching in Seattle in 1928. He taught botany and biology at Cleveland, Ballard and Lincoln High Schools until he was forced to retire in the early 1950s due to a heart ailment. His next career was the creation of color slides of natural history subjects for classroom use, and he eventually aamassed a total of around 150,000 slides that are being used in classrooms across the U.S. and Canada. Eighteen plants have been named in his honor. He donated his private herbarium to the University of Washington botany department and served as assistant curator there for 17 years. He died in Renton, Washington. (ref. Lupinus thompsonianus, Iris thompsonii, Penstemon menziesii ssp. thompsonii, Salix scouleriana var. thompsonii)
  • thomp'sonii: named for Dr. David Malcom Thompson (1957- ), botanist, author of Systematics of antirrhinum (Scrophulariacease) in the New World, and expert on Mimulus. He received a Bachelor’s degree in Forest Engineering from Ohio State University in 1965. He was at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden and he prepared the treatment for Mimulus for the Jepson Manual. He was awarded a Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1986. (ref. Diplacus thomsonii)
  • thom'sonii: named for Thomas Thomson (1817-1878), Acottish physician and botanist. He was born in Glasgow and
      his father was a chemistry professor at Glasgow University. Thomas was educated at the high school and then at the University. When only seventeen he discovered and described the celebrated beds of fossil mollusca on the Firth of Clyde. He intended originally to make a career of chemistry, but after entering medical classes at university he concentrated his attention on botany under William Jackson Hooker. I include here a section of the entry in the Dictionary of National Biography about his career because it is summarized and described
    better than I could: “After graduating M.D. at Glasgow University in 1839 he entered the service of the East India Company as assistant surgeon, and on his arrival in Calcutta early in 1840 was appointed to the curatorship of the museum of the Asiatic Society. He had begun the arrangement of their collection of minerals when in August he was sent to Afghanistan in charge of a party of European recruits. He reached Cabul in June 1841, and proceeded to Ghuznee, where he was attached to the 27th native infantry. He was besieged in Ghuznee during the winter, and was made a prisoner when the place fell in March 1842. He was destined to be sold into slavery in Bokhara, but, with some fellow-prisoners, succeeded in bribing his captor to convey him to the British army of relief. Before he was closely beleaguered he had been employed in making a study of the geology and botany of the district. He returned to India without his collections and personal effects, and was stationed with his regiment at Moradabad till 1845, when he joined the army of the Indus and served through the Sutlej campaign, after which he returned to Moradabad and was stationed at Lahore and Ferozepur. During this period he was engaged in investigating the botany of the plains and outer Himalayas. In August 1847 he was appointed one of the commissioners for defining the boundary between Kashmir and Chinese Thibet, and reached Léh in October. He made extensive journeys in the Kashmir territories, going as far north as the Karakoran Pass, and obtaining most important geographical information, besides valuable collections. After his return to India he took furlough at Simla, where he finished his report and made further botanical researches. At the end of 1849 he joined his friend Dr. (now Sir Joseph Dalton) Hooker in Darjeeling, and, in lieu of going to England, spent 1850 in travelling with him in the Sikkim forests, the Khasi hills, Cachar, Chittagong, and the Sunderbunds, finally returning to England in very broken health in March 1851. The next few years were spent at Kew, working at the collections obtained during these travels. In the mistaken belief that assistance would be given by the company, he brought out, in conjunction with Hooker, at his own expense, and issued at cost price, the first volume of a work entitled ‘Flora Indica,’ London, 1855, 8vo; but the sole support he obtained from the company was the offer to purchase some copies. In 1854 Thomson succeeded Dr. Falconer as superintendent of the botanical garden at Calcutta. He was also appointed professor of botany at the Calcutta medical college, and held the two posts till 1861, when he retired and returned to England in ill health. He resided first at Kew and then at Maidstone. In 1871 he went again to India as secretary to the expedition fitted out to observe the eclipse of the sun on 12 Dec. of that year. He died on 18 April 1878. He married, in 1854, Catharine, daughter of R. C. Sconce, esq., of Malta. Thomson was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society in 1852, of the Royal Geographical Society in 1854, and of the Royal Society in 1855. He was for twelve years an examiner in natural science for the medical services of the army and navy, and on several occasions examiner in botany for the university of London and the South Kensington school of science.” (ref. Mnium thomsonii) (Photo credit: John Grimshaw's Garden Diary)
  • thorn'beri: named for John James Thornber (1872-1962), professor of biology/botany at the University of Arizona
      College of Agriculture for 45 years who did some of the earliest research on native grasses and cacti. He was born in Rantoul, Champaign County, Illinois, and took undergraduate studies in 1895 at South Dakota Agricultural College in Brookings. He recived a Bachelor of Science Degree in botany in 1897 from the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and a Master of Arts Degree in botany in 1901 from the same institution. He was one-time Head of School of Agriculture and Botanist for the Agricultural Experiment Station for 41 years. Even after his
    partial retirement in 1942, he remained an active and influential scholar until his death in 1962. The University of Arizona Herbarium has a detailed on-line history that includes much material on Thornber, who contributed some 10,000 records to its collections. Thornber was influential in the study of rangeland restoration, grasses, and cacti. He was Visiting Scholar, Smithsonian Institution and Asa Gray Herbarium, Harvard University, 1911-1912. He was the author of The Fantastic Clan: The Cactus Family, Field Book of Western Wild Flowers, and Native cacti as emergency forage plants. He was honored with the generic name Thornbera. He died in Tucson. (ref. Chaenactis stevioides var. thornberi, Populus fremontii var. thornberi, Senecio thornberi) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • thorne'ae: named for teacher and botanist Kaye Hugie Thorne (Mrs. James Meyers Thorne) (1939-2004). She
      graduated from Utah State University and taught elementary school in Walnut Creek, California. She was married and the family moved to Provo in 1966 where her husband taught chemistry at Brigham Young University. She had two children and when they were in school she obtained a Master's degree in botany and was hired as the Assistant Curator of Plants at the BYU Herbarium. She took numerous field trips collecting plant specimens for use in teaching and research at BYU and elsewhere. She was especially talented in drawing plants in pen and
    ink, and her scientific illustrations have appeared in a number of books and botanical journals. Her excitement about wild plants was infectious, and she lead numerous nature walks for non-scientists. She also ran the Colorado River to train boating guides in the plants of the area. Her husband, James Meyers Thorne, received a Ph.D. in physical chemistry at UCLA., and spent his professional career as a professor of chemistry at Brigham Young University. Kaye Hugie Thorne died after a long struggle with Alzheimer's disease. (ref. Cirsium scariosum var. thorneae)
  • thorn'ei: named after Robert Folger Thorne (1920-2015), "Bob" to his friends, Professor of Botany Emeritus at Claremont
      Graduate University and Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, botanist and authority on angiosperm evolution, and former President of Southern California Botanists. The following is quoted from the April/May newsletter of the Orange County Chapter CNPS: "He is retired from his position as curator and taxonomist at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, although he continues to conduct research. He is a member of the San Diego chapter of CNPS. He continues also as an active member of Southern California Botanists, where he served previously as
    member of the board, vice-president, and president. As a young man - he is now 84 - he served as a B-24 bomber navigator in World War II. During a mission over Austria, his plane was badly shot up. Despite the fact that the plane was riddled with flak, causing a fire in one engine, the crew managed to parachute over the only partisan-held island (Vis) in the Dalmatian chain, now part of Croatia. (Had he landed on any other island, he and his crewmates would have been prisoners of war). But Dr. Thorne’s military career did not end at that point - after the crew was returned to Italy he flew 29 more missions. Dr. Thorne became hooked on botany when he took required science courses at Dartmouth College. Abandoning plans to become a linguist, he went on to earn an M.S. in 1942 and a Ph.D in 1949 from Cornell University. After graduation, he spent thirteen years at the University of Iowa, as an assistant, associate, then full professor. He became friends with Peter Raven (another giant in the field) during a five-month stint as a researcher at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew and the British Museum of Natural History in London. Dr. Raven was then the curator at Rancho Santa Ana, and the Garden accepted his recommendation to appoint Dr. Thorne as his successor when the former moved on to Stanford. During his tenure there (from 1962 to 1987), Dr. Thorne was also Professor of Botany at Claremont Graduate School, now Claremont Graduate University. At that time, famed cactologist Lyman Benson was curator of the herbarium at Pomona College. When Dr. Benson retired, the Pomona College collection was donated to Rancho Santa Ana, and Dr. Thorne became curator of the combined collection. Before and during those years, Dr. Thorne traveled extensively while collecting specimens for herbaria. He spent 1½ years in Australia as a Fulbright researcher studying primitive angiosperms in the rain forests of the region, including New Caledonia, New Guinea, and Tasmania. Based on his travels in Mexico, he has prepared a flora of the high country of the Sierra San Pedro Martir and is working on a flora of the California floristic region of northwestern Baja California. His California publications include the Flora of the Santa Ana Mountains and the Flora of the Santa Rosa Plateau (both with Earl Lathrop), the Flora of the Higher Ranges of the Eastern Mojave (with Jim Henrickson and Barry Prigge) and the Flora of Santa Catalina Island. His numerous other works include two chapters written for the voluminous Terrestrial Vegetation of California, treatments of aquatic monocots in the Jepson Manual and many papers on biogeography, vernal pools, other plant communities of California as well as floras of areas in New York, Iowa, Virginia, Georgia, and Florida. Among other awards and honors and memberships Dr. Thorne has received is the Asa Gray Award from the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. He received two Fulbright scholarships and a National Science Foundation Senior Postdoctoral Fellowship while at the University of Iowa. He has been a Fellow of the Linnaean Society of London and was honored with foreign membership in the Royal Society of Denmark." (ref. Eriogonum thornei, Delphinium variegatum ssp. thornei)
  • Thorneochlo'a: see previous entry. The genus Thorneochloa was published in 2019 by Konstantin Romaschenko, Paul M. Peterson, and Robert John Soreng. The genus Thorneochloa was published by Konstantin Romaschenko, Paul M. Peterson and Robert John Soreng in 2019. (Ref. genus Thorneochloa)
  • thuillier'i: named for Jean Louis Thuillier (1757-1822), French botanist, bryologist and gardener. He was born in Creil, only received a basic education, and began working as a gardener at the Jardin des plantes in Paris. He spent most of his life at Charlemagne College, and was often solicited by botanists like Louis Marie Claude Richard and Bernard de Jussieu to accompany them on their botanical excursions. He sold collections to people such as Benjamin Delessert. In 1790 he published Flora of the environs of Paris, or Methodical distribution of the plants which grow there naturally, executed according to the system of Linnaeus, in which the descriptions of the plants were provided by other botanists. He died in Paris. (ref. Centarea debeauxii ssp. thuillieri)
  • Thu'ja: from the Greek name thuia or thyia, for a kind of juniper or other resinous tree. The genus Thuja was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Thuja)
  • Thunber'gia: after Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828), the ‘Father of South African botany.’ Stearn’s Dictionary
      says: He was a "...Swedish botanist, a student of Linnaeus who was pursuaded by Dutch lovers of new plants to enter the service of the Dutch East India Company as a doctor and send back plants from Japan to Europe. He travelled in South Africa and Japan and became professor of botany at Uppsala." He was born in Jönköping, Sweden, and attended Uppsala University where he was one of the students of Carl Linnaeus and graduated in 1767. Linnaeus encouraged him in 1770 to travel to Paris, Amsterdam and Leiden to deepen his knowledge of botany, medicine and natural history.
