L-R: Allium campanulatum (Sierra onion), Mimulus primuloides (Primrose monkeyflower), Lamium amplexicaule (Henbit), Gilia capitata (Globe gilia), Trifolium obtusiflorum (Creek clover)

In the following names, the stressed vowel is the one preceding the stress mark. It is not always easy to ascertain where such stress should be placed, especially in the case of epithets derived from personal names. I have tried to follow the principle of maintaining the stress of the original name as outlined in the Jepson Manual, and have abandoned it only when it was just too awkward. In the case of some names, I have listed them twice, reflecting either some disagreement or conflict in the rules of pronunciation, some uncertainty on my part as to the correct pronunciation, or that simply sometimes there is no single correct pronunciation. In other instances, the way I record it is just that which sounds right to my ear. Where no credit is given for photos, they are in public domain mostly from Wikipedia.
  • wal'keri: after zoologist Ernest Pillsbury Walker (1891-1969). The following is quoted from the website of the
      Washington Biologists' Field Club: "Ernest was born in 1891 in Blue Springs, Missouri, and grew up on farms in Indiana, Colorado, and Utah. It was in this rural setting that his innate love for furred and feathered wild things was nurtured throughout his childhood. His formal education as a biologist was completed at the University of Wyoming. After college Ernest went to Alaska as a warden and inspector with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries and while there from 1913 to 1919, he met and married the former Astrid Shafsted. On his return to the states he served for two years as a
    U.S. game warden in Arizona and California. In 1921, he went back to Alaska with the U.S. Biological Survey where he served as fur and game warden and as executive officer and fiscal agent for the Alaska Game Commission. He came to Washington, DC, in 1927 and assumed a position at the National Zoo under the director, William Mann. He was assistant director of the National Zoological Park from 1930 to 1956. Although his articles on animal life appeared in such diverse publications as the National Geographic Magazine, the Saturday Evening Post, and the Illustrated London News, his life’s publishing work was his three-volume Mammals of the World. Other popular works included First Aid and Care of Small Mammals and Studying Small Mammals. These two books were published by the Animal Welfare Institute in which Ernest served as an active member. Ernest was a charter member of the American Society of Mammalogists. He was a member of the Masons and while in Alaska active with the Mount Juneau Lodge and its Eastern Star Chapter. Ernest was considered a friend of the animals and worked diligently throughout his life for their protection. He dedicated one of his books “To the mammals, great and small, who contribute so much to the welfare and happiness of man, another mammal, but receive so little in return except blame, abuse and extermination.” Ernest died on January 31, 1969, in a Rockville, Maryland, motel where he was staying to be close to his doctor who was treating him for a chronic heart condition. His wife had died in 1961 and his closest relative at the time of his death was his sister with whom he had lived for several years in Arlington, Virginia. Ernest was elected to membership in the Washington Biologists’ Field Club in 1927 and received an honorary membership in 1961." And from a 1948 Newsweek: "Since he was a child on a fruit farm in Indiana, the zoologist has collected every kind of animal, bug, and bird. He learned taxidermy in high school, and put himself through the University of Wyoming doing biological work. Thereafter he patrolled the salmon fisheries of Alaska for the government and acted as a fur warden. But research was more to his liking. In 1930 he was appointed assistant director of the Washington zoo and he has been there ever since, blissfully surrounded by the wild life that he finds not so very wild." The dust jacket of his Mammals of the World says: "Upon discovering that there existed no single book containing descriptions of all the world's mammalian genera, Walker set out to collect information from every possible source, searching tirelessly through thousands of books and articles and corresponding with mammalogists the world over. His magnum opus reflected an unequaled store of knowledge about the world's living mammals." According to David Hollombe, Walker collected the type specimen of this taxon at Paradox, Colorado in 1912, and it is for this reason that his name is on it. (ref. Chylismia walkeri ssp. tortilis) (Photo credit: USGS)
  • wal'lacei: after William Allen Wallace (1815-1893), who collected in the vicinity of Los Angeles around 1854.
      He was born in Pembroke, New Hampshire, and moved with his family to Canaan, New Hampshire in 1817 when he was 2. He was educated in schools there and although apparently prepared to enter Dartmouth College, I have no evidence that he actually did. In 1831 a local paper, the New Hampshire Post, which was printed at Haverhill, New Hampshire, was advertising for a boy, and he very much wanted to learn to set type and so was allowed to become an apprentice. His father died later that same year and he remained in Haverhill for two years. Then
    the office was sold and removed to Concord, and he went with it and stayed an additional year, at which time he left. In 1834 he went to work for Alfred Beard of the Nashua Telegraph, which position he held for two years. His next few years were a peripatetic mix of school and various printing jobs in Charlestown, MA, East Bridgewater, MA, Boston, and Worcester, MA. He was attracted by the sea and almost joined the Navy. By 1849 the idea of moving west had taken strong hold of him, and it was in 1850 that he finally pulled up stakes and moved to California. [He] "worked as a gold miner, schoolteacher [in San Gabriel], and newspaper editor. Although the dates aren’t clear, he apparently traveled back and forth many times between his home in New Hampshire and Los Angeles, but whether this was before or after he moved back east to Canaan, NH, I don't know. In 1856 he became an honorary member of the California Academy of Sciences for his work as a field botanist. He was editor and proprietor of the Los Angeles Star during 1853-1856, and in 1857 became a correspondent for San Francisco's Daily Alta California, reporting on travels in the West and from Washington, D.C., during the Civil War. Wallace settled in Canaan in 1865, where he conducted research for a town history, published posthumously in 1910." (Quoted from the online Yale Digital Content webpages). He had tried farming in the Napa Valley when he first moved to California While in Los Angeles he became a plant collector, but at some point he returned to the East. According to islapedia, he collected plants on Santa Catalina island in 1859 including the Solanum xanti var. wallacei. Back in New England, Wallace paid Asa Gray a visit at Harvard College. giving the plant specimens to him. Gray instructed him how to properly collect and prepare plant specimens for submission. There seems to be little information available about what he was doing during the 28 years after he moved back to New Hampshire in 1865. (ref. Eriophyllum wallacei, Solanum wallacei) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • wallich'ii: named after the Danish botanist and surgeon Dr. Nathaniel Wallich (1786-1854). The following is quoted
      from the PlantExplorers.com website: "Nathaniel Wallich was born at Copenhagen, in Denmark on January 28, 1786. In 1806 Wallich obtained the diploma of the Royal Academy of Surgeons at Copenhagen and in the autumn of that year was appointed Surgeon to the Danish settlement at Serampore, then known as Frederischnagor in Bengal. He sailed for India in April 1807 and arrived at Serampore in the following November after a long sea voyage around the African Cape. The Danish alliance with Napoleon turned disastrous and resulted in many Danish colonies being