    Linnaeus’ Swedish pupil Johannes Burman convinced Thunberg to travel to the Indies to collect plants for the Leiden botanical garden, which he did for the Dutch East India Company in 1771. He was also experiencing a powerful attraction to South Africa, which he reached in 1772. He was there for three years and regularly undertook field trips and journeys into the interior of South Africa, during which time he not only collected specimens of flora and fauna but also studied the culture of the native people of Western South Africa who were called the Khoikhoi. At some point he met Francis Masson, a Scots gardener who had come to Cape Town to collect plants for the Royal Gardens at Kew. While in South Africa he graduated in absentia from the University of Uppsala as Doctor of Medicine. In 1775 he left the Cape for Batavia and travelled on to Japan.  At first restricted to a small artificial island in the Bay of Nagasaki by order of the Shogun, he was gradually allowed limited access to the city, and began trading medical knowledge for botanical information and the ability to collect specimens. He taught local doctors about treating syphilis and in turn learned about acupuncture. Wikipedia goes on to say: “In both countries, Thunberg's knowledge exchange hence led to a cultural opening-up effect which too manifested itself also in the spread of universities and boarding schools which taught knowledge on the other culture. For this reason, Thunberg has been given the title of being "the most important eye witness of Tokugawa Japan in the eighteenth century." “Due to his scientific reputation, Thunberg was given the opportunity in 1776 to accompany the Dutch ambassador M. Feith to the shogun's court in Edo, today's Tokyo. During that journey, the Swede was given the chance to collect a great number of specimen of plants and animals and likewise to talk to Japanese locals in the villages they traversed on their way. It is in this time that Thunberg wrote two of his scientific masterpieces, the Flora Japonica (1784) and the Fauna Japonica (1833). The latter was completed by the German traveller Philipp Franz von Siebold who visited Japan between 1823 and 1829. Yet, von Siebold based the Fauna Japonica on Thunberg's notes which he carried with him all the time in Japan.” In November 1776 he left Japan and travelled first to Java, then to Ceylon, before returning to Europe via South Africa in 1778. He made a short trip to London to meet Sir Joseph Banks, and then upon arriving back in Sweden, was appointed in 1781 professor of medicine and natural philosophy at the University of Uppsala. He published his Flora japonica in 1784, and in 1788 he began to publish his travels. He completed his Prodromus plantarum in 1800, his Icones plantarum japonicarum in 1805, and his Flora capensis in 1813. He had been elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and then in 1823 associated member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands. He died near Uppsala in 1818. The genus Thunbergia was published in 1780 by Anders Jahan Retzius. The genus Thunbergia was published by Anders Jahan Retzius in 1776. (ref. genus Thunbergia)
  • thur'beri/thurberia'na/thurberia'num: named after Dr. George Thurber (1821-1890), called the most accomplished horticulturist in America, and botanist and quartermaster of the Mexican Boundary Survey, 1850-1854. Dr. Thurber was professor of botany and horticulture at Michigan Agricultural College 1859-1863 and editor of the American Agriculturalist from 1863 until his death in 1890. He was born in Providence, Rhode Island and studied at the Union Classical and Engineering School, but did not graduate. He apprenticed with a local pharmacist and then set up in business with a partner, while at the same time giving lectures in chemistry at the Franklin Society of Providence. He was largely self-taught as a botanist, and like so many others was stimulated in his botanical explorations by his desire to learn about medicinal plants. In 1850 he was offered the position of botanist on the U.S. Boundary Commission which had been tasked to survey the boundary between the United States and Mexico, and he remained with the Commission until 1854. The collections he made, including the curious Pilostyles, form the subject of Asa Gray's Plantae Novae Thurberianae. Returning to academia, he earned a graduate degree in chemistry from Brown University and was appointed, probably through the influence of Dr John Torrey, to the United States Assay Office in New York. Wikipedia says: “He left the Assay Office in 1856 and held a succession of teaching positions at Cooper Union, the College of Pharmacy of the City of New York, and Michigan Agricultural College, before assuming the position of editor of American Agriculturist, which he occupied for 22 years. As editor, he not only wrote regular columns on botany and horticulture but was also dedicated to exposing business and professional frauds, and the many swindlers and charlatans circulating within the agricultural community. After his death, Garden and Forest magazine praised him for having elevated the standing of the American agricultural and horticulture press more than any other writer of his time. His larger publications included American Weeds and Useful Plants, the graminology of the botany of California, and the botany entries for Appleton's New American Encyclopaedia. Thurber, who suffered most of his life from a debilitating rheumatism contracted in Mexico, did not live to complete his monograph on American grasses on which he laboured for many years. He became a corresponding member of the Royal Horticultural Society of London in 1886, six years after his tour of the European continent, during which he met many leading botanists and horticulturalists. In America, he was a member of the New Jersey Horticultural Society, the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, the New York Academy of Sciences, and the American Pomological Society, and received an honorary doctorate from the University Medical College of New York. After the death of his good friend Dr Torrey in 1873, Thurber served as president of the Torrey Botanical Club for seven years. Two different genera of plants were given the same name in dedication to him, though neither is in current usage. Thurberia A. Gray (1855) in the Malvaceae is a synonym of Gossypium. The later homonym Thurberia Bentham (1881) in the Poaceae is an illegitimate name for Limnodea L.H. Dewey.” (ref. Agrostis thurberiana, Achnatherum thurbianum, Centrostegia thurberi, Dyssodia thurberi, Eriogonum thurberi, Festuca thurberi, Habenaria thurberi, Lepidium thurberi, Malvastrum thurberi, Muhlenbergia thurberi, Poa thurberiana, Penstemon thurberi, Petalonyx thurberi, Pilostyles thurberi, Salix thurberi)
  • thurberia'na/thurberia'num: see previous entry. (ref. Agrostis thurberiana, Achnatherum thurberianum)
  • thurow'i: named for German-American amateur botanist Frederick William Thurow (1852-1930). He was born in Wartenstein, Germany, and at the age of 12 emigrated with his parents to Burlington, Wisconsin. His mother soon died, and his father departed for parts unknown, leaving young Frederick in the care of relatives for whom he had to work to earn his room and board. He had practically no formal schooling, but when he began earning wages at age 15 he spent almost everything on books to further his education, accumulating a fine library of scientific and natural history books and becoming especially proficient in botany. He left for Texas in 1876 and settled near Hockley in Waller County. He explored the surrounding country and discovered many new species. He also contacted a number of prominent botanists including John Merle Coulter, and assisted him in collecting material for his Flora of West Texas. He also provided hundreds of specimens to the U.S. National Museum and the Field Museum. He worked with George Vasey to study the Texas grass flora. One species named for him, Hymenoxys texana, disappeared from the Texas flora after 1904 and was not rediscovered until 1970. His collection of 1,600 Texas species comprises the bulk of the herbarium which is currently located at the Sam Houston State Teachers’ College at Huntsville. He died in Houston. (ref. Sisyrinchium thurowi)
  • Thymophyl'la: from the Greek thymos, "thyme," and phyllon, "leaf," meaning "thyme-leaved." The genus Thymophylla was published by Mariano Lagasca y Segura in 1816. (ref. genus Thymophylla)
  • thysanocar'phus: like platycarphus, there are two possibilities here: (1) from Greek thusanos, "fringe," and karphos, "a dry splinter, twig, straw," in turn from karpho, "to dry up or wither," referring to the pappus or to the scales of the involucre; (2) it is also possible that this is just an alternate spelling of 'thysanocarpus' meaning "fringed fruit." (ref. Orochaenactis thysanocarphus)
  • thyrsiflor'a: with flowers in a thyrse, which according to Harris and Harris's Plant Identification Terminology is "a compact cylindrical or ovate panicle with an indeterminate main axis and cymose sub-axes." (ref. Lysimachia thyrsiflora)
  • Thysanocar'pus: from the Greek words thusanos, "fringe," and karpos, "fruit," hence "fringed fruit." The genus Thysanocarpus was published by William Jackson Hooker in 1830. (ref. genus Thysanocarpus)
  • Tiarel'la: from the Greek tiara, tiaras for "a small tiara", a Persian head-dress worn on great occasions. The genus Tiarella was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tiarella)
  • tiburonen'sis: I think this refers to the town of Tiburon in Marin County. (ref. Calochortus tiburonensis)
  • tidball'ii: named for John Caldwell Tidball (1825-1906), professional soldier during the Civil War and after. He
      was born near Wheeling, West Virginia, and grew up on a farm in eastern Ohio. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1848 and served as an artillery officer at various stations. He served in the Florida hostilities against the Seminoles, and accompanied an exploring expedition to California in 1853–1854. In 1859 he was sent on the expedition to Harper's Ferry to suppress John Brown's raid. He served throughout the War, rising toward the end to the rank of brevet Major General. He was placed in various positions of command,
    receiving five brevet commissions for gallant and meritorious conduct on the field, being complimented personally by President Abraham Lincoln for his work at the Battle of Gettysburg, and serving in most of the major campaigns in the Eastern Theater, from the First Battle of Bull Run through the Siege of Petersburg. He became the 3rd Commander of the Department of Alaska (which preceded the position of Governor of Alaska), and lived there for six years. He was Commandant at West Point for many years, and was Commandant at the Artillery School at Fort Monroe in Virginia, and reorganized and brought that institution to a high state of perfection. He was promoted to colonel and served as aide-de-camp to General William T. Sherman during the latter's tenure as general-in-chief of the U.S. Army, 1881-1884. His 1880 instruction book, Manual Of Heavy Artillery Service, served for decades as the army's guidebook to artillery strategy and operations. Tidball was appointed brigadier general on the retired list, April 23, 1904. He retired from active service in 1889. He was married twice, first to Mary Hunt Davis with whom he had three children, and secondly to Mary Langdon Dana, with whom he had five children. He died at the age of 81 in his residence in Montclair, New Jersey, and was buried in the post cemetery at the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York. I haven't been able to find out any reason why Tidball should have been so honored, but the taxon, Opuntia tidballii, was published by J.M. Bigelow in Pacif. Railr. Rep. Parke, Bot. 4(5): 11 1857, after one of the Pacific railroad surveys, and can only assume that he had some relationship with Tidball and may have been assisted in some way. (ref. Opuntia tidballii) (Find-a-Grave)
  • Tidestro'mia/tidestro'mii: named for Swedish-born American botanist Ivar Theodor Tidestrøm (1864-1956), professor of botany at Catholic University, author of Flora of Utah and Nevada (1925) and Flora of Arizona and New Mexico (1941) with Sister Teresita Kittell. He apparently also did work in Maryland and Virginia. The genus Tidestromia was published by Paul Carpenter Standley in 1916. (ref. genus Tidestromia, also Astragalus tidestromii, Lupinus tidestromii)
  • tiehm'ii: after amateur plant collector and professional bellhop and limo driver Arnold Gerard Tiehm (1951- ) of Reno, Nevada, author of Nevada Vascular Plant Types and Their Collectors, published by the New York Botanical Garden in 1996. Tiehm has had the rare good luck to have discovered nineteen new plants, six of which bear his name, all found on days off in his native Nevada "backyard." He is also the author of a biography of Per Axel Rydberg, and according to David Hollombe, is at work on a biography of Amos Arthur Heller. (ref. Arabis tiehmii, Juncus tiehmii)
  • tilin'gii: named after Heinrich Sylvester Theodor Tiling (1818-1871), a German-Russian physician and botanist
      for a Russian-American company in Sitka who also collected plants in California and Nevada for various European botanical gardens. He was born in Latvia and studied medicine in Dorpat from 1838 to 1844. He became a physician at the Russian North American Co. in Ayan, Siberia from 1845 through 1851. He described all of the plants in the area and published an account of it with the director of the botanical gardens in St. Petersburg, Russia, Eduard August von Regel (Florula Ajanensis). In 1852 he and his family travelled from Ayan to Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Sitka,
    Hawaii, Tahiti, around Cape Horn through the Atlantic Ocean to Kronstadt and finally back to Riga. There he practiced for a couple of years before moving to Wenden, Lativia, where he practiced from 1854 to 1863. He resituated in 1863 to Sitka, Alaska where he was a surgeon until 1868 before moving on to San Francisco and then later to Nevada City, California. Alaska had been purchased by the U.S. government in 1867. At some point he became an American citizen. The collection and categorization of plants, and the recording of meteorological data were clearly the two major preoccupations of his life, and he was responsible for the introduction into Europe of a number of previously unknown species. More than 20 species were named for him. He wrote about his "trip around the world" in a book whose title translates as A journey around the world from West to East through Siberia and the Pacific and Atlantic seas. He died in Nevada City, California, in 1871, and his wife died in Riga in 1876. (Photo credit: Geni) (ref. Erythranthe tilingii) (Photo credit: Geni)
  • tillae'a: for the Italian botanist Michael Angelo Tilli (1655-1740), physician, professor of botany and Fellow
      of the Royal Society of London, author of Catalogus plantarum horti Pisani (1723), and from 1685 until his death Praefectus (the person in charge) of the Botanical Garden of the University of Pisa. He was born in Castelfiorentino, Italy, and became a doctor of medicine in 1677 at the University of Pisa. Wikipedia says: “He opened a practice in Florence and worked from 1681 as a doctor on the ship routes leading from Florence to Mallorca and Menorca . In 1683 he traveled to Constantinople and Adrianople to treat the son-in-law of Sultan Mehmed IV. During the return
    journey that took him through the Aegean Sea , he made notes on the natural history of the Aegean Sea. In 1685 he became a professor of botany at the University of Pisa and director of the botanical garden founded there by Luca Ghini. To expand the plant collection, he received many rare species from the Botanical Garden in Amsterdam."The genus Tillaea was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.(ref. genus Tillaea, Crassula tillaea)
  • Tillands'ia: named for Elias Tillandz (1640-1692), Swedish-born doctor, botanist and university rector in Finland. He was born in Rogberga, Småland, Sweden under the name Tillander. He first studied at the Turku Academy, 1659-1962, then at Uppsala, 1663-1668) and Leiden University,1668-1670 where he graduated as a doctor of medicine. As a student he travelled by boat from Turku to Stockholm and became so seasick that he returned by walking 1000 kilometers around the Gulf of Bothnia. From this supposedly arose his name Til-Landz, ‘by land.’ One of his professors was Olof Rudbeck the senior.He was the professor of medicine at the Academy of Turku. He wrote the country's first botanical work, the Catalogus Plantarum prope Aboam observatorum nasci observatarum which was first published in 1673, and conducted the first autopsy in Finland. As a doctor he was very interested in the suitability of plants as herbs and prepared medicines for his patients by using his extensive knowledge of available plants. Tillands founded Finland's first botanical garden in Turku in 1678. The genus Tillandsia was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tillandsia)
  • Tim'mia: named after Joachim Christian Timm (1734-1805), German apothecary and botanist. The following is
      quoted from Wikipedia: “Joachim Christian Timm, the son of tobacconist Matthias Ernst Timm (1704–1779), was born in Wangerin in Farther Pomerania, Prussia (now in Poland) and attended school there. In 1749 he started a five-year apprenticeship as an apothecary, initially with Friedrich John in Wangerin, where he served for a year as an assistant. In the 1750s he was in Mecklenburg, working in Rostock. At the end of the 1750s he moved to Malchin to manage the apothecary business of Georg Heinrich Kruger and his successors. In 1760, Timm
    became the official apothecary of Malchin. In 1771 he was elected senator. In 1778 he became the Second or Vice-Mayor of Malchin, becoming the Mayor in 1790. The tradition of having more than one mayor to lead the town ended with his death. As an apothecary, he was interested in botany. He enthusiastically collected plants of all kinds, especially cryptogams, primarily in the Malchin area. In 1788 he published his work Florae megapolitanae Prodromus, which he based on the system of the Swedish botanist Linnaeus. Professor Johann Hedwig of Leipzig later named a genus of moss Timmia after him. At the instigation of the author of a monograph on Timmia, Guy Brassard, a mountain on the Arctic Ellesmere Island was named "Mount Timmia" in honour of Timm. In 1762, Timm married Anna Christine Elisabeth Witte (1743–1792), a merchant's daughter from Röbel. They had ten children, including the sons Joachim (1768–1801) and Hans Timm (1774–1852), who one after the other succeeded their father as the official apothecary in Malchin. Another son, Helmuth Timm (1782–1848), became a pastor in Groß Gievitz and later in Malchin. Joachim Christian Timm died in Malchin in 1805 and is regarded today as a pioneer of modern botany in Germany.” (ref. genus Timmia)
  • timor'um: a modern Latin dictionary defines timoris as "fear, alarm, dread; a terror" but I don't know whether this has anything to do with the meaning here. David Hollombe says that this name is from the Latin root timoros or timoreo meaning "to help, lend aid, give succour" but again the application is unclear. (ref. Eriogonum grande var. timorum)
  • tinctor'ia/tinctor'ius: used in dyeing, and usually used to refer to a plant that when broken exudes some kind of stain. (ref. Collinsia tinctoria, Collomia tinctoria, Carthamus tinctorius)
  • tinc'tus: colored. (ref. Astragalus purshii var. tinctus)
  • tingita'nus: of Tangiers, whose ancient name was Tingis. (ref. Lathyrus tingitanus)
  • tioga'na: the only geographical feature I know of with the name of Tioga is Tioga Pass on the road going into Yosemite National Park from the eastern side, and that is what I think this name refers to since this taxon's range is the High Sierras and the White & Inyo Mts. (ref. Carex tiogana, Gentiana newberryi var. tiogana)
  • Tiqui'lia: a native South American name for a flower of this genus. I thank San Diego County botanist Michael Simpson for sending me the following from Richardson., T. 1977, Monograph of the genus Tiquilia (Coldenia, sensu lato), Boraginaceae: Ehretioideae, Rhodora 79: 467-572.: "Ruiz and Pavon (1799) described Lithospermum dichotomum,
    which they collected in Peru, and subsequently, Persoon (1805) established the genus Tiquilia to accommodate this taxon, the generic name being derived from the vernacular name, reported
    by Ruiz and Pavon (1799) as "Tiquil-tiquil". It is possible that the cited vernacular name is simply a corruption of the Quechua word for flower, "t'ika" (Pers. comm., Helen Barler. April, 1975; Lira, 1973)." The genus Tiquilia was published by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1805. (ref. genus Tiquilia)
  • ti'ti: after Frank H. Titus (1850-1908). "Graduated from Medical College of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA, 1876; resident physician of St. Luke's Hospital S.F., 1890-92; Supt. S.F. City & Co. Hospital, 1894-95; proprietor of a S.F. pharmacy, 1896; U.S. Army surgeon in the Philippines 1898-1902 (shortened from Cantelow & Cantelow)." (ref. Astragalus tener var. titi)
  • tobi'ra: the Dave's Garden Botanary site says that this is from the Japanese name for this plant, the common name being Japanese pittosporum. (ref. Pittosporum tobira)
  • Tofield'ia: after Thomas Tofield (1730-1779), a British botanist and civil engineer, bom at Wilsic Hall near
      Wadworth (4 miles south of Doncaster) on 18 December, 1730, the only surviving son of Thomas Tofield (1695-1747) and his wife Elizabeth Atkinson. He attended William Burrow's School at Chesterfield and in 1747 went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, taking his B.A. in 1751. Returning to Wilsic, he began an intensive study of the local flora. This activity brought him into contact with William Hudson who in the late 1750s was working on a new British flora based on the Linnean system. Tofield sent him many specimens. In Hudson's classic Flora Anglica (1762),
    Tofield, along with John Blackstone, was singled out for special acknowledgement. He continued to send botanical data, much of which was included in the enlarged second edition of the Flora (1778). It appears that botany was only his avocation, his chief interest and occupation being as a hydrological engineer and waterways surveyor, involved mainly with the drainage of various low grounds and the diversion of rivers. The genus Tofieldia was published by William Hudson in 1778. (ref. genus Tofieldia) (Photo credit: Geni)
  • Tolmachev'ia: named after Alexandr Innokentevich Tolmachev (1903-1979), Russian arctic-alpine botanist and phytogeographer. He was born in St. Petersburg. His grandfather was the distinguished geologist and paleontologist Aleksandr Petrovich Karpinskiy, who was the first President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR from 1917 to his death at 90 years of age in1936. His father was the Russian mammoth hunter and paleobotanist, Innokenty Pablovich Tolmachoff, who immigrated to the United States in 1918. It was due to his grandfather’s influence that he received an excellent liberal education and was taught to think logically and critically. Alexandr began at an early age collecting specimens, and at the age of twelve knew many of the insects of the Ural region where he grandfather did research. He entered university at the age of 16 and chose ornithology as his specialty but already demonstarted a strong interest in botany. He became employed as an herbarium assistant at the Botanical Garden of the Academy where he fell under the influence of taxonomist B.A. Fedchenko, and was permanently employed at the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Sciences in Leningrad in 1925, and that year he also became a member and junior secretary of the Polar Committee of the Academy, indicating his developing interest in the Arctic. A memorial to him by Áskell Löve provides the following: “In 1934 he was appointed to the directorship of the Bureau for Exploration of the Northland, which soon was reorganized as the Northern Station of the Academy in Arkangelsk to which Tolmachev then moved. There he remained to 1942, when he was transferred as the deputy president of the Tadzhik branch of the Academy, residing in the city of Dushanbe in the far south of Soviet Asia. In 1947 he took over a similar position in far eastern Asia and organized the scientific work at the Sakhalin branch of the Academy. But in 1955 he returned to Leningrad, first as a scientist in the laboratory for the vegetation of the far north in the Botanical Institute, and later, in the autumn of 1958, as professor of taxonomy of higher plants at the University of Leningrad, where he lectured on phytogeography, the phylogenetic system, and the taxonomy of higher plants. Few botanists have spent more years in arctic-alpine research than did Tolmachev,who first went into the northland with a group visiting the White Sea islands in 1920, then took part in an expedition to Novaya Zemlya and Vaigach in1921-22, and became the second Russian botanist to stay for a winter in the Arctic during the expedition to Novaya Zemlya in 1922-23. After that he studied the Arctic and its flora on numerous expeditions to various parts of the Soviet northlands, and even visited the Canadian Arctic on an extensive field trip during the 1959 Botanical Congress. No other botanist has seen as much of the Arctic, and none has visited as many alpine areas all over Europe, Asia and North America and even in the Tropics of Africa and Asia. Tolmachev's influence on the development of arctic botany in general and on arctic-alpine botanical research in the Soviet Union in particular was immense. He was the founder of a comparative floristical approach to phytgeography that affected even the Scandinavian school of ecologists, and all the many Soviet phytogeographers-taxonomists are either his personal students or have been strongly affected by his methods and interpretations. He also revised and modernized the taxonomy of numerous critical genera of plants, notably Cerastium, Draba, Eriophorum, Gastrolychnis, and Papaver, compiled three important atlases of plant areas,wrote a remarkable textbook on phytogeography, and edited and compiled several flora manuals of which the Arctic FloraUSSR, still incomplete, is monumental.” He died in St. Petersburg in 1979 after several years of frail health. The genus Tolmachevia was published by Áskell Löve and Doris Benta Maria Löve in 1975. (ref. genus Tolmachevia)
  • Tol'miea/tol'miei: named after William Fraser Tolmie (1812-1886), a Scottish physician with the Hudson Bay
      Company first at Fort Vancouver then elsewhere. He was born in Inverness, Scotland, and his mother died when he was only three. He was educated at Inverness Academy and Perth Grammar School. He had been interested in botany as a young child, and as so many others had found a connection between botany and medicine. This brought him in contact with the famed botanist, William Jackson Hooker, then professor of botany at the University of Glasgow, and with Dr John Scouler, who had made a voyage to Fort Vancouver (Vancouver, Wash.) in a Hudson’s Bay
    Company supply ship in 1825.  Thanks to an uncle’s encouragement he took to medical studies and was at the University of Glasgow from 1829 to 1831 although he did not receive a degree and was not an MD, but instead was a licentiate of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, a body independent of the university. In 1832, when the Hudson's Bay Company was looking for medical officers for the Columbia District of the Pacific Northwest, Tolmie signed a five-year contract to serve in the dual capacity of clerk and surgeon. He continued working for the Hudson Bay Company in one capacity or another until he retired in 1871. He was the first white man to reach the summit of Mount Rainier, now known as Tolmie Peak. He was manager of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, the HBC's farming subsidiary. He was elected to the House of Assembly of Vancouver Island as member for Victoria in January 1860. He was re-elected in 1863, and remained a member until Vancouver Island was annexed by the mainland colony of British Columbia in 1866. He became involved in education on Vancouver island serving for several years first on the General Board of Education and then as Chairman of the Board. He was also a member of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, (1874-1878). One of his sons, Simon Fraser Tolmie, became the Prime Minister of British Columbia. The genus Tolmiea was published by John Torrey and Asa Gray in 1840. (ref. genus Tolmiea, also Allium tolmiei, Saxifraga tolmiei) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • Tol'pis: Umberto Quattrocchi says, "Origin unknown, possibly from the Greek tolype, 'a ball of wool, lump,' referring to the fruiting capitula [i.e. the small flowering heads]; some suggest from Crepis." The genus Tolpis was published by Michel Adanson in 1763. (ref. genus Tolpis)
  • tomentel'la/tomentel'lus: with small woolly hairs, diminutive of tomentosa, the oak species that bears this name being somewhat tomentose. (ref. Frangula californica ssp. tomentella, Quercus tomentella)
  • tomento'sa/tomento'sum/tomento'sus: densely covered with matted wool or short hair, tomentose. (ref. Amsonia tomentosa, Angelica tomentosa, Arctostaphylos tomentosa, Cassia tomentosa, Lessingia glandulifera var. tomentosa, Opuntia tomentosa, Pickeringia montana var. tomentosa, Phoradendron tomentosum, Ceanothus tomentosus)
  • tomentulo'sa: slightly tomentose.