    seized by the British, including the outpost at Serampore. Wallich was held as a prisoner of war but later, in 1809, he was released from his parole on the merit of his scholarship. On his release Wallich was appointed assistant to William Roxburgh, the East India Company's botanist in Calcutta. Although ill health forced Wallich to spend the years 1811-1813 in the relatively more temperate climate of Mauritius, he still pursued his studies. Wallich's keen interest in the native flora and fauna of India, and his scholarly work with collecting and cataloguing was making impressions both locally and abroad. As a member of the Asiatic Society Wallich was the driving influence behind the Society's foundation of the Oriental Museum of the Asiatic Society in February 1814. Offering both his services and a number of items from his own collections Wallich founded the museum and took charge as the Honorary Curator and then Superintendent. However, Wallich continued to work in the medical profession and by August 1814 he was working as Assistant Surgeon for the East India Company and consequently he had to resign as Superintendent of the Museum in December 1814. The Museum, later known as the Indian Museum in Calcutta, thrived under the guidance of its enthusiastic founder and the many collectors he supported and inspired. Most of them were Europeans except a solitary Indian, Babu Ramkamal Sen, initially a Collector and later the first Indian Secretary to the Asiatic Society. Wallich had been involved with the East India Company's Botanical Garden at Calcutta almost from the day he arrived, but took on a permanent position as Superintendent of the Garden in 1817. Although he continued his duties at the Museum, by 1819 he devoted himself entirely to the garden. As a well respected botanist Nathaniel Wallich prepared a catalogue of more than 20,000 specimens, published two important books -- Tentamen Flora Nepalensis Illustratae (1824-26) and Plantae Asiaticae Rariories (1830-32) and went on a number of expeditions himself. However, one of Wallich's greatest contributions to field of plant exploration was the assistance he regularly offered to the many plant hunters who stopped in Calcutta on their way to the Himalayas. Wallich was responsible for packing many of the specimens that came through the gardens on the way to England, and over the years he developed some innovative methods, including packing seeds in brown sugar. Strange as it may seem, the sugar preserved and protected the seeds very well and, in fact, Wallich had one of the best records for keeping plant material alive for shipping prior to the development of the Wardian Case. Wallich retired to London in 1847 and died there on April 28, 1854. On the occasion of his bicentenary, in 1986, the Indian Museum instituted an annual lecture series in memory of the founder of the museum movement in India. (ref. Persicaria wallichii)
  • walteri: named for Walter Fry (1859-1941), forest adminstrator born in Illinois. he came to California in 1887 and worked for a lumber company, but developed an antipaty to cutting down the Big Trees. He entered government service in 1901 and worked his way up to superintendent of Sequoiah and General Grant National Parks (which is what the area called the General Grant Grove is now called). He then became commissioner for those two parks from 1920 until his death. (ref. Quercus lobata ssp. walteri)
  • warneren'se: of or from the Warner Mountains in eastern Modoc County. (ref. Galium serpenticum ssp. warnerense)
  • Washington'ia: after George Washington (1732-1799), 1st President of the United States. He was born in Colonial
      Virginia and after some early schooling he became a surveyor. He joined the Virginia militia and fought in the French and Indian War. He was made commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in 1775 by the 2nd Continental Congress. He was unanimously chosen to lead the Constitutional Convention in 1787 which devised the new Federal government. Washington was unanimously elected as President by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. He inherited slaves and owned slaves throughout his life, but freed them in his will. He was a prolific land buyer and
    accumulated some 70,000 acres of land during his lifetime. His early life as a surveyor and a military officer took him into wild lands and exposed him to nature in a way that few others in colonial times experienced. He died at his home at the age of 67. The genus Washingtonia was published by Hermann Wendland in 1879. (ref. genus Washingtonia)
  • washingtonia'na: probably after either the state of Washington or Lake Washington near Seattle, where the type specimen was found. (Claytonia washingtoniana)
  • washingtonia'num: after Martha Dandridge Custis Washington (1731-1802), wife of the first U.S. President. She
      was born on her parents' plantation Chestnut Grove in the British colony, Province of Virginia. She had three brothers and four sisters and apparently had a half-sister who was born into slavery. She also may have had an out-of-wedlock half-brother who was white. At the age of 18 she married a rich planter named Daniel Parke Custis, and two years after he died in 1757 she married George Washington. During the Revolutionary War she joined him for all the Continental Army's winter encampments. She was not in favor of him accepting the Presidency and she did not attend his
    inauguration. As a result of her first marriage, she had inherited great wealth which George used frequently to buy land and slaves. She was primarily a manager of the household and does not seem to have had much in the way of other non-social activities. She died two and a half years after the death of her husband. (ref. Lilium washingtonianum)
  • washoen'sis: of or from Washoe County, Nevada.
  • Watson'ia: after Sir William Watson (1715-1787), English botanist and physician, apothecary, physicist, Fellow of
      the Royal Society, writer on subjects like electricity and lightning. He was born the son of a tradesman in London. He entered the Merchant Taylor’s School in 1726 and was apprenticed to an apothecary in 1730. He had a strong interest in botany and made many trips into the countryside in seach of plants. He married in 1738 and set himself up in business. He helped to introduce the work of Carolus Linnaeus into England. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1741 and vice president in 1772. In 1757 he was created a doctor of physic at the University of Halle. In
    1781 he was elected a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. About his electrical experiments, Wikipedia says that “In 1746, he showed that the capacity of the Leyden jar could be increased by coating it inside and out with lead foil. In the same, year he proposed that the two types of electricity—vitreous and resinous—posited by Charles Francois de Cisternay du Fay were actually a surplus (a positive charge) and a deficiency (a negative charge) of a single fluid which he called electrical ether, and that the quantity of electrical charge was conserved. He acknowledged that the same theory had been independently developed at the same time by Benjamin Franklin—the two men later became allies in both scientific and political matters. On 14 August 1747 he made an experiment to conduct electricity through a 6,732 foot long wire at Shooter's Hill in London. At another experiment he made, the wire was 12,276 feet. Previous experiments in France had only tried shorter distances.” He died in London. The genus Watsonia was published in 1758 by Philip Miller. (ref. genus Watsonia)
  • watson'ii: named for Sereno Watson (1826-1892) of Harvard, assistant to Asa Gray and Curator of the Gray
      Herbarium at Harvard University, a distinguished American botanist who named and described many new species found during the pioneer botanical explorations of western and middle North America. Born on a farm in Connecticut, he graduated from Yale in 1847 and some years taught school, did editorial work and studied medicine, after which he went back to Yale to study chemistry and mieralogy. He decided to move to California and participated in Clarence King's geological survey of the 40th parallel, becoming the expedition's botanist by replacing William
    Whitman Bailey who left on account of poor health. He wrote and published Botany of the King Expedition in 1871, working first at New Haven with Daniel Cady Eaton and then at Harvard under Asa Gray. His report was considered the most useful of the several survey expedition reports and he was appointed an assistant at the Gray Herbarium in 1873, then Curator, which position he held until his death. While at Harvard, he also worked with William H. Brewer (see breweri) and Gray on the first volume of Botany of California, publishing by himself the second volume in 1880. He also completed the Manual of the Mosses of North America, published in 1884, which had was begun by Thomas Potts James and Leo Lesqueriux. He botanized in the northwestern United States in 1880, in Guatemala in 1885, and travelled to Europe in 1886. He was not considered an innovator in the botanical field, but was respected primarily because of his meticulous nature and careful notetaking in the field. (ref. Alternanthera watsonii, Atriplex watsonii, Brickellia watsonii, Chorizanthe watsonii, Oxytheca watsonii, Selaginella watsonii, Tricardia watsonii)
  • web'beri: after David Gould Webber (1809-1883), "...son of William and Susanna Webber, born in Livingston county, New York, September 12, 1809. When sixteen years old he began working on a canal in summer, attending school in winter, and followed this for two years, when he engaged as a drug clerk and student with Dr. Woodworth of Springfield, Pennsylvania. Three years after, young Webber bought him out, and continued in business for twelve years. In 1843 he closed out his business there, and dealt in stock for two years. He went to Chicago in 1845, and bought a half-interest in a steam flouring mill, and was also a contractor on the Illinois canal for about four years. He started for California in December, 1849, via Panama, and upon his arrival in April, 1850, went to Downieville, and mined during the summer of 1850. In 1851 he located the Oak ranch near Monte Christo, but sold out the next year and bought a sawmill in Downieville, going also into stock-raising in Scott valley. During the four years following, Dr. Webber superintended the building of the first wagon road to Downieville, the first bridge across Yuba river, and the courthouse, jail, and jailer's house. He was school superintendent of Sierra county two years. During this time, in 1852, he located all the land around what was then called Little Truckee lake (now known as Webber lake), for a stock range, and in 1854 stocked the lake with trout, there having been previously no fish in it, because of the falls a mile below. In 1860 he built the Webber Lake hotel there, and opened it to the public that year. The ranch he lived on, four miles north of Loyalton, was located by him in 1859, where he spent the winters, and he ran the hotel at the lake during the remainder of the year, until 1877. He practiced medicine in Loyalton for three years. In 1833 he was married to Miss Margaret Bradish of Cranerville, Pennsylvania, by whom he had one child, James W., who was born in 1835, and died in Sacramento in 1856. Mrs. Webber died in 1842." (from Plumas County Biographies) He accompanied and collected plants for John G. Lemmon, one of which (Ivesia webberi) he found on his own ranch and which Lemmon named in his honor. (ref. Achnatherum webberi, Astragalus webberi, Ivesia webberi)
  • weed'ii: after Amos Weed (1828-1918).  Born in Amesbury, Massachusetts, he became a carriage maker by
      trade and with his schoolteacher cousin Ephraim Weed Morse joined the New England Trading and Mining Association.  Desirous of travelling to the gold fields of California, each member contributed $300 to buy a ship named the Lenore and cargo in Boston, and the group sailed around Cape Horn to San Francisco, arriving in 1849.  After the ship and its cargo were sold, most of the members headed for the gold country, where Weed and Morse tried placer mining. Many of them were affected by the scurvy and typhoid fever that was prevalent around the gold camps, and both
    men decided to resettle to San Diego, Morse becoming a prosperous and respected citizen of that community, and Weed taking up carpentry. After a brief period Weed returned to San Francisco and took up gold mining again, spending several years in Tuolomne County, and living for a while in the Hawaiian Islands.  In the Tuolomne area he picked up an 18-1/2 oz. gold nugget.  He finally settled in San Diego in 1862, and resumed his close relationship with his cousin Ephraim.  He apparently worked as a farmer and a carpenter, and collected plants on the side, one of which was this beautiful mariposa lily, named for him by Professor Alphonso Wood.  Ephraim became a merchant, lawyer, real estate promoter and civic official, and one of the interests in which he had a part ownership was the Oriflamme Mine and Mill which was situated four miles east of Cuyamaca.  In the early 1870's there was a minor gold rush in the Julian-Banner area of the mountains east of San Diego, and Weed again took up his gold pan to seek a fortune, but soon taking over management of the Oriflamme Mine and Mill where he worked until 1876.  I don't know anything about the period of his life that followed this.  He never married and died April 29, 1918, and in accordance with his wishes, his ashes were scattered along the tracks of the San Diego and Arizona Railway, in which he had had a longtime interest. (ref. Calochortus weedii) (Photo credit: San Diego Historical Society Quarterly October 1957)
  • Weis'sia: named for Friedrich Wilhelm Weiss (1744-1826), German physician, botanist and lichenologist of Göttingen. (ref. genus Weissia)
  • wells'ii: after Philip Vincent Wells (1928-2004). The following is from an obituary in the Lawrence Journal-World of Lawrence, Kansas 11/3/04: "He was born April 24, 1928, in Brooklyn, N.Y., the son of Philip V. and Florence Ceceilia Lennon Wells. He received a bachelor's degree, with honors, in biology in 1951 at City University of New York Brooklyn College; a master's in botany in 1956 from University of Wisconsin, Madison; and a doctorate in botany in 1959 from Duke University. Mr. Wells served in the U.S. Army as a research associate at Fort Detrick Biological Warfare Laboratories, Crops Division, from 1951 to 1953. He was a research fellow at Duke University from 1955-1958. He was an instructor at University of California in Santa Barbara from 1958 to 1959, a resident ecologist at Nevada Test Site, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1960 to 1961, a research associate at New Mexico Highlands University from 1961 to 1962, a professor of botany at Kansas University from 1962 to 1971, acting director at Botanical Garden and visiting associate professor at University of California-Berkeley from 1966 to 1967, a professor of botany and of systematics and ecology at KU from 1971 to 1998, and professor emeritus of ecology and evolutionary biology at KU from 1998 to 2004. He published "The Manzanitas of California: Also of Mexico and the World" in 2000. (ref. Arctostaphylos wellsii)
  • werneriifo'lia: with leaves like genus Werneria, which was named for the German geologist Abraham Gottlob
      Werner (1749-1817). He was born in Wehrau in Prussian Silesia. His family was involved with the mining industry and his father was a foundry foreman. He clearly was destined to follow in the footsteps of his family and he was educated at Freiberg and Leipzig, where he studied law and mining, and was then appointed as Inspector and Teacher of Mining and Mineralogy at the small, but influential, Freiberg Mining Academy in 1775. He published the first modern textbook on descriptive mineralogy, Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien (On the External
    Characters of Fossils, or of Minerals; 1774). He set out an early theory about the stratification of the Earth's crust and demonstrating chronological succession in rocks. He propounded a history of the Earth that came to be known as Neptunism, the theory that the Earth was originally covered by water from which precipitated all the rocks and minerals of the present age. He has been called the "father of German geology" and his fame as a teacher spread widely and attracted  students from all over Europe, and many of them went on to have significant careers. He was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1810. He had been in frail health for most of his life and died at Dresden of internal complications. (ref. Packera [formerly Senecio] werneriifolia)
  • weston'ii: after Edward Roy Weston (1885-1966), draftsman, amateur photographer and botanical collector. The following entry is quoted from Cantelow and Cantelow, "Biographical Notes on Persons in whose Honor Alice Eastwood Named Native Plants," (1957) in Leaflets of Western Botany 8 (5): 83-101: "Weston, Edward Roy. Geological draftsman; born in Dayton, Ohio, 17 Apr.1885, now residing in San Francisco, Calif. He came to Calif. from Idaho, 1915; his love of the out-of-doors led to the 'popular sport of hiking in Marin County,' and it was thus that he 'had the pleasure and honor of meeting Miss Alice Eastwood.' He has been chiefly engaged in map making for the State Mining Bureau, War Department, and many oil companies; still active on a consulting basis; has made excursions to remote spots in Calif. in search of rare plants, sometimes in company with Alice Eastwood." Ernest Twisselman in A Flora of Kern County adds that he was a draftsman with the Shell Oil Co. and collected in Kern County in 1925 and 1926 while living in Bakersfield, making "carefully prepared  specimens as vouchers for his photographs of plants." I am indebted to David Hollombe once again for correcting my entry and allowing me to avoid embarrassment at having previously identified Edward Weston (1886-1958), the noted American photographer, as the source of this name. (ref. Eriogonum nudum var. westonii)
  • wheel'eri: after George Montague Wheeler (1842-1905), born in Massachusetts and graduated from the United States