  • tomp'kinsii: after chemical engineer and photographer Philip Weber Tompkins (1873-1972). The following is quoted from the California Academy of Sciences: "Philip Tompkins was born in San Anselmo, California. He graduated from the University of California in 1894. An analytical chemist and chemical engineer, he was a founder of the San Francisco chemical firm of Curtis and Tompkins where he continued to work until two years before his death (on 6 December 1972 in San Anselmo, California.) An avid photographer, he explored Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Tompkins aided in discovering and recording the "Lost Valley of the Goblins" in Utah (1949). His article, "Goblin Valley, Recent History and Need for Protection" accompanied by many of his photographs of the area appeared in National Parks Magazine (October-December 1954). As an expression of appreciation to the Botany Department of the California Academy of Sciences, and a memorial to Alice Eastwood, he funded the Tompkins, Tehipite Botanical Expedition of the Sierra Nevada, California. An account of this journey was published in Leaflets of Western Botany by John Thomas Howell (1958). Tompkins also assisted in the publication of A Flora of Lassen Volcanic National Park, California (1961). Tompkins was a California Academy of Sciences member (1930) and Academy lecturer (1953 "Sections of South-Central Utah", 1955 "Southern Utah Scenes"). His extensive collection of slides, photographs, and negatives were donated to the Academy Library (1957, 1963)." His photographs also appeared in Mesa Land: The History and Romance of the American Southwest by Anna Wilmarth Ickes. (ref. Carex tompkinsii)
  • Tonel'la: derivation unknown. The genus Tonella was published by Thomas Nuttall in 1868. (ref. genus Tonella)
  • Tones'tus: anagram of Stenotus. The genus Tonestus was published by Aven Nelson in 1904. (ref. genus Tonestus)
  • ton'sum: smooth.
  • toren'ii: named for David Roy Toren (1950- ), botanist with the Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences. He was the author of "A Moss Flora of Lake County, California" in Madroño, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2015. (ref. Grimmia torenii, Imbribryum torenii)
  • Toril'is: name used by Adanson in 1763, meaning obscure. Umberto Quattrocchi says "A meaningless name or possibly from toreo "to bore through, to pierce," referring to the prickled fruit. The genus Torilis was published by Michel Adanson in 1763. (ref. genus Torilis)
  • torqua'ta: presumably from the Latin torquatus, "adorned with a necklace." (ref. Eucalyptus torquata)
  • Tor'reya/torreya'na: named after John Torrey (1796-1873), a professor of chemistry and one of the giants of North
      American botany who described hundreds of plants brought or sent back by such explorers as John C. Fremont, William Emory, Charles Wilkes, Joseph Nicollet, Howard Stansbury and Charles Pickering, and sent back east also by the Mexican Boundary Expedition and the Pacific railroad survey expeditions, and who named many California species.  Born in New York, he began observing and collecting plants while still a youth. His father was appointed Fiscal Agent for the State Prison of New York when he was 15, and it was there that he met Amos Eaton, a pioneer in
    the field of natural science education. Eaton encouraged the boy's natural inclinations in the sciences, and at the age of 21 Torrey was selected to prepare A Catalog of the Plants Growing Within Thirty Miles of New York. A year later, he received a medical degree and opened a practice, although he continued to spend a great deal of his leisure time on botany. He became Professor of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology, and also Assistant-Surgeon, at West Point in 1824, and then Chair of Chemistry and Botany at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York three years later. At one time he was teaching at Columbia, Princeton and West Point simultaneously. His great contribution was not as a collector, but rather as a taxonomist, and he was the first American to move away from the Linnean system of plant classification.  Using John Lindley's system of arranging plants by families, he became of the first botanists to apply this to a major work, A Compendium of the flora of the northern and middle states. His interest in plants expanded to the Great Plains and the western Rocky Mountains after receiving the collections of Dr. Edwin James, botanist of the Long expedition of 1820. He was appointed State Botanist of New York in 1836 and in 1843 published A Flora of the State of New York. He became the mentor and lifelong friend and colleague of Asa Gray, who came to New York as a young student in the mid-1830s to study under the eminent Torrey and became his chemistry lab assistant. The two men co-authored Flora of North America, a major botanical work that was based at least in part on the descriptions and specimens of new plants sent east by Thomas Nuttall, but which was never completely finished during their lifetimes. His name was given to the Torrey pine in California by plant explorer Charles Parry who first found it.  A year before his death, he visited Parry in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, and the latter was able to show him not only the peak he had named in Torrey's honor but also many living plants that he had described from dead specimens fifty years before. On that same trip he stayed with his friend George Engelmann in St. Louis and met John Muir in California. He was President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and twice President of the New York Lyceum of Natural History. As though all of his other occupations were not enough, he also served as supervisor of the New York Mint, and despite being one of the greatest American botanists, I have read that he never was able to make a living as a botanist, and he always considered that chemistry was his true profession. He founded the Botanical Club of New York which later became the Torrey Botanical Club, and his own collection eventually went to the New York Botanical Garden. The genus Torreya was published by George Arnott Walker Arnott in 1838. (ref. genus Torreya, also species Melica torreyana, Pinus torreyana, Suaeda torreyana)
  • tor'reyi: see torreyana above. (ref. Amaranthus torreyi, Atriplex torreyi, Collinsia torreyi var. wrightii, Epilobium torreyi, Juncus torreyi, Lathyrus torreyi, Lomatium torreyi, Lycium torreyi, Malacothrix torreyi, Mentzelia torreyi, Mimulus torreyi, Phyllospadix torreyi, Plagiobothrys torreyi)
  • Torreyochlo'a: after botanist John Torrey (1796-1873), see torreyana above. The genus Torreyochloa was published by George Lyle Church in 1949. (ref. genus Torreyochloa)
  • torticul'mis: with twisted stems. (ref. Eleocharis torticulmis)
  • tortifo'lia: from the Latin for "twisted leaf." (ref. Xylorhiza [formerly Machaeranthera] tortifolia)
  • tortil'is: twisted. (ref. Chylismia walkeri ssp. tortilis)
  • tortuo'sum/tortuosus: winding, very twisted. (ref. Jasminum tortuosum, Streptanthus tortuosus)
  • toum'eyi: named after James William Toumey (1865-1932), botanist, explorer and author of a number of botanical
      papers on silviculture and dendrology. He was born in Lawrence, Michigan, and was one of the early pioneers in forestry and a distinguished educator, a scientist of distinction, and an author. He earned an undergraduate degree (1889) and a Master’s degree (1893) from Michigan State Agricultural College. From 1891 to 1898 he worked at the University of Arizona, eventually becoming a professor of botany and a also botanist at the State Agricultural Experiment Station. His interest in forestry resulted in him becoming superintendent of tree planting in the
    Division of Forestry, USDA.  He taught as professor of silviculture at the Yale School of Forestry which he helped to establish in 1900 and became its second dean, a position he held until his retirement in 1922. While there he He wrote Foundations of Silviculture Upon an Ecological Basis. James Toumey collected plants on Santa Catalina Island with Charles Sprague Sargent in September 1894. Specimens, principally woody plants, are in the U.S. National Herbarium the the University of Arizona. He died in New Haven on May 5, 1932. (ref. Fraxinus velutina var. toumeyi, Populus fremontii var. toumeyi, Quercus toumeyi) (Photo credit: Journal of Forestry)
  • touret'ii: named for Marc-Antoine-Louis Claret de La Tourette (1729-1793), French botanist, mycologist and
      algologist from La Tourette, Rhone, near Lyon. He began his studies with the Jesuits in Lyon with Father Jacques Pernety who was a naturalist and a member of the Academy of Lyon and who passed on his passion to Marc-Antoine. Next he went to Harcourt College in Paris, and then became Councilor at the court of the Coins, an enviable place of the magistrature Lyonnaise. He created a botanical park for the Veterinary School of Lyon in La Tourette and an accimitization garden at the family property of Eveux where there were more than 3000
    species, trees and foreign plants and trees. He travelled and collected extensively around Lyon and also Italy, and amassed a herbarium of more than a thousand species. He was secretary of the Academy of Lyon and a correspondent of the Academy of Sciences of Paris. He corresponded with Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Carl Linnaeus, Bernard de Jussieu, Albrecht von Haller, and Voltaire. After twenty years of essentially administrative work, he gave up his duties to concentrate on natural history studies, mineralogy, botany, zoology, archeology and history. He died of gangrene and other medical conditions in Lyon. (ref. Scleropodium touretii)
  • tournefor'tii: after Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656-1708), author of Institutiones Rei Herbariae published
      in 1700 and a celebrated French botanist who was the first to properly define genera and was an important forerunner of Linnaeus. He was born in Aix-en-Provence and studied at the Jesuit convent there. He was another of those who studied both botany and medicine. Wikipedia says: “After two years collecting, he studied medicine at Montpellier, but was appointed professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris in 1683. During this time he travelled through Western Europe, particularly the Pyrenees, where he made extensive collections. Between 1700 and
    1702 he travelled through the islands of Greece and visited Constantinople, the borders of the Black Sea, Armenia, and Georgia, collecting plants and undertaking other types of observations. He was accompanied by the German botanist Andreas Gundelsheimer (1668–1715) and the artist Claude Aubriet (1651–1742). His description of this journey was published posthumously (Relation d'un voyage du Levant), he himself having been killed by a carriage in Paris; the road on which he died now bears his name (Rue de Tournefort).” Another botanist who had been one of de Tournefort’s students and accompanied him on his voyages was Charles Plumier. De Tournefort’s major work was his Eléments de botanique, ou Méthode pour reconnaître les Plantes published in 1694. Again from Wikipedia: “The classification followed was completely artificial, and neglected some important divisions established by earlier botanists, such as John Ray's separation of the phanerogams from the cryptogams, and his division of the flowering plants into monocots and dicots. Overall it was a step backwards in systematics, yet the text was so clearly written and well structured, and contained so much valuable information on individual species, that it became popular amongst botanists, and nearly all classifications published for the next fifty years were based upon it. Tournefort is often credited with being the first to make a clear distinction between genus and species. Though he did indeed cluster the 7,000 plant species that he described into around 700 genera, this was not particularly original. Concepts of genus and species had been framed as early as the 16th century, and Kaspar Bauhin in particular consistently distinguished genera and species. Augustus Quirinus Rivinus had even advocated the use of binary nomenclature shortly before Tournefort's work was published.” His herbarium collection of 6,963 specimens was housed in the Jardin du Roi in Paris, now part of the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. He died the year after Linnaeus was born. (ref. Brassica tournefortii)
  • Tovar'ia: named after Simón de Tovar (1528-1596), doctor noted for his work in pharmacy, botany and astronomy. He studied medicine at the University of Seville and founded the most important botanical garden of those in Seville in the sixteenth century. He published annual catalogs of plants, which he distributed among major European botanists. He also carried on extensive correspondence with Bernardus Paludanus, a professor at the University of Leiden, and especially Carolus Clusius (Charles de l'Ecluse). The genus Tovaria was published by Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón in 1794. (ref. genus Tovaria)
  • town'ei: named after (William) Stuart Sones Towne (1893-1980). He was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan and went to Los Angeles, California around 1910. He held various jobs including timekeeper for the city of L.A., lab chemist, DMV examiner and employee in the county assessor’s office. He was interested in botany and especially mycology. He was a member of the Lorquin Club, and was co-author along with fellow Lorquin Club member Scott Lewis of “How to ID the Wildflowers” in AAA Touring Topics, February 1930.  The oak that bore his name was supposedly a hybrid of Q. dumosa and Q. lobata and was found near Pasadena. He died in Pasadena. (ref. Quercus x townei)
  • Townsend'ia: named for David Townsend (1787-1858), an amateur botanist. He grew up on a farm in northern Chester County, Pennyslvania, and moved to West Chester in 1810 where he worked as a clerk in the office of the Register of Wills. He was Chester county commissioner, the head bank cashier of the National Bank of Chester County. In 1826 he was the founding member of the Chester County Cabinet of Natural Science, which became West Chester University. He was a devoted and respected botanist who collected over 700 plants in the area near where he lived. Townsend was a life-long friend and business associate of Dr. William Darlington (see Darlingtonia). From the West Chester Patch August 2018: “In a relativity short period of time, Townsend established himself as respected botanist. He planted a large 'herbarium' on his property, and with his 'habits of close observation,' as his obituary described it, he was soon sharing his insights of native plants with eminent botanists in England. His assistance in identifying native asters, for instance, led the director of Kew Gardens [William Jackson Hooker] to name an entire genus in Townsend's name. Perhaps most important to Townsend was the success of his book, Florula Cestrica, which documented all the flora he had discovered in Chester County.” The genus Townsendia was published by William Jackson Hooker in 1834. (ref. genus Townsendia)
  • Toxicoden'dron: means "poison tree." The genus Toxicodendron was published by Philip Miller in 1754. (ref. genus Toxicodendron)
  • Toxicoscor'dion: Scott Earle of Larkspur Books provides the following: "Scordion is a Greek word for garlic, thus "poisonous garlic" from the rather remote resemblance of the death camases to Allium sativum," and I thank him for his contribution. The genus Toxicoscordion was published by Per Axel Rydberg in 1903. (ref. genus Toxicoscordion)
  • to'zeri: named for the Rev. John Savery Tozer (1791-1836), a British plant collector. (ref. Epipterygium tozeri)
  • trachycar'pus: from the Greek trachys, "rough," and karpos, "fruit." (ref. Plagiobothrys trachycarpus)
  • trachycau'lus: rough-stemmed. (ref. Elymus trachycaulus)
  • trachygo'num: rough-kneed or rough-joined. (ref. Eriogonum trachygonum)
  • trachyphyl'la: rough-leaved. (ref. Festuca trachyphylla)
  • trachysper'ma: from the Greek trachys, "rough," and sperma, "seed." (ref. Polanisia dodecandra ssp. trachysperma)
  • tra'cyi/Tracyin'a: after Joseph Prince Tracy (1879-1953), title examiner of Eureka and botanist who amassed a collection of some 30,000 specimens from north-western California and adjacent Oregon which subsequently became part of the University Herbarium of the University of California. He studied at the University of California at Berkeley with such luminaries as Harvey M. Hall, J. Burtt Davy, Willis Jepson, and William Setchell, and graduated in 1903. Financial constraints prevented him from continuing his formal studies, but he continued collecting in Humboldt County and surrounding areas and became a leading authority on the local flora. He was a member of the California Botanical Society, the Save-the-Redwoods League, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Geographic Society, and the California Academy of Sciences.The genus Tracyina was published by Sidney Fay Blake in 1937. (ref. genus Tracyina, Collomia tracyi, Eriastrum tracyi, Lomatium tracyi, Lupinus tracyi, Penstemon tracyi, Romanzoffia tracyi, Sanicula tracyi)
  • tra'cyi: named for Samuel Mills Tracy (1845-1922), American botanist born in Hartford, Vermont. He moved west with his parents, living first in Illinois and later in Wisconsin. He enlisted in the Wisconsin Volunteers of the Union Army and served for a hundred days, after which he returned home and began farming. He enrolled at Michigan State Agricultural College where he was awarded a Bachelor’s degree in 1868 and then a Masters in 1871. He worked at commercial horticultural work from 1871 to 1877 and then was hired by the University of Missouri as a professor of botany, becoming iin 1877 the first Director of the Mississippi Experiment Station. His botanical interests concentrated on the taxonomy of grasses, plant breeding, and the adaptation of forage plants to the southern states. He is perhaps best known for his work, Flora of Missouri, which was published in 1886. (ref. Chamaesyce tracyi, Drosera filiformis var. tracyi, Epilobium paniculatum var. tracyi)
  • Tradescan'tia: after John Tradescant (1608-1662) (called John Tradescant the Younger), English gardener to
      King Charles I. He was born in Meopham, Kent, England, the son of John Tradescant the Elder. He entered The King's School, Canterbury at the age of 11. In 1634, after a period of apprenticeship, he was admitted a freeman of the Worshipful Company of Gardeners. In 1637 he sailed to Virginia to collect seeds and plants for English gardens. Among the seeds he brought back were great American trees like the Magnolia, Bald Cypress and Tulip tree, the yucca plant, and garden plants such as phlox and asters. Some sources say that Tradescant visited Virginia on three
    occasions but I have not been able to verify that with dates. In 1638, he was appointed Keeper of his Majesty's Gardens, Vines, and Silkworms at Oatlands Palace, in place of his father who had died that year, and thus became head gardener to Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France. He and his father maintained a Cabinet of Curiosities known as the Ark, and added to it items collected in Virginia, including the ceremonial cloak of Chief Powhatan, an important Native American relic. Wikipedia says: “He published the contents of his father's celebrated collection as Musaeum Tradescantianum - books, coins, weapons, costumes, taxidermy, and other curiosities - dedicating the first edition to the Royal College of Physicians (with whom he was negotiating for the transfer of his botanic garden), and the second edition to the recently restored Charles II. Tradescant bequeathed his library and museum to (or some say it was swindled from him by) Elias Ashmole (1617–1692), whose name it bears as the core of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford where the Tradescant collections remain largely intact. He was buried beside his father. The genus Tradescantia was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tradescantia) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • Tra'gia: Both Gledhill in The Names of Plants and Umberto Quattrocchi in the CRC World Dictionary of Plant
      Names claim that this name was derived from the Latin name of Hieronymus Tragus (Jerome Bock) (1498-1554), a German Lutheran physician and herbalist and author of New Kreütterbuch (or Kraüterbuch, not to be confused with Leonhart Fuchs’ 1543 New Kreuterbuch), however David Hollombe has uncovered a citation from Linnaeus who authored the genus to Caspar Bauhin where in his 1623 work Pinax Theatri Botanici, page 289, he refers back to Pliny and Dioscorides in connection with the origins of the name, so this may be another example of misinformation
    having been perpetuated through the literature, but for the time being I am going with Hieronymus Bock. Many of the details of his life are unclear, for instance his birthplace and where he received his early schooling, but he was clearly interested in botany from an early age and by 1523 was head of a botanical garden owned by the Count Palatine Ludwig in Zweibrücken. He apparently attended the University of Heidelberg at least for a time. It is uncertain whether he studied medicine, philosophy, theology, or something else, but there does not seem to be any record of his having received a degree. He presumably did have some theological training. Following his attendance there he became a schoolteacher in Zweibrücken for nine years. In 1533 he received a life-time position as a Lutheran minister at the Benedictine church of St. Fabian in nearby Hornbach where he mostly stayed up to his death. He left Hornbach for a brief period in 1550 and acted as personal physician to the Landgraf Philipp II of Nassau, whose garden he is said to have supervised and to whom his Kreutterbuch was dedicated. In 1551 he returned to Hornbach, where he died three years later, probably of consumption. Wikipedia says: “The first edition of his Kreutterbuch (literally ‘plant book’) appeared in 1539 unillustrated; his stated objectives were to describe German plants, including their names, characteristics, and medical uses. Instead of following Dioscorides as was traditional, he developed his own system to classify 700 plants. Bock apparently traveled widely through the German region observing the plants for himself, since he includes ecological and distributional observations. A subsequent edition of the Kreutterbuch published in 1546was illustrated by the artist David Kandel. The grass genus Tragus (published by Albrecht von Heller in 1768) and the spurge genus Tragia (published by Linnaeus in 1753) are both said to be named after him. (ref. genus Tragia)
  • Tragopo'gon: derived from two Greek words tragos meaning "goat" and pogon meaning "beard," suggested by its prominent, feathery hairs when in seed. The genus Tragopogon was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tragopogon)
  • tra'gus: possibly from the Greek tragos, a part of the ear, literally "goat," or from Hieronymous Tragus, the Greek name for Jerome Bock (1498-1554), physician, scholar, and one of the three fathers of German botany. (ref. Salsola tragus)
  • train'ii/trainia'nus: named for Percy Train (1876-1942), geologist, botanist and avid plant collector born in Helena,
      Montana, and attended courses at the Montana School of Mines at Butte. He worked as a mine consultant and prospector until 1905, established an assayer’s office and operated it until 1915, and began to explore the geology of the Great Basin. By 1926 he had turned to experimental botany and fossil collecting in southern Nevada. He was married in 1928 to Agnes Hume Scott, a Chicago librarian, and they became a team for the remainder of his life. He signed a contract in 1932 with the University of Michigan to collect fossils for Dr. Chester A. Arnold. In 1935 he
    was collecting plants in Death Valley for William R. Maxon of the Smithsonian Institution. From 1937 to 1941 he and his wife studied the medicinal uses of plants among the aboriginal cultures of Nevada, including Shoshone, Paiute, Washoe, and Moapa Paiute cultures, conducting ethnobotanical fieldwork and collecting specimens. He published Medicinal Uses of Plants by Indian Tribes of Nevada (1941) with James R. Henrichs and W. Andrew Archer. A recollection by Chester Arnold in Huntia (1965) is worth relating here: “It was a somewhat unfortunate quirk of fate that the most active part of Percy Train’s career as collector of natural history material came during the depression of the 1930s when institutions that could have made good use of his special abilities were so desperately short of funds. Were he alive and active today, the situation would probably be very different. In those days he had to work hard to keep the wolf from the door, literally as well as figuratively. As a collector, he appreciated the scientific value of the material, and he was always concerned that it fall into competent hands and be properly utilized. Furthermore, he took pride in his work, and did everything possible to turn out fine specimens. His fossils were always carefully removed from the rock strata, and neatly trimmed and cleaned. Living plants were laid out and pressed with the most meticulous care. He realized too, which some collectors do not, the importance of source data concerning specimens, and his collections were often embellished with detailed sketch maps and diagrams of stratigraphic sequences. Then, too, he could go into and collect in places most of us would consider inaccessible. He has left a permanent imprint on the botany and paleontology of the Great Basin, and men of his type are indeed in short supply.” He died in Reno, Nevada. (ref. Castilleja trainii, Lupinus trainianus) (Photo credit: Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation)
  • trans-: beyond, through, across.