      Military Academy in 1866, Lt. and member of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers director of U.S. Army surveys of the western U.S. 1869-1879 during which he explored and mapped the deserts of the Great Basin south of the 40th parallel to the Mexican border, mapping in total almost one-third of all the land west of the 100th meridian, including parts of Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah and Colorado. His surveying actually began when he was assigned the job of making a geographical reconnaissance of central Nevada, and two years later he bcame the
    superintending engineer of the Geographical Survey of the territory of the United States west of the 100th meridian at the head of a group of scientists and surveyors. During his first major expedition, he explored and mapped some 72,000 square miles of territory, including the Death Valley and Mojave Desert regions. His detachments again surveyed the Death Valley and Mojave Desert areas in 1875, recording data on archeology, geology, botany, zoology, and Native Americans, and made extensive topographic maps of the region. He was promoted to Captain in 1879 and retired from active duty in 1888. Numerous mountain peaks and other geographical features are named for Wheeler, including Wheeler Peak, the highest point in New Mexico. (ref. Chaetadelpha wheeleri, Chorizanthe wheeleri, Poa wheeleri, Potentilla wheeleri) (Photo credit: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers)
  • Whipp'lea: see whipplei below. (ref. genus Whipplea)
  • whipp'lei: named for Lt. Amiel Weeks Whipple (1817-1863), a topographical engineer/surveyor who commanded the
      Pacific Railroad Survey from Fort Smith, Arkansas to Los Angeles in 1853 and 1854 searching for a potential route for a transcontinental railroad. The route basically followed the 35th parallel crossed present-day Oklahoma, the panhandle of Texas, and what is now New Mexico and Arizona. The expedition consisted of about seventy men, soldiers, teamsters, herders and a number of scientists from the Smithsonian Institution including John M. Bigelow as surgeon and botanist, and the young Joseph C. Ives who later would survey the Colorado River through the Grand
    Canyon. They took measurements, recorded geological data, collected plant samples and other specimens, and had numerous contacts, mostly friendly, with members of a number of western indian tribes. His expedition demonstrated the feasibility of the 35th parallel route for a transcontinental railroad, and despite the fact the cross-country railroad eventually followed a different route, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad did follow much of his trail from Albuquerque to Los Angeles. This route would also eventually become that of the famous Route 66. Whipple was born in Massachusetts, and after a year at Amherst College graduated fifth in his class from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. After being commissioned into the Artillery branch of the Army, he was transferred to the Topographical Engineers, where he spent several years doing hydrographic surveys in different parts of the country. He worked on a survey of the northeast boundary of the United States, then became an assistant with the U.S. Boundary Commission where he helped survey the new boundary with Mexico west from El Paso to the Pacific. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he drew the Union Army's first maps of the Northern Virginia military region and was chief topographical engineer for General Irvin McDowell. He took part in the battles of First Manassas, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. He was wounded in the stomach during the latter engagement on May 4th, 1863 and died several days later. He had met and become friends with President Lincoln, who signed his promotion to Major General just before he died. His son, Charles William, received a presidential appointment to West Point and graduated in 1868. (ref. Hesperoyucca whipplei) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • Whit'neya/whit'neyi: named after Josiah Dwight Whitney (1819-1896), state geologist of California from 1860 to
      1876, who made the first geologic study of Yosemite Valley, and for whom Mt. Whitney was named. He was born in Northampton, MA, the oldest of 12 children. He was educated at a series of schools in Northampton, Plainfield, Round Hill, New Haven and Andover. In 1836 he entered Yale University where he studied chemistry, mineralogy and astronomy. After graduation in 1839, he continued to study chemistry in Philadelphia, and in 1840 he joined a geologic survey of New Hampshire as an unpaid assistant to Charles T. Jackson. He was about to enter Harvard Law
    School when a lecture he attended by Charles Lyell turned his life in the direction of science. In 1842 he sailed for Europe where for five years he traveled through Europe and studied chemistry and geology in France and Germany. He became a mining consultant and wrote Metallic Wealth of the United States which was a standard reference for 15 years. In 1860 he became state geologist of California and carried out a comprehensive geologic survey of the state, a survey in which Clarence King, James Graham Cooper and William H. Brewer participated, and which covered not only geology and geography, but also botany, zoology, and paleontology. Although funding for the survey was discontinued in 1868, he remained state geologist until 1874. Whitney wrote The Yosemite Book, published in 1869, which was essentially a travel guide to Yosemite Valley and surrounding regions. He believed that Yosemite Valley was created by a cataclysmic sinking of the valley floor and got into a major fight with John Muir who correctly deduced that it had been carved by glacial action. His hypothesis was never accepted. Another controversy he became embroiled in involved the Calaveras Skull which he declared was millions of years old but which in reality was probably only as old as 1000 years. In 1874 he went to Harvard and opened a school of mines which a year later became part of the Lawrence Scientific School, and he remained as a professor of geology there for the remainder of his life. Aside from Mt. Whitney, the highest point in the United States, the first confirmed glacier in the U.S. was named for him. He died in New Hampshire.(ref. genus Whitneya, also Astragalus whitneyi var. whitneyi, Carex whitneyi, Hazardia whitneyi, Mimulus whitneyi) (Photo credit: Find-a-Grave)
  • wiesland'eri: after Albert Everett Wieslander (1890-1992), California forester who was responsible in the 1930's for surveying California vegetation and creating the Vegetation Type Mapping Project. "The ultimate goal of the original VTM project was to create vegetation type maps, but in the process the surveyors collected several other kinds of data as well. In order to validate some of the broad zones of vegetation they designated from high vantage points, the surveyors also ran vegetation transects, collecting data on species composition, depth of leaf litter, and tree size, among other things. They marked the location of these plots on USGS topographic maps, which today provide us with point occurrences of the individual species they found. Addtionally, they collected sample specimens and placed them in the University Herbarium (now the Jepson Herbarium), many of which remain there today. They also took photos of many vegetatively distinct locations, and marked the locations of these photos on maps (unfortunately most of these photos maps have been lost). And finally, of course, they created vegetation maps, drawing broad zones of single or mixed stands in crayon over USGS topographic quads. Originally, the project was slated to included detailed vegetation type maps of 220 USGS quadrangles, but the survey was halted by World War II, and only 23 maps were published. The project continued after the war under state funding, but no more quads ever saw publication. However, much of the unpublished data survives today and exists in storage at the University of California, Berkeley. The VTM dataset has been recognized as an invaluable window into the state of California flora in the early 20th century, and has provided data for several graduate theses at the University. However, the dataset's physical fragility and resultant restriction to the U. C. Berkeley campus have made it largely inaccessible to the broader scientific community. Thus, researchers at U. C. Berkeley Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management (ESPM), in conjunction with the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library, sought funding to digitize all of the published and unpublished dataset, for use in modern geographic information systems and to facilitate its distribution via the Internet." This information is quoted from a Berkeley website and through this site the digitized material is now largely available to the public. (ref. Arctostaphylos manzanita ssp. wieslanderi)