  • Transberin'gia: this genus contains a single species with two subspecies, one in northwestern North America and one in northeastern Asia, separated by the Bering Strait, hence 'trans' 'Bering.' The genus Transberingia was published by Ihsan Ali Al-Shehbaz and Steve Lawrence O'Kane in 2003. (ref. genus Transberingia)
  • transitor'ius: I am assuming that this means what the modern English word 'transitory' means, that is "of brief duration, not persistent, temporary," but it may alternatively mean "transitional or intermediate." (ref. Rumex salicifolius var. transitorius)
  • transmonta'na: beyond the mountains. (ref. Gilia transmontana)
  • transvalen'sis: of or from the Transvaal Province of South Africa. (ref. Cynodon transvalensis)
  • transver'sa: transverse, set crosswise, made at right angles. (ref. Gilia leptantha ssp. transversa, Piperia transversa)
  • trask'iae: after Luella Blanche (Engle) Trask (1865-1916), resident of Catalina Island from 1895 to 1915 and botanical explorer and collector who lost many specimens in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire and a later fire in Avalon on Catalina Island in 1916. Born in Waterloo, Iowa, she moved with her family to Minnesota while still a youngster. Her father was a nurseryman. She seemed to have had a love of flowers from the earliest age, and recalled the story that her mother would find her in the garden at the age of 2 or 3 kissing the pansies and verbenas She studied and collected plants in the southern part of Minnesota, before eventually marrying, having a daughter, and moving to Santa Monica, California. In addition to botany, her interests included archeology, history, zoology and geology, and beyond the Channel Islands she also worked and explored in the deserts of the Southwest, the San Jacinto Mountains, Death Valley, Arizona, Utah, Colorado and Yellowstone. She carried on an extensive correspondence with Alice Eastwood and Willis Jepson. Her winter home was in Avalon, but she also had a summer refuge in Fisherman's Cove, and frequently walked the roundtrip route over the ridge trail in a day. She was described by Charles Frederick Milspaugh, former Curator of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, as an "indefatigable pedestrian." (ref. Astragalus traskiae, Cercocarpus traskiae, Dudleya traskiae, Cryptantha traskiae, Eriodictyon traskiae, Mimulus traskiae)
  • Trautvetter'ia: after Ernst Rudolf von Trautvetter (1809-1889), a Baltic-German or Russian botanist who
      specialized in the flora of the Caucasus and central Asia and was author of De Echinope genere capita (1833) and the Decas plantarum novarum published in St. Petersburg, 1882. He was born in Jelgava, Latvia, the son of a German philosophy professor, teacher and author of De novo systemate botanico brevem notitiam  Ernst Christian Johann von Trautvetter. Wikipedia says: “He studied medicine and natural sciences at the University of Dorpat [in present-day Estonia.] From 1829 to 1831, he conducted botanical field trips throughout Livonia, returning to Jelgava in
    1831 as a private instructor. In 1833 he began work as an assistant at the botanical garden in Dorpat, two years later, performing similar duties at the botanical garden in St. Petersburg. In 1838 he relocated to Kiev as a professor of botany and director of the botanical garden. During his many years in Kiev, he served as university rector from 1847 to 1859. Later in his career, he returned to the botanical garden in St. Petersburg as an administrator and director. Here, he was tasked with publishing an account of the garden's history.” His first publication was entitled Ueber die Nebenblätter (1831) and was a work on plant stipules. In 1835 he received a doctor of philosophy degree from the University of Königsberg. After a brief time as director of the Agricultural Institute at Gory-Gorki (Mogilev) he returned to the Botanic Garden of St. Petersburg to become the director there. He retired in 1875, only to return to directorship in 1889, the same year in which he died. He was a prolific author, publishing among other things Skizze der Classen und Ordnungen des natürlichen Ppflanzensysterns which was hisassessment of the natural orders and classes of plant systems. He also added to the regional floras of northern Soberia and the Caspian-Caucusus region. The genus Trautvetteria was published by Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer and Carl Anton Meyer in 1835. (ref. genus Trautvetteria)
  • trav'ersii: named after Alfred Traverse (1925-2015), American paleobotanist and palynologist. He was born on
      Prince Edward Island, Canada and moved with his family to the United States in 1928. He graduated from high school in St. Joseph, Michigan, in 1943. He enrolled at Harvard, graduating magna cum laude in 1946, then left for England with a fellowship for a year of study and research at the Botany School of Cambridge University. He returned to Harvard in 1947 and resumed his graduate work, concentrating on fossil pollen and spore studies, a field now called palynology. He was awarded a Masters degree in 1948 and a Ph.D. in 1951. That
    same year he was married to Elizabeth Jane Insley and was hired by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to research the petrology of lignite-coal in Grand Forks, North Dakota. The remainder of his career was summarized by an obituary of the website of the Koch Funeral Home: “In 1956, the USBM transferred him to the Federal Center in Denver, Colorado, to be head of the coal microscopy lab, but he almost immediately accepted an offer from Shell to set up a palynology lab at their Bellaire research headquarters in Houston, Texas. Soon after his employment with Shell, he was sent to their international headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands, to learn about the company's palynological methods and previous research. During his years with Shell, his most significant contribution was study of the distribution of palynomorphs in sediments offshore from the Bahamas and the significance of this for sedimentation in general. Alfred resigned at Shell in 1962, and enrolled at the Episcopal Theological Seminary of the Southwest. He graduated with a degree of Master of Divinity in 1965 as the top-ranked student. For the academic year 1965-66, he was Assistant Professor of Geology at the University of Texas, and assistant clergyman at a nearby Episcopal church, having been ordained deacon. In May, 1966, Alfred was ordained priest, and in June that same year moved to State College to become Associate Professor of Palynology in the departments of Geosciences and Biology at Penn State. He also took up duties as assistant to the rector of St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Philipsburg. In 1967, he was one of the co-founders of AASP, now known as The Palynological Society. He was the first secretary-treasurer of the organization and later was elected president. Beginning in 1950, he became active in the Botanical Society of America, in which he served several years as secretary and chairman of the Palenobotanical Section. He was a member and fellow from 1950 until his death of both the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Geological Society of America. In 1975, the Traverses moved from State College to Huntingdon, Pennsylvania. Alfred became priest-in-charge of St. John's Episcopal Church while continuing his work as professor at Penn State. He also served as Adjunct Professor at Juniata College in Huntingdon, where he gave occasional lectures. From 1980-81, Alfred and Betty were in Zürich, Switzerland, on sabbatical. Alfred was associated with the geology department of the Swiss Federal Technical Institute, where he gave a course on Cenozoic palynolgy. While in Zürich, he also served as assistant priest in a parish of the Old Catholic Church, a denomination in communion with the Anglican Church. This was his last church connection, because upon his return to the U.S. and after much deliberation, he came to realize that he had actually become a secular humanist, more in tune with his scientific present than with his religious past. In 1995, Alfred retired from teaching at Penn State. His personal herbarium of about 5,000 specimens was given to Penn State Herbarium in Whitmore Lab, of which Alfred was Voluntary Curator from 2007-2015. A point of interest is that the original collection for the Herbarium was brought back from Europe by Penn State's first president, Evan Pugh. Dr. Pugh believed a herbarium to be an essential asset for research at what was the ‘Farmers' High School’ renamed by him to be ‘Pennsylvania College of Agriculture.’ Alfred was proud to be integral in the continuance of this legacy and important collection for Penn State.” He was married for near 65 years and had four children. He died after an extended illness in State College, Pennsylvania. (ref. Erigeron traversii)
  • treleas'ei: after William Trelease (1857-1945), who was "born in Mount Vernon, New York in 1857. In his teens
      he was briefly apprenticed in a machine shop, but in 1877 he decided to enter Cornell College and study the natural sciences. After Cornell, he taught at the University of Wisconsin, and planned to study bacteriology there; but when he was offered the director's job at the St. Louis Botanical Garden, he accepted. It was an ideal position for Trelease, a gifted botanist with a genius for classifying plants. He directed the 75 acre garden for 23 years, during which time he identified and named 2500 species and varieties of flora. Trelease's botanical interests were broad: he published a
    paper on the giant cactus of Mexico in the same year that he published his findings about coastal species in Alaska. He studied apple scab, leaf blight, nematodes. [In 1899 he joined John Muir on the Harriman Alaska expedition aboard the ship Elder.] While on the Elder, he worked with the others involved in botany, collecting specimens, but tending to play second fiddle to Muir, Gilbert and the other, more talkative, scientists. He was first and foremost a scientist, not a story-teller. After the expedition, he returned to St. Louis, and eventually taught at the University of Illinois. His work includes hundreds of scholarly papers, but Trelease was not solely an academic. He published a small, inexpensive set of guides for the everyday gardener, that remain, to this day, a value for anyone who wishes to graft an apple tree, or identify and avoid poison ivy in the winter. Trelease died in 1945." He was the author of Winter Botany: An Identification Guide to Native Trees & Shrubs and his name is on Mt. Trelease in Colorado. (ref. Draba paysonii var. treleasei, Opuntia basilaris var. treleasei) (Photo credit: Herbarium of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium)
  • trem'ula: trembling, referring to foliage.
  • tremulo'ides: like the quivering poplar or quaking aspen. (ref. Populus tremuloides)
  • tri-: in compound words signifying three.
  • triacan'thos: three-spined. (ref. Gleditsea triacanthos)
  • Triad'ica: from the Greek for three, for lobes of calyx, ovary, fruit. (ref. genus Triadica)
  • triangular'is: with three angles. (ref. Pentagramma triangularis, Senecio triangularis)
  • triangulival'vis: presumably with one or more three-angled or triangular valves. (ref. Rumex triangulivalvis)
  • Trian'tha: probably the same as Trianthema, that is, three-flowered. The genus Triantha was published by John Gilbert Baker in 1879. (ref. genus Triantha)
  • Trianth'ema: from the Greek treis, "three," and anthemon, "flower." The genus Trianthema was published by John Gilbert Baker in 1879. (ref. genus Trianthema)
  • Tribo'lium: from the Greek name tribolos applied to various prickly plants. (ref. genus Tribolium)
  • tribractea'tum: three-bracted. (ref. Allium tribracteatum, Lythrum tribracteatum)
  • Trib'ulus: from the Greek tribeles or tribolos and Latin tribulus for "three-pointed, a caltrop," the shape of which is suggested by the three-pronged fruit, and referring to the caltrop, an ancient military weapon which consisted of an iron ball with projecting spikes that could be strewn on the battlefield to impede cavalry or foot soldiers. At least one spike projected upwards while others anchored the caltrop in the ground. The genus Tribulus was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tribulus)
  • Tricar'dia: from the Greek tri for "three" and cardia for "heart," thus "three-hearted," apparently from the structure of the calyx. The genus Tricardia was published by John Torrey in 1871. (ref. genus Tricardia)
  • tricarinat'us: three-keeled, or by extension, three-ribbed or with three angled sides. (ref. Astragalus tricarinatus)
  • tri'ceps: three-headed. (ref. Gilia cana ssp. triceps)
  • trichan'tha: three-flowered. (ref. Zeltnedra trichantha)
  • tricho-: in compound words signifying hairy or hair-like.
  • trichoca'lyx: with a hairy calyx. (ref. Eriodictyon trichocalyx var. lanatum, Eriodictyon trichocalyx var. trichocalyx, Romneya trichocalyx)
  • trichan'thum: hairy-flowered. (ref. Centaurium trichanthum)
  • trichocar'pa: hairy-fruited. (ref. Populus trichocarpa)
  • Trichocoron'is: from the Greek trichos, "hair," and koronis, "crown" referring to the pappus. The genus Trichocoronis was published by Asa Gray in 1849. (ref. genus Trichocoronis)
  • trichoma'nes: the name of a fern mentioned by Theophrastus and Dioscorides, and used by Pliny for a fern resembling Adiantum.
  • tricho'pes: hairy-footed or -stalked. (ref. Eriogonum trichopes)
  • Trichophor'um: from the Greek thrix or trichos, "hair," and phoros, "bearing, carrying," referring to the margins of the clinandrum, which is the portion of an orchid column which conceals the anther. The genus Trichophorum was published by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1805. (ref. genus Trichophorum)
  • trichopo'dus: having a hairy pod. (ref. Astragalus trichopodus var. lonchus, Astragalus trichopodus var. phoxus)
  • Trichoptil'ium: from the Greek trichos, "hair," and ptilon, "feather," in allusion to the dissected pappus-paleae, i.e. the chafflike scales on the receptacle. The genus Trichoptilium was published by Asa Gray in 1859. (ref. genus Trichoptilium)
  • Trichos'tema: from trichos, "hair," and stema, "stamens," and alluding to the hair-like stamens. The genus Trichostema was published by Johan Frederik Gronovius in 1753. (ref. genus Trichostema)
  • tri'color: of three colors. (ref. Gilia tricolor, Verbena tricolor)
  • tricorna'tum: three-horned. (ref. Galium tricornatum)
  • tricuspida'ta: three-pointed.
  • tricus'pis: probably meaning the same as the above. (ref. Mentzelia tricuspis)
  • tridactylo'sa: from tri-, "three," and daktylos, "a finger, toe," thus meaning three-fingered or three-toed. (ref. Calystegia collina ssp. tridactylosa)
  • Tri'dens: three-toothed. The genus Tridens was published by Johann Jakob Roemer and Josef August Schultes in 1817. (ref. genus Tridens)
  • tridenta'ta/tridenta'tum: three-toothed. (ref. Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Larrea tridentata, Mentzelia tridentata, Purshia tridentata var. glandulosa, Trifolium tridentatum)
  • Trienta'lis: one-third of a foot in height, about the height of these small plants. The genus Trientalis was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Trientalis)
  • tri'fida/tri'fidum: cleft into three parts. (ref. Ambrosia trifida, Bouteloua trifida, Corallorhiza trifida, Galium trifidum var. subbiflorum)
  • triflor'um: three-flowered. (ref. Galium triflorum, Solanum triflorum)
  • trifolia'ta: three-leaved. (ref. Menyanthes trifoliata)
  • Trifo'lium: from the Latin meaning "three-leaved." The genus Trifolium was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Trifolium)
  • trifor'mis: Engelmann described the species as having three varieties: var stylosus ('planta major...'), var. brachystylus ('planta minor...') and var. uniflorus ('planta minima...'). (ref. Juncus triformis)
  • trifur'ca: thrice forked. (ref. Ephedra trifurca)
  • triglochidia'tus: with three barbed bristles. (ref. Echinocereus triglochidiatus)
  • Triglo'chin: from the Greek tri, "three," and glochis, "a point," referring to the fruit of some species. The genus Triglochin was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Triglochin)
  • Trigonel'la: a diminutive of the Latin trigonum, "triangle or three-cornered," referring to the corolla of one of the species. The genus Trigonella was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Trigonella)
  • trigonophyl'la: possibly from trigonus, "three-cornered," and phyllon, "leaf." (ref. Nicotiana trigonophylla)
  • trigy'na/trigyn'um: with three pistils. (ref. Linum trigynum)
  • trilliifo'lia: with leaves like genus Trillium. (ref. Oxalis trilliifolia)
  • trilo'ba/trilo'bata: indicates leaves are three-lobed. (ref. Ipomoea triloba, Oxytheca trilobata)
  • trimes'tris: blooming for three months. (ref. Lavatera trimestris)
  • Trimor'pha: from the Greek treis or tria, "three," and morphe, "a shape," in reference to the flower types. The genus Trimorpha was published by Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini in 1817. (ref. genus Trimorpha)
  • triner'via: with three nerves or veins. (ref. Flaveria trinervia)
  • trin'ii: after Karl Bernhard von Trinius (1778-1844), German court physician, poet and world-famous agrostologist
      who was born in Eisleben northeast of Leipzig. He founded the Botanical Museum in St. Petersburg and was personal physician and teacher of Tsar Alexander II. He was the son of a Protestant pastor. His uncle was the founder of homeopathy, Samuel Hahnemann. His father died early and his mother married a teacher named Müller from Eisleben. He studied medicine from 1792 to 1802, first in Jena, then in Halle, and finally in Leipzig. Along the way he as was the case with so many other medical people developed an interest in botany. He received a doctorate in
    1802 in Göttingen. After finishing his studies he moved to the Baltic provinces and located in several different communities. He married in 1804 and in 1808 became the personal physician of the Duchess Antoinette of Württemberg. He travelled extensively throughout Germany and Russia and from 1811 to 1815 was with the Duchess in St. Petersburg. During the period 1816 to 1822 he lived in Belarus before returning to St. Petersburg and becoming a full member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences as a result of his botanical work. In 1821 he was elected a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. In 1824 he was appointed as the imperial personal physician and taught natural sciences to Tsar Alexander II from 1829 to 1833. At this time he was continuing to communicate with his uncle and delve into the study of homeopathy. He visited botanical collections abroad on behalf of the imperial academy in 1836 but in 1837 and 1838 he suffered several strokes and died in 1844 in St. Petersburg. He was also a poet and a prolific author, and compiled a herbarium of 4000-5000 specimens which he bequeathed to the Botanical Museum of St. Petersburg. (ref. Bromus trinii)
  • triniten'sis: of or from the area of the Trinity Mountains of northern California. (ref. Arctostaphylos trinitensis)
  • tri'odon: from the Greek for "three" and "tooth," referring to the three lobes of the petals. (ref. Aliciella triodon)
  • Triodan'is: from Greek treis, "three," and odons, "tooth," hence "three-toothed." The genus Triodanis was published by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1836. (ref. genus Triodanis)
  • trio'num: Jaeger's Source-book of Biological Names and Terms gives two alternate etymologies for this name: (1) from New Latin trionum derived from the Greek trionon, the name of a malvaceous plant; and (2) from Latin Triones, referring to Ursa Major or the Big Dipper. "Ursa Major in English tradition is the Plough derived possibly from the Triones or Teriones, the Plough Oxen or Threshing Oxen of Roman fable; Cicero mentions them as the Septentriones, which later became a term for the north wind, the northern heavens and polar things in general." (From a website on Ursa Major) Since this plant is malvaceous and not particular polar or northern, the former etymology is probably correct. (ref. Hibiscus trionum)
  • tripar'tita: in three parts, having three parts. (ref. Bidens tripartita)
  • triphyl'la: three-leaved. (ref. Achlys triphylla, Lewisia triphylla)
  • triphyl'los: probably same as previous entry. (ref. Veronica triphyllos)
  • Triphysar'ia: from the Greek meaning "having three bladders" because of the lower lip pouches. The genus Triphysaria was published by Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer and Carl Anton von Meyer in 1836. (ref. genus Triphysaria)
  • Tripleurosper'mum: from the Greek treis, "three," pleura or pleuron, "rib," and sperma, "seed," referring to the achenes. The genus Tripleurospermum was published by Carl Heinrich Schultz in 1844. The genus Tripleurospermum was published by Carl Heinrich Schultz in 1844. (ref. Tripleurospermum)
  • tripo'dum: three-footed. (ref. Eriogonum tripodum)
  • Tripteroca'lyx: from the Greek tripteros, "three-winged," and kalyx, "calyx." The genus Tripterocalyx was published by William Jackson Hooker in 1853. (ref. genus Tripterocalyx)
  • triquet'ra/triquet'rum: from the Latin triquetrus meaning "having three corners, triangular." (ref. Boerhavia triquetra, Carex triquetra, Allium triquetrum)
  • trisep'alus: with three sepals. (ref. Ranunculus bonariensis var. trisepalus)
  • Triset'um: from tri, "three," and seta, "bristle, hair," referring to the three-bristled appearance of the lemma of the type species T. flavescens, which results from the presence of a bristle and two teeth. The genus Trisetum was published by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1805. (ref. genus Trisetum)
  • trista'chya: three-spiked. (ref. Eleusine tristachya)
  • tris'te: dull, sad. (ref. Hieracium triste)
  • tris'tulis: diminutive of tristis, "sad." (ref. Fritillaria affinis var. tristulis)
  • trisul'ca: with three furrows. (ref. Lemna trisulca)
  • Tritel'eia: from the Greek tri, "three," and teleios, "perfect," the floral parts being in 3's. The genus Triteleia was published by David Douglas in 1830. (ref. genus Triteleia)
  • triterna'tum: triply ternate. (ref. Lomatium triternatum)
  • tritico'ides: like genus Triticum, or wheat. (ref. Leymus triticoides)
  • Trit'icum: the classical Latin name for wheat. The genus Triticum was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Triticum)
  • triumfet'tii: named after Giovanni Battista Trionfetti (1656-1708), Italian naturalist and botanist, doctor in medicine and philosophy, born in Bologna. Pope Nicholas V had first ordered the construction of a botanical garden for the Holy See in Rome in the 15th century, and it had been moved to various locations within the Vatican walls before Pope Alexander VII in 1660 ordered that a garden on a much larger scale be built on Janiculum Hill. Under the direction of its curator Giovanni Trionfetti more than 3,000 species were added to its collection which spread its renown to every corner of Europe. He was the author of Observationes de ortu ac vegetatione plantarum. His brother was a professor of botany in Bologna. (ref. Centaurea triumfettii)
  • triuncia'lis: the Latin uncia means one-twelfth, so this might mean three-twelfths, of unknown application. (ref. Aegilops triuncialis)
  • trivia'le/trivia'lis: common, ordinary. (ref. Alisma triviale, Poa trivialis)
  • trixa'go: Brown's Composition of Scientific Words says that this name is Latin for germander, but then -ago is a Latin substantival suffix used to indicate a resemblance or property, and trix could derive from trix (thrix), "a hair," or trixos "three-fold," inasmuch as B. trixago is a glandular-hairy plant, and it was apparently an old name for some plant possibly of the mint family. (ref. Bellardia trixago)
  • Trix'is: from the Greek trixos, "three-fold," referring to the three-cleft outer corolla lip. The genus Trixis was published by Patrick Browne in 1756. (ref. genus Trixis)
  • trochlear'is: from the Greek trochlea, "a pulley," plus -aris, "belonging or pertaining to," of uncertain application. (ref. Callitriche trochlearis)
  • trolliifo'lium: with leaves like genus Trollius in the buttercup family. (ref. Delphinium trolliifolium)
  • Tropaeo'lum: the nasturtium of gardeners, although not of botanists, and named by Linnaeus, from the Greek tropaion and the Latin tropaeum for "trophy," the manner in which the plant grew up a support reminding him of a classical trophy with round shields and golden helmets such as those hung as a sign of victory on a battlefield. The genus Tropaeolum was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tropaeolum)
  • Tropidocar'pum: from the Greek meaning "keel fruit," referring to the keeled capsular valves. The genus Tropidocarpum was published by William Jackson Hooker in 1836. (ref. genus Tropidocarpum)
  • troximo'ides: Jaeger's Sourcebook relates the root trox with trog, from the Greek trogo, "to gnaw" and trogos, "a gnawer, weevil", and Brown's Composition of Scientific Words says that troxalis is the Latin word for grasshopper or cricket, which are gnawing insects. Another piece of evidence for this interpretation is a web listing that I found of the species Microseris troximoides (synonym for Nothocalais troximoides) for which the common name weevil microseris is given. (ref. Nothocalais troximoides)
  • tru'ei: after Gordon Haines True, Jr. (1908-1984), son of livestock scientist and Professor of Animal Husbandry at UC Davis. True, Jr. graduated from Davis with a degree in Animal Science and received his MS in parasitology from Berkeley in 1931. He first worked as a parasitologist for the California State Department of Fish and Game and then the Bureau of Game Conservation in San Francisco until 1946. After being injured in a car accident, he moved to Nevada to work a dairy ranch and collect local plants. He moved back to California in 1963, two years later becoming a Research Associate in the Botany Department at the California Academy of Sciences. (ref. Arctostaphylos mewukka ssp. truei)
  • trunca'ta/trunca'tum/trunca'tus: abruptly cut off. (ref. Atriplex truncata, Horkelia truncata, Pellaea truncata, Lupinus truncatus)
  • truxillen'sis: apparently a reference to the city of Trujillo in Peru, since C. truxillensis was first described from Peru. Trujillo lies on the Pan-American Highway NNW of Lima, in the coastal desert region of the Moche River Valley, and is a commercial, educational, cultural and transportation center. It is the 2nd oldest Spanish city in Peru and was founded in 1534 by Diego de Almagro and elevated to city status the following year by Francisco Pizarro who named it after his birthplace in Spain. Trujillo was visited by Alexander von Humboldt during his epic excursion across Central and South America (1799-1804) in the course of which he travelled some 6000 miles on foot and horseback and by canoe. (ref. Cressa truxillensis)
  • Tsu'ga: from a Japanese name for their native hemlocks. The genus Tsuga was published by Élie Abel Carrière in 1855. ref. genus Tsuga)
  • tsugen'se: of hemlocks. (ref. Arceuthobium tsugense)
  • tu'berans/tuberas'cens: becoming swollen or tuberous.