  • Wigan'dia: after Johann (Johannes) Wigand (1523-1587), a Prussian writer on plants, professor of theology and
      Bishop of Pomerania. He was born at Mansfeld in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, into a Lutheran family. He studied at the University of Wittenberg and attended lectures by Martin Luther. He was a main contributor to the Magdeburg Centuries, a critical work on church history. In 1545 he graduated with a Master’s degree. The following year he became a pastor in his hometown and then in 1553 was appointed pastor of the Church of St. Ulrich (Sankt-Ulrich-und-Levin-Kirche) in Magdeburg. He turned to academia and became professor of theology at the University of Jena
    and in 1563 was awarded a doctorate of theology from the University of Rostock.  He was forced to leave the territory when August of Saxony took over the administration of Saxe-Weimar in 1573, and went to Königsberg in East Prussia where in 1575 he became Bishop of Pomesania, a post he held until his death in 1587. The genus Wigandia was published in 1790 by Noel Martin Joseph de Necker. (ref. genus Wigandia)
  • wiggins'ii: after Ira Loren Wiggins (1899-1987), American botanist, author of Flora of Baja California, A Flora of
      the Alaskan Arctic Slope with John Hunter Thomas, and the two-volume Vegetation and Flora of the Sonoran Desert with Forrest Shreve. He was born in Madison, Wisconsin, and attended Occidental College with the intent of becoming a Presbyterian minister, graduating with a B.A. in philosophy in 1922. He taught school for a year, however his interests changed to botany and he then received his M.A. at Stanford where he studied with LeRoy Abrams. From 1925 to 1927 he was an instructor at Occidental College. He got a Ph.D. in 1930 and wrote his thesis on the flora
    of San Diego County. He joined the Stanford faculty in 1929 and remained there until he retired in 1964. After retiring from Stanford as Professor of Biology Emeritus, Wiggins continued teaching at California University, Fullerton, and the University of Florida, as well as researching and writing papers. He was the Curator of the Dudley Herbarium and Director of the Natural History Museum (1940-1962) at Stanford University. He was the first recipient of the Fellow's Medal of the California Academy of Sciences, and a fellow of the Arctic Institute of North America and the California Academy of Sciences, Professor Wiggins made over 50,000 collections of plants as well as major contributions to zoological collections. He undertook an expedition in 1964 taking part in the Galapagos International Scientific Project studying the flora of the islands made famous a century before by Charles Darwin, and culminating in The Flora of the Galapagos Islands (1971). He collected plants extensively in the Sonoran Desert and wrote about desert flora. His name is also on two species of lizards. He died in Palo Alto in late 1987. (ref. Croton wigginsii, Opuntia wigginsii)
  • wight'ii: after Robert Wight (1796-1872), Scottish surgeon and botanist, Director of the Botanic Garden in Madras. He
      was born at Milton, East Lothian and educated at home until the age of 11. Then he entered the Royal High School in Edinburgh, following which he obtained a surgeon's diploma in 1816 from the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh. He trained at Edinburgh University, studying botany under Daniel Rutherford in 1816, and graduating MD in 1818. Wikipedia says: “Robert Wight was a Scottish surgeon in the East India Company, whose professional career was spent entirely in southern India, where his greatest achievements were in botany – as an economic botanist and
    leading taxonomist in south India. He contributed to the introduction of American cotton. As a taxonomist he described 110 new genera and 1267 new species of flowering plants. He employed Indian botanical artists to illustrate a large number of plants collected by himself and Indian collectors he trained. Some of these illustrations were published William Hooker in Britain, but from 1838 published a series of illustrated works in Madras including the uncoloured, six-volume Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis (1838–53) and two hand-coloured, two-volume works, the Illustrations of Indian Botany (1838–50) and Spicilegium Neilgherrense (1845–51). By the time he retired from India in 1853 he had published 2464 illustrations of Indian plants.” He went to India in 1819 as an Assistant Surgeon in the service of the East India Company, making plant collections, serving as a naturalist and surgeon for the British military, and carrying on a productive correspondence with William Hooker, Professor of Botany at Glasgow University, sending him plant specimens and drawings by his Indian artist Rungiah. In 1831 he returned to London with 100,000 plant specimens representing 3000-4000 species. During three years in England and Scotland he worked with his old school and university friend George Arnott Walker-Arnott. Before returning to India in 1834, the two men began three joint projects, a Catalogue of the East India Company Herbarium specimens (first two parts published), the Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis (first volume published) and the Contributions to the Flora of India(a number of the sections of which were published.) Other botanists who examined Wight’s collection and contributed to this latter publication included Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, John Lindley, Christian Nees von Esenbeck, George Bentham and Nathaniel Walluch. Wight returned to India in 1834 as a full surgeon in the 33rd Regiment of Native Infantry, and he began working on the medicinal plants of India, and became the editor for the botany section of the Madras Journal of Literature and Science. Beginning in 1836 he began concentrating on economic botany as a member of the Madras Revenue Department, reporting on agricultural species such as tea, sugar cane, senna and, increasingly, cotton. He was involved in a major project to induce Indian farmers to grow American cotton, but this was ultimately unsuccessful. He employed the Indian artist Rungiah from around 1826 to 1845 to create a series of illustrated publications such as the six-volume Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis (1838–53) and two hand-coloured, two-volume works, the Illustrations of Indian Botany (1838–50) and Spicilegium Neilgherrense (1845–51). Wight retired from service in 1853 and returned to England. He donated his vast collection of duplicate specimens to the Kew herbarium and distributed other sets of specimens to herbaria in Europe, Russia, North America, South Africa, Australia and, for the first time, to two South Asian herbaria. He was a Fellow of the Linnean Society, a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, and a member of the Academia Caesarea Leopoldina-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum. He died In 1872 and was buried in the parish church of Grazeley where he had long been a churchwarden. The genus Wightia was published in 1830 by Nathaniel Wallich. (ref. genus Wightia, also Castilleja wightii)
  • wilcox'ii: after plant collector Ernest Norton Wilcox (1869-1961). From the San Luis Obispo Telegram-Tribune, 4 Sep. 1961: "Mr. Wilcox was born on March 27, 1869 in Thawville, Ill. When 15 he accompanied his family to South Dakota where they homesteaded for a number of years. He graduated from South Dakota State College at Brookings and worked for a time with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In 1903 he was married to Emily B. Sprague of Thawville, and [he] farmed in that vicinity until 1919 when he moved to Atascadero Garden Farms. In 1940 he came to San Luis Obispo to reside with his son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs Charles V. Gates. In addition to water-color art, Mr. Wilcox was interested in his large collection of tropical and fossil shells, some of which were presented recently to the Cal Poly and County Museum Association. He was a member of the Gem and Mineral Club, San Luis Obispo; the Conchological Club of Southern California, and the San Luis Obispo and Morro Bay Art Associations." David Hollombe adds that he "worked for the Agrostology Division of the USDA and collected plants in Montana and adjacent states. He has often been confused with the better-known Earley Vernon Wilcox." (ref. Eriastrum wilcoxii)
  • wild'erae: after Charlotte May Wood Thurber Wilder (1866-1957), wife first of Eugene Carleton Thurber and then of Harry Edward Wilder, American botanist who collected in the San Gabriel Mts of Southern California. (ref. Horkelia wilderae)
  • wilkinsia'na: after Lewanna Wilkins (1869-1955), American botanist who collected specimens as part of the U.S. Biological Survey to Mt. Shasta led by Clinton Hart Merriam.
  • willdeno'vii: named after Carl Ludwig Willdenow (1765-1812), eminent German botanist and taxonomist who was
      director of the Berlin Botanical Garden 1801-1812 and who in his multi-volume Species plantarum published many of the new species discovered by Gotthilf Henry Muhlenberg. He was born in Berlin and studied pharmaceutics at Wieglieb College, Langensalza, completing those studies in 1785. He also studied medicine and botany at the University of Halle, graduating in 1789 with an M.D.  His father ran a pharmacy in the Unter den Linden and when Carl was done with his schooling he worked for his father. By this time he was intensely interested in botany and
    in 1787 was published his Florae Berolinensis prodromus. In 1790 he took over his father’s pharmacy which he operated until 1798. In 1792 he publishedPrinciples of Botany and two years later was admitted to the Berlin Academy of Sciences. In 1798 he was made professor of natural history at the Berlin Medical-Surgical College and in 1810 a professor of botany at the University of Berlin. Wikipedia says: “He is considered one of the founders of phytogeography, the study of the geographic distribution of plants. Willdenow was also a mentor of Alexander von Humboldt, one of the earliest and best known phytogeographers. He also influenced Christian Konrad Sprengel, who pioneered the study of plant pollination and floral biology. His early interest in botany was kindled by his uncle J. G. Gleditsch and he started a herbarium collection in his teenage years. He was a director of the Botanical garden of Berlin from 1801 until his death. In 1807 Alexander von Humboldt helped to expand the garden. There he studied many South American plants, brought back by Humboldt. He was interested in the adaptation of plants to climate, showing that the same climate had plants having common characteristics. His herbarium, containing more than 20,000 species, is still preserved in the Botanical Garden in Berlin. Some of the specimens include those collected by Humboldt.” He died in Berlin in 1812. (ref. Trifolium willdenovii)
  • williams'iae: after Margaret Jensen (Mrs. Loring Ryder) Williams (1917-2000), founder of the Northern Nevada Native Plant Society. David Hollombe provided the following brief note from Arnold Tiehm in 'Nevada Vascular Types': "Margaret Jensen William and Arnold Tiehm collected the type of Eriogonum ovalifolium var. williamsiae Reveal in 1979. Williams received Bachelor's and Master's degrees from the University of Nevada and for many years was an elementary school teacher in Reno, retiring in 1981. She has had a long-time interest in rock gardening, gardens in general, and a strong love for the Great Basin. A member of the California Native Plant Society since its early years, she had envisioned such a society for Nevada and was the moving force behind the Northern Nevada Native Plant Society's (NNNPS) inception in 1975. She subsequently has served as NNNPS President and for many years has been its Executive Director." (ref. Polyctenium williamsiae)
  • williamson'ii: named after Lt. Robert Stockton Williamson (1824-1882), leader of a railway survey in the mid-
      eighteenth century. The website Virtual American Biographies says: "[He was] born in New York in 1824; died in San Francisco, California, 10 November, 1882. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1848, assigned to the topographical engineers, and took part in various surveys on the Pacific coast till 1856, when he became 1st Lieutenant. From that time till the civil war he was on the staff of the commanding general of the Department of the Pacific, and in charge of military roads in southern Oregon, with meteorological observations on that coast. On 6 August,
    1861, he was promoted Captain, and, after reconnoissances on the lower Potomac till March, 1862, he was chief topographical engineer in the operations in North Carolina, being brevetted Major, 14 March, 1862, for services at New Berne, and Lieutenant-colonel on 26 April for the siege of Fort Macon. He then served with the Army of the Potomac, of which he was chief topographical engineer, from 21 November till 21 December, 1862, and held that post in the Department of the Pacific from 9 February till 3 March, 1868, when he was transferred to the Corps of Engineers, in which he was made Major on 7 May. Afterward he served on the Pacific coast as superintending engineer of various surveys of rivers, harbors, and sites for fortifications. On 22 February, 1869, he was promoted Lieutenant-colonel. Colonel Williamson published Report of a Reconnoissance and Survey in California in Connection with Explorations for a Railway Route to the Pacific in Vol. 3 of 'Pacific Railway Reports' (Washington, 1853), On the Use of the Barometer on Surveys and Reconnoissances (New York, 1868) and Practical Tables in Meteorology and Hypsometry." He made a reconnaissance of the north side of the San Gabriel Mountains for the Pacific Railroad Survey in 1853 and the peak Mt. Williamson was named for him. (ref. Clarkia williamsonii)
  • Wislizen'ia/wislizen'i: after Frederick Adolf Wislizenus (1810-1889), Army surgeon, explorer, botanist and plant
      collector of German birth who travelled extensively in the southwestern United States. The pale leopard lizard, Gambelia wislizeni, was named for him. The following is quoted from The Cold-Blooded News (The Newsletter of the Colorado Herpetological Society), Vol. 30, No. 11, Nov. 2003: "Frederick Adolph Wislizenus was born in Koenigsee, Schwarzburg-Rudolstady, Germany in 1810. Emigrating to the United States in 1835 following an unsuccessful student uprising in which he participated, Wislizenus settled in Illinois near St. Louis and set up a medical practice.
    However, this physician was not one to let grass grow between his toes. Succumbing to wanderlust, he joined a cadre of fur traders traveling the Oregon Trail in 1839. Wislizenus accompanied them as far as Idaho; then he joined another party that traveled through Colorado to Bent's Fort on the Santa Fe Trail, and from there he returned to St. Louis. A result of this journey was a book entitled A Journey to The Rocky Mountains in the Year 1839. While not a confirmed naturalist, Wislizenus had made the acquaintance of the celebrated botanist George Engelmann who had instilled in him the importance of making collections and natural history observations when traveling. Apparently no herps were collected on this journey. However, he did describe a "horned frog" that he correctly identified as a lizard and which appears to have been Phrynosoma cornutum. By 1846, Wislizenus was ready to go again. Joining a group of traders, he traveled to Santa Fe and then on to Chihuahua. This was a troubled time, just before the outbreak of the Mexican War, and the U.S. Army was suspicious that any party of traders heading from Mexico might be carrying arms. According to one account, Wislizenus's group was pursued by an attachment of soldiers led by Colonel Stephen Kearney, commander of the Army of the West, but they reached Mexico safely. However, it was out of the frying pan and into the fire, for they were immediately taken as prisoners of war by the Mexicans and were interred at a camp in the Sierra Madre Occidental. Apparently Wislizenus was not considered to be too much of a threat to Mexican security as he was permitted to wander up to two leagues away from the prison camp, in order to collect plants, many of which are still rarities in herbaria. Eventually, he was rescued by a company of U.S. troops. Indebted to the army for the rescue, he then joined them for a time as a surgeon before returning to St. Louis. Sometime during this adventure, Wislizenus collected the type specimen of the Long-nosed leopard lizard. His adventures on this trip were later published in an 1848 government report entitled Tour Through Northern Mexico, which included a section by George Engelmann, describing the unusual plants collected. Following this adventure, Wislizenus married and settled down in St. Louis. He became a respected pillar of the community helping to found the Missouri Historical Society and the Academy of Science of St. Louis. Scientists named several new species after him. In addition to the Long-nosed leopard lizard, Asa Gray, the famous Harvard botanist, added the legume, Dafea wislizeni, and Augustine de Candolle, the Swiss botanist, described an oak as Quercus wislizenii. Presumably, these scientists thought highly of Wislizenus. However, one need wonder about his mentor, George Engelmann, who named Wislizenia refracta, the jackass clover in his honor." (ref. genus Wislizenia, also species Quercus wislizeni var. frutescens, Quercus wislizeni var. wislizeni)
  • Wister'ia: after Dr. Caspar Wistar (1761-1818), anatomist and professor of chemistry and physiology. Wistar was
      a friend of Thomas Jefferson who had worked with him on identifying fossil remains that Jefferson was interested in, and was one of those who instructed Meriwether Lewis on the natural sciences in preparation for the Lewis and Clark expedition.  He received his M.D. at the University of Edinburgh in 1786, and later served as staff physician at several Philadelphia area hospitals.  He created for instructional purposes a set of life-sized anatomical models, which were actual human remains that were injected with wax to preserve them. He was an early advocate for vaccinations