  • Tuberar'ia: from the thickened, tuber-like swellings on the roots of the type species. The genus Tuberaria was published by Édouard Spach in 1836. (ref. genus Tuberaria)
  • tubero'sa: tuberous, alluding to the fact that the rhizomes of some species have tubers. (ref. Anemone tuberosa, Sanicula tuberosa, Scutellaria tuberosa)
  • tubiflor'a: with tubular flowers.
  • tubulo'sa: tubular, pipe-like. (ref. Swertia tubulosa)
  • Tuckerman'nia: named after Edward Tuckerman, Jr. (1817-1886), American botanist and professor born in Boston,
      Massachusetts. The following is quoted from Wikipedia: “Tuckerman was the eldest son of a Boston merchant, also Edward Tuckerman, and Sophia (May) Tuckerman. He studied at Boston Latin School and then at his father's urging at Union College in Schenectady, which he entered as a sophomore and where he completed a BA in 1837 and to which he returned for his MA after taking a Law degree at Harvard in 1839, traveling in Germany and Scandinavia, and making the first of his botanical studies in the White Mountains. In 1846, he returned to
    Harvard as a senior (telling the President he intended to correct his father's error in breaking the family tradition), completed a second BA in 1847, then two or three years later entered the Divinity School and graduated from there in 1852. When Lewis and Clark went on their 1804-1806 expedition across the western United States, they collected many plant, seed, and flower species that had never been seen before. Lewis wrote notes about these species and they were put on scrap book paper. After Lewis supposedly committed suicide in 1809, dozens of his scrapbook pages were stolen by a botanist who was supposed to draw and classify the plants collected on the expedition. He took the papers to England to sell for money at an auction in 1842. Tuckerman noticed the auction and the significance of these papers. He bought them and then donated them to the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. After teaching at Union College, Tuckerman was a professor at Amherst College from 1854 until his death, successively Lecturer in History, Professor of Oriental History, and from 1858 Professor of Botany. Amherst awarded him an LLD. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1855. His first paper, on New England lichens, was given in 1838 or 1839. In 1843, he published privately the first serious systematic analysis of the genus Carex, Enumeratio Methodica Caricum Quarundam. Tuckerman liked to write his botanical studies in Latin. He also made the first systematic study of native Potamogeton, and after becoming Professor of Botany at Amherst, began preparing A Catalogue of Plants Growing without cultivation within 30 miles of Amherst College (published in 1875). However, his main focus was lichens. He published a number of important studies in the field, drawing on both his own collecting and specimens sent to him from elsewhere, in particular by Charles Wright from Cuba. His career culminated in the publication of Genera Lichenum: An Arrangement of the North American Lichens (1872) and Synopsis of the North American Lichens, Part 1 (1882). His last botanical publication was in 1884, and he may have published anonymous theological articles after that. Tuckerman did not accept that lichens are a combination of fungi and algae, a theory advanced late in his life. He was a founding member of the Natural History Society of Boston. His brother was Frederick Goddard Tuckerman (1821–1873), the American poet and his first cousin was Henry Theodore Tuckerman (1813–1871), an American writer, essayist and critic.” He died in Amherst, Massachusetts. The genus Tuckermannia was published by Thomas Nuttall in 1841. (ref. genus Tuckermannia)
  • Tuctor'ia: apparently an anagram of the genus name Orcuttia. The genus Tuctoria was published by John Raymond Reeder in 1982. (ref. genus Tuctoria)
  • tularen'se/tularen'sis: of or from the Tulare area of the San Joaquin Valley. (ref. Ribes tularense, Atriplex tularensis)
  • Tul'ipa: Latinized version of the Turkish tulbend, a turban. The genus Tulipa was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Tulipa)
  • tumes'cens: swollen. (ref. Arctostaphylos parryana ssp. tumescens)
  • tumulico'la: a dweller of mounds and hillocks. (ref. Carex tumulicola)
  • tumulo'sa: from the Latin tumulus, "a mound or hillock," and meaning "swollen." (ref. Cryptantha tumulosa)
  • tuolumnen'se: from Tuolumne County. (ref. Allium tuolumnense)
  • turbina'ta: shaped like a spinning top. (ref. Abronia turbinata)
  • turbinel'la: may mean the same as turbinata (see above) although possibly in diminutive form. (ref. Quercus turbinella)
  • turionif'era: bearing turions, which are small shoots or buds. (ref. Lemna turionifera)
  • tur'neri: named for Dawson Turner (1775-1858), English banker, botanist and antiquary. He was born at Great
      Yarmouth, and Wikipedia relates that he was educated at North Walsham Grammar School (now Paston College), Norfolk, and at Barton Bendish as a pupil of the botanist Robert Forby. He then enrolled at Pembroke College, Cambridge, but left without a degree due to his father's terminal illness. In 1796, he joined his father's bank in Great Yarmouth.  He became interested in botany and published a number of books. In December 1802, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1816 was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of
    Sciences. His botanical works included Synopsis of British Fuci (1802), Muscologia Hibernicae Spicilegium (Irish Moss Ferns) (1804), and Botanist's Guide through England and Wales with Lewis Weston Dillwyn (1805). He also wrote articles for Annals of Botany and the Transactions of the Linnaean Society between 1800 and 1808. By 1820 however, his interest in botany was waning. He donated his herbarium to his son-in-law William Jackson Turner who had married his daughter Maria. Today his herbarium is at Kew along with other manuscripts, photocopies of correspondence, and botanical memoranda, and other materials of his are at Norwich Museum, Trinity College, Cambridge, the British Library, Linnaean Society, and Liverpool and Norwich Public Libraries. He and his children were taught drawing by renowned Norfolk artist John Sell Cotman who became a good friend. Mark Lawley’s excellent synopsis of Turner’s life states: “As the years passed, Turner’s botanical interests gave way to increasing preoccupation with antiquarian pursuits, and his Account of a Tour in Normandy (two volumes, 1820) was a family effort with assistance from John Sell Cotman.  Turner also wrote a commentary for and produced at his own expense Cotman’s Architectural Remains in Various Countries (two volumes, 1822), and provided descriptive notes Specimens of Architectural Remains in Various Countries (two volumes, 1838). The walls of Bank House had paintings by Dutch, Flemish and Italian artists as well as the Norwich school, and these were catalogued in Turner’s Outlines in Lithography (1840).  He also added 7,000 illustrations to Blomefield’s History of Norfolk.  Turner’s library extended to 8,000 volumes, and his collection of manuscripts to 34,000 manuscripts and letters, from which he produced, for example, a Guide … towards the Verification of Manuscripts by Reference to engraved Facsimiles (1848). Turner also borrowed the letters of the naturalist Richard Richardson in order to publish Extracts from Literary Science. Correspondence of Richard Richardson (1835).” He had a total of eleven children with his wife Mary, eight of whom lived to adulthood, and after she died he married Rosamund Matilda Duff. Turner died in London in 1858 and is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London. (ref. Cephaloziella turneri)
  • Turric'ula: Latin for "little tower." The genus Turricula was published by James Francis Macbride in 1917. (ref. genus Turricula)
  • Turrit'is: according to the Jepson Manual and Jaeger's Source-Book of Biological Names and Terms, this generic epithet is from the Latin turris for "tower" or turritus, "furnished with towers," for the orientation of the overlapping leaves and fruits, giving the plant a pyramidal shape. The genus Turritis was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Turritis)
  • twee'dyi: named for Frank Tweedy (1854-1937), American topographical engineer and plant collector in Wyoming and Colorado, and author of Flora of the Yellowstone National Park (1886). He began collecting plants when he was a member of the Northern Transcontinental Survey of 1882-1883. He was originally from New York and took a degree in civil engineering at Union College in 1875 and in 1884 became a permanent employee of the United States Geological Survey, remaining until his retirement in 1915. He collected the type specimen of Salix tweedyi in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming in 1896. (ref. Aster tweedyi, Populus tweedyi)
  • Twisselmann'ia/twisselmann'ii: after Ernest Christian Twisselmann (1917-1972), cattle rancher, authority
      on southern San Joaquin Valley flora, and author of The Flora of Kern County. He lwas born and ived nearly all his life in Cholame in San Luis Obispo County east of Paso Robles. His family had large holdings in the Cholame Valley and Temblor Range. He graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, and shortly after began cattle ranching which he continued until his death. An outbreak of nitrate poisoning in 1952 that caused extensive cattle losses in parts of California triggered an interest in Twisselman to discover the plants causing the outbreak, and this led him
    into botany. He learned the mechanics of collecting plants and how to identify them from John Thomas Howell and in 1956 published a flora of the Temblor Range region. His focus expanded to Kern County and his Kern County book was published in 1968. As early as 1965 he began field work with the cooperation of USFS on the Kern Plateau in the southern Sierra Nevada of Tulare and Kern Counties. He built up a personal herbarium of about 20,000 specimens which was eventually held by the California Academy of Sciences. Most of this information comes from an obituary in Madroño, Vol. 22, No. 8, October 1974. The genus Twisselmannia was published by Ihsan Ali Al-Shehbaz in 1999. (ref. genus Twisselmannia, also Eriogonum twisselmannii, Nemacladus twisselmannii) (Photo credit: A Flora of Kern County)
  • Ty'pha: the Greek name for this plant. The genus Typha was published by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (ref. genus Typha)


Mt. San Gorgonio from Joshua Tree National Park
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