    against disease.  He almost died of yellow fever during an epidemic in 1793 while helping others.  He published the first American textbook on anatomy in 1811.  The work, in two volumes, was entitled A System of Ananatomy for the Use of Students of Medicine.  He held the Chair of Anatomy at the University of Pennsylvania medical school.  He was also President of the American Philosphical Society from 1815 to 1818, and President of the Society for the Abolition of Slavery.  His home was a meeting place for students and scientists.  He was particularly interested in botany and paleontology.  The genus Wisteria was named for him in 1818 by his friend, the English botanist Thomas Nuttall of Harvard, who wrote in The Genera of North American Plants: "In memory of Caspar Wistar M.D., ... a philanthrophist of simple manners, and modest pretensions, but an active promoter of science." For some reason the genus name was spelled 'Wisteria' with an 'e'.  This is one of those cases where the genus name and the common name are the same. Occasionally, it is spelled 'Wistaria,' in recognition of the spelling of Wistar's name, as with the famous Sierra Madre Wistaria Festival, and the plants often carry the common name of Wistaria, but according to the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, since the original name given by Nuttall to the genus was spelled 'Wisteria,' that must remain its correct Latin name regardless of the inconsistency. It is unclear why Nuttall did not assign a name that was consistent with Wistar's name, but the fact that he published it in the same year that Wistar died may perhaps not be a coincidence. Nuttall's biographer Jeannette Graustein wrote in Thomas Nuttall, Naturalist: Explorations in America, 1808-1841 (1967): "Queried about the spelling, Nuttall stated that it was chosen for euphony ["a pleasing or sweet sound, the acoustic effect produced by words so formed or combined as to please the ear"]. However, in the Wister branch of the family Nuttall had a very good friend, Charles Jones Wister, Sr., (1782-1865), often his host and his companion on mineralogical and botanizing excursions." Back in those days, spelling was not as firmly established as it is now, and it was not uncommon for different members of the same family to spell their names differently. According to my South African friend Hugh Clarke, "Thomas Nuttall, the botanist who named the genus Wisteria attributed the error to 'euphony' as Wister and Wistar are acceptable american spellings of his original German family name 'Vüster'." The ICBN rules are that the spelling of originally published epithets may be changed for typographic or orthographic reasons, but in this case, seeming to have been a purposeful choice, the spelling must remain as it was. (ref. genus Wisteria)
  • Wolff'ia: after Johann Friedrich Wolff (1778-1806), German botanist, entomologist, physician and natural history illustrator. He wrote and illustrated Commentatio de Lemna and Icones Cimicum descriptionibus illustratae. The genus Wolffia was published in 1844 by Matthias Jacob Schleiden based on a previous description by Johann Horkel. (ref. genus Wolffia)
  • Wolffiel'la: a diminutive of Wolffia. (ref. genus Wolffiella)
  • wolf'ii: after Dr. Carl Brandt Wolf (1905-1974), botanist at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Gardens and author on oaks
      and cypresses. He collected extensively in Kern County, including several type specimens, and spent many years studying cypresses. He was born in Freesoil, Michigan, and his family moved to Medford, Oregon in 1910, and then to San Diego in 1915 and finally to Eagle Rock near Los Angeles in 1916. He graduated from Glendale High School in 1921 and entered Occidental College at the age of 16. After a year he sought some workday experience and he worked for a year at the Theodore Payne Nursery, establishing a close friend friendship with Payne that
    lasted until Payne's death. He returned to college and graduated with an A.B. degree in botany in 1926. He then entered Stanford and studied under LeRoy Abrams, gaining his M.A. in 1927. He followed that up with a Ph.D. in 1930, having held a teaching assistantship for most of those years. He conducted extensive field studies in areas ranging from the Canadian to the Mexican border and east into Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico. In 1930 he married and then accepted a post as botanist with Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden which was then located in Orange County, remaining there until 1945. During this time he also concentrated on civic service and was on the Board of Trustees of Fullerton High School and Junior College. He was also a member of the Masonic Lodge and became a Shriner. After from resigning from RSABG he became manager of the Sespe Land and Water Company which had been founded by his wife's grandfather. He also started and operated La Cienega Nursery. He died just short of his 69th birthday. (Information from an obituary in Madroño) (ref. Oenothera wolfii, Cylindropuntia wolfii) (Photo credit: Madroño, Vol. 22 No. 8, October, 1974)
  • wolf'ii: after John Wolf (1820-1897), German-born teacher, government assayer, geologist, entomologist, and botanical collector in Colorado and Illinois, author of a list of Illinois mosses, liverworts, and lichens in 1878, participated in the Wheeler Survey of 1869-1879 where he was assistant to Joseph Trimble Rothrock. (ref. Trisetum wolfii)
  • Woods'ia/woods'ii: after Joseph Woods (1776-1864), English architect and botanical author. The following is quoted from a website of the University of Toronto: "Joseph Woods was born in Stoke Newington, Middlesex, England on 24 August 1776. He was the second son of Joseph and Margaret Woods. As a child, he was educated at home and mastered Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Italian, and Modern Greek. Disliking his initial occupation in business, Woods studied architecture under Daniel Asher Alexander at the age of sixteen. In 1806 he founded the London Architectural Society and became the first president. However, even while occupied with his profession, he devoted much time to geology and botany. The end of the Napoleonic Wars permitted him to travel throughout the continent. In 1816, after travelling through France, Switzerland, and Italy, Woods completed one of his most prominent works, “Letters of an Architect,” which was published in 1828. He retired from architecture in 1835 and thereafter devoted his time mainly to botany. His work on the genus Rosa, “Synopsis of the British Species of Rosa” was published in the Transactions of the Linnean Society in 1818 and established Woods’ reputation as a systematic botanist. The botanical notes made during his Continental and British excursions were published in the Companion to the Botanical Magazine in 1835 and in 1836, and in successive volumes of Phytologist beginning in 1843. His work The Tourist’s Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the British Islands, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the Italian Islands, published in 1850, was based on his many years of work in Europe and the British Isles. Woods contributed work to the fields of architecture, botany, and geology. He was a Fellow of the Linnean Society, a Fellow of the Geological Society, a Member of the Society of Antiquaries, and an Honorary Member for the Society of British Architects." The genus Woodsia was named in his honor by well-known English botanist and President of the Linnaean Society Robert Brown (1773-1858). (ref. Rosa woodsii var. ultramontana and genus Woodsia)
  • Woodwar'dia: named after Thomas Jenkinson Woodward (1745-1820), a British phycologist and botanist. He was born at Huntingdon and was educated at Eton and Clare Hall, Cambridge, where he graduated with an LL.B. in 1769. Woodward was appointed a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the county of Suffolk. When he moved to Walcot Hall, Diss, Norfolk, he took on the same posts for that county. On the establishment of the volunteer system he became Lieutenant-colonel of the Diss volunteers. Woodward was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London in 1789. He died at Diss on 28 January 1820, and was buried there. (ref. genus Woodwardia)
  • woot'onii: named for Elmer Otis Wooton (1865-1945), a professor of chemistry and botany at New Mexico State
      College 1890-1911 where he was appointed as plant taxonomist, assistant curator at the National Herbarium in 1910, and employed by the US Department of Agriculture from 1911 to 1935. He collected plants on Santa Rosa Island in 1941. Although taxonomy was one of his major interests, he was also very concerned with rangeland conditions and carrying capacities which he studied during botqnical excursions throughout the New Mexico territory at the turn ofthe century. Among the books he wrote were Flora of New Mexico, Cacti of New Mexico, Saltbushes and their Allies
    in the United States, Certain Desert Plants as Emergency Stock Feed, Factors Affecting Range Management in New Mexico, The Public Domain of Nevada and Factors Affecting Its Use, and others. (ref. Astragalus wootonii, Myriopteris wootonii)
  • wormskiold'ii: after Morten Wormskjold (1783-1845), a Danish botanist and explorer who led a naval expedition
      to Greenland in 1813 and made the first major collection of Greenland flora there, and who subsequently sailed with Adelbert von Chamisso and Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz on Captain Otto Kotzebue's exploring voyage on the Rurik, but left the expedition at Kamchatka before it reached North America after he fell out with the Captain. He was born in Copenhagen to a family of civil servants. He graduated with a degree in law in 1805. He then chose to study botany under professor Jens Wilken Hornemann at the University of Copenhagen. In 1807 he accompanied
    Hornemann on a plant collecting expedition to Norway to gather data for the major work Flora Danica that was being compiled by Horemann and others, but had to leave Norway because of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1812-1813 he made a botanical collecting trip to Greenland during which he also collected molluscs. He found 157 species of vascular plants which more than doubled the then known number. He died at Gavnø Castle and was buried at the nearby Vejlø Church. The specific name is often spelled wormskjoldii. (ref. Trifolium wormskioldii)
  • wormskjold'ii: see previous entry. (ref. Veronica wormskjoldii)
  • wort: an old English word for plant.
  • wrangelia'nus: after Ferdinand Petrovich von Wrangell (1796-1870), "Russian naval officer, arctic explorer, and
      government administrator. He commanded a Russian naval expedition that explored the Arctic. He led another Russian expedition around the world and was the first governor of the Russian colonies in Alaska, director of the Russian-American company, and minister of the navy. He was highly critical of the sale of Alaska to the United States in 1867. Several islands are named for him. His diaries of his arctic expedition have been translated into German and English." (from website AllRefer.com). He was born in Pskov into the Baltic German Wrangel family and both of his
    parents died when he was ten. He graduated from the Naval Cadets College in Saint Petersburg in 1815. In 1820 he was assigned to command the Kolymskaya expedition to explore the Russian polar coastline, sailing up the Kolyma River into Yakut territory, travelling 46 days on the ice and reaching 72 degrees north. He established that the Kolyma River drained into the East Siberian Sea. His expedition made a valuable research in glaciology, geomagnetics, and climatology and also collected data about natural resources and native population of that remote area. He returned in 1824. From 1825 to 1827 he commanded the Krotky on a round-the-world expedition about which there appears to be little information. In 1829 he was appointed as the Governor of Russian colonies in Alaska, a position he held until 1835. Wikipedia says: “He traveled to his post early in 1829, by way of Siberia and Kamchatka. After thoroughly reforming the administration, he introduced the cultivation of the potato, opened and regulated the working of several mines, and urged upon the home government the organization of a fur company. He promoted investment, and sent out missionaries. He began a survey of the country, opened roads, built bridges and government buildings. He made geographical and ethnographical observations, which he embodied in a memoir to the navy department. Recalled in 1834, he returned by way of the Isthmus of Panama and the United States, where he visited several cities.” He was promoted to Admiral in 1837 and took over operation of the ship-timber department of the Navy, resigned in 1849 and assumed the presidency of the newly reorganized Russian-American Company of which he had been on the Board of Directors since 1840. He re-entered active service in 1854 and became chief director of the hydrographical department of the Navy and then Minister of the Navy 1855-1857, finally retiring for good in 1864. He was a member of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences and a founder of the Russian Geographic Society. He wrote and published Wrangell's Expedition to the Polar Sea  which was published in German in 1827 and translated into English in 1840, and other reports on his explorations. He died in Tartu, Livonia, which is an area currently divided between Latvia and Estonia. (ref. Acmispon wrangelianus, Lotus wrangelianus)
  • wrangellia'na: see wrangelianus. (Drymocallis glandulosa var. wrangelliana)
  • wright'ii: named for Charles Wright (1811-1885), an American botanical collector. He was born in Wethersfield,
      Connecticut, and he studied the classics and mathematics at Yale. His career began as a tutor for a family in Natchez, Mississippi, then he moved to Texas to work as a teacher and a surveyor for the Pacific Railroad Company, but he soon began collecting plants and sending specimens to Professor Asa Gray at Harvard, eventually becoming one of his most trusted collectors. Gray procured passage for him on an Army supply mission in 1849 across western Texas, but he ended up walking almost 700 miles from San Antonio to El Paso, all the time
    keeping his eyes glued to the ground the better to see small desert flowering plants. In 1851, again with Gray’s help, he became part of the Mexican Boundary Survey, and helped collect many of the 2,600 species that were sent back to Professor John Torrey for description and identification. His name was honored by George Engelmann who gave it to a cactus, Opuntia wrightii. Asa Gray based the first botanical work published by the Smithsonian on Wright's collection, Plantae Wrightianae (1852–53). Altogether he spent eight years botanizing in Texas and another eleven in Cuba. Wikipedia adds: “Between 1853 and 1856, he took part in the Rodgers-Ringgold North Pacific Exploring and Surveying Expedition, collecting plants in Madeira, Cape Verde, Cape Town, Sydney, Hong Kong, the Bonin Islands, Japan (at Hakodate, Tanegashima, the Bonin Islands and the Ryukyu Islands including Okinawa) and the western side of the Bering Strait. He collected over 500 specimens while the ships were delayed at Simon's Bay, near Cape Town. Wright left the expedition at San Francisco in February 1856 and went south to Nicaragua. His collection of plants from Hong Kong was used by George Bentham for his Flora Hongkongensis (1861). Between 1856 and 1867, he led a [number of] scientific expeditions to Cuba. In 1859 he joined Juan Gundlach in the area around Monteverde, and in the winter of 1861-1862 they explored together around Cárdenas. He was also still in communication with Asa Gray and via him, Charles Darwin, discussing orchids. This was possible because at the start of the American Civil War, he was in Cuba and Gray kept him there until 1864 to keep Wright safe and his ongoing botanical work intact. In 1871, he went with the US Commission to Santo Domingo. From 1875-1876, he was the librarian of the Bussey Institution at Harvard University.” In 1868 he served as acting director of the Gray Herbarium. He is commemorated in the genus Carlowrightia of the Acanthaceae, and in the names of many species. Wright, who never married, spent his last days in Wethersfield with his brother and sisters, all unmarried, and died on August 11, 1885, of a heart ailment dating back to his years in Cuba. (ref. Aloysia wrightii, Boerhavia wrightii, Calycoseris wrightii, Datura wrightii, Eriogonum wrightii ssp. subscaposum, Galium wrightii, Halodule wrightii, Hymenothrix wrightii, Trichocoronis wrightii)
  • wright'ii:after William Greenwood Wright (1831-1912), one of the first lepidopterists in California, author of Butterflies of British Columbia, The Butterflies of the West Coast of the United States (1905), Colored Plates of the Butterflies of the West Coast (1907), and Butterfly Hunting in the Desert. He was born in Nelson, New Hampshire, and died in San Bernardino, California. In addition to being known primarily as a collector of moths and butterflies, according to the Harvard University Herbaria database of botanical specimens he also collected specimens of some 93 taxa of plants. He was a soldier in the Civil War and some time after that conflict ended he went to California, where he lived for a while in Los Angeles and then moved to San Bernardino around 1873 where he operated a planing mill and sash and door plant. He was a great friend of two noted botanical collectors, C.C. Parry and Edward Palmer, and he was also intimately acquainted with Samuel B. Parish. He travelled all over the West Coast from Alaska to Mexico collecting natural history specimens, mostly but not limited to butterflies. He was found by a visitor dead in his home and had been deceased for at least 24 hours when found. After his death his massive collection of butterflies was sent to the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. (ref. Chrysopsis wrightii, Collinsia torreyi var. wrightii, Hemizonia wrightii)
  • Wyeth'ia: named for Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth (1802-1856), an American inventor and businessman who contributed
      greatly to the ice industry in Boston and elsewhere by inventing ice-harvesting tools and above-ground ice houses, and thus helped to facilitate New England's trade in ice with the Caribbean, Europe, and India. He was also a plant collector and explorer who discovered plants and sent samples to his friend Harvard botanist Thomas Nuttall who accompanied him on his second expedition. I can't find anything online about his early life other than that he was born in Massachusetts. He is considered one of the great pioneers of Oregon, having blazed pathways
    that would become known as the Oregon Trail.  His expeditions to the Northwest were not commercially successful because he was competing with the Hudson Bay Company. He is best known in botany for the plant called Mule's Ears which was named Wyethia in his honor by Nuttall. He was the great-grandson of shoemaker Ebenezer Wyeth (1698-1754), who was the great-great-great-great-grandfather of the famous painter Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009. Nathaniel's father was Jacob Wyeth (1764-1847) and his grandfather was Ebenezer Wyeth, II (1727-1799). (Thanks to David Brown for providing information on Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth's ancestral relationships). (ref. genus Wyethia)
  • wyomingen'sis: of or from Wyoming.

View from Mishe Mokwe Trail, Santa Monica Mountains
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