Page Two


Jacaranda
mimosifolia

Jacaranda,
Brazilian rosewood
Bignoniaceae
Introduced
  Grows to 30' or so. Native to Boliva and northwest
  Argentina. Planted worldwide in frost-free zones
  because of its beautiful flowers.
Juniperus
bermudiana
Bermuda cedar,
Bermuda juniper
Cupressaceae
Endemic
  Originally covered much of the island. 95% of the
  population killed by accidentally introduced juniper
  scale 1946-1953. Now making a good comeback.
Justicia
brandegeana

Shrimp plant,
False hop bush
Acanthaceae
Introduced
  Dramatic flowers of reddish-brown bracts enclosing
  white-mottled tongue-like flowers. Has weak spindly
  limbs and oval green leaves. Inflorescences resemble
  shrimps hence the common name. Native to Mexico.
  Genus name honors Townsend Stith Brandegee, a
  well-known American botanist.
Justicia
carnea

Flamingo flower,
Brazilian plume
flower
Acanthaceae
Introduced
  Showy shrub with pink flowers in dense heads native
  to Brazil. Genus named after 18th century Scottish
  gardener James Justice. Carnea means flesh-colored
  or deep pink. Also called pink tongues.
Koelreuteria
paniculata

Golden rain tree
Sapindaceae
Introduced
  Bright yellow flowers and feathery foliage distinguish
  this beautiful tree that grows to some 30' tall. It is a
  native of China and Korea. The fruits are papery in
  texture and pink to rose in color, and remind one of
  a little Japanese lantern.
Lantana
camara

Sagebush,
Lantana,
Shrub verbena
Verbenaceae
Introduced
  Native to West Indies and tropical Central and South
  America. Stems and leaves covered with hairs and give
  off an unpleasant odor when crushed. Tolerates salt
  spray well. A favorite for butterflies.
Lantana
montevidensis

Trailing lantana
Verbenaceae
Introduced
  Low-growing weakly-stemmed shrub with clusters
  of lilac flowers. Leaves have an unpleasant odor
  when crushed. Attractive to butterflies. Native to
  tropical South America.
Lilium
longiflorum

Easter lily,
Bermuda lily
Liliaceae
Introduced
  This lily was introduced into Bermuda from Japan in
  1853 and was commercially grown and exported for
  years. The species name refers to the length of the
  floral tube.
Liriope
muscari

Lilyturf
Liliaceae
Introduced
  Grows in dense clumps of green grass-like leaves
  with spikes of lavender-purple flowers. Commonly
  planted as a border, hence its other name, border-
  grass. Native to China and Japan.
Livistona
chinensis

Chinese fan palm
Arecaceae
Introduced
  Leaves divided into long narrow segments that droop
  downwards giving rise to its other name of Chinese
  fountain palm. Native to southern Japan, Taiwan and
  several islands in the South China Sea. Normally
  grows 25-50' tall.
Malvaviscus
arboreus

Sleeping hibiscus,
Turk's cap,
Wax Mallow
Malvaceae
Introduced
  Sometimes called Scotchman's Purse because the
  flowers never open fully. Native to Mexico. Grows
  island wide.
Matthiola
incana

Wild stock
Brassicaceae
Introduced
  Valued for fragrant flowers that come in a variety of
  colors and can be eaten as a vegetable. The bitter
  seeds have been used as an aphrodisiac, a diuretic,
  and an expectorant. Sometimes called ten-weeks
  stock because it's an annual. Native to Europe.
Melia
azedarach

Pride of India,
Chinaberry
Meliaceae
Introduced
  Poisonous bright yellow fruits and bipinnate toothed
  leaves. Deciduous, to 30' tall. Prone to hurricane
  damage. Native to China and India.
Murraya
paniculata

Mock orange,
Orange jessamine,
China-box
Rutaceae
Introduced
  Native to India, China and Malaya. Has fragant small
  white flowers and inedible red to dark orange fruit.
  Has been used medicinally and for a cosmetic. May
  grow to 10' tall.
Musa X
paradisiaca

Banana
Musaceae
Introduced

  One of several introduced banana species and culti-
  vars in Bermuda, this one brought in in 1616. Leaves
  once used for stuffing mattresses. Each plant takes
  18 months to produce fruit, sends out runners for a
  new plant, then dies. From tropical Asia. Parents are
  M. acuminata and M. balbisiana.

Neomarica
caerulea

Apostle plant,
Walking iris
Iridaceae
Introduced
  Resident of damp shady locations. Name refers to
  genus Marica and the color blue. The genus was
  originally named Marica in honor of a nymph goddess
  in Italy by the same name. Changed to Neomarica due
  to a technical error by the namer. Native to Brazil.
Neomoarica
longifolia

Yellow walking iris
Iridaceae
Introduced
  Called Walking Iris because the weight of the stalk
  causes it to bend toward the ground, allowing a new
  plantlet to root away from its parent. Also called
  Apostle plant because of belief that it wouldn't flower
  until it had 12 leaves.
Nerium
oleander
Oleander
Apocynaceae
Introduced
  Native to Mediterranean region of Europe. Poisonous,
  if burned smoke can be toxic. Brought to Bermuda
  in 1790.
Odontonema
strictum

Red justicia,
Firespike,
Scarlet flame
Acanthaceae
Introduced
  Has dramatic panicles of brilliant red tubular flowers.
  Blooms in the fall. Attracts butterflies and humming-
  birds. Native to Central America. Species name
  means 'upright.'
Passiflora
caerulea

Blue passion
flower
Passifloraceae
Introduced
  Twining vine that tends to climb over anything that's
  available. Flowers are followed by deep orange egg-
  sized fruits that are edible. Native to southern Brazil
  and Argentina.
Passiflora
vitifolia

Red passion
flower,
Red granadilla
Passifloraceae
Introduced
  Passion flowers love high humidity so they do well in
  Bermuda. Native from Nicaragua to Peru, they are
  also called grape-leaved passion fruit, although the
  true passion fruit is P. edulis. The fruits are small- to
  medium-sized, oblong and greenish yellow.
Pelargonium
graveolens

Rose geranium
Geraniaceae
Introduced
  Native to the Cape Province of South Africa. Genus
  name derives from Greek word for 'stork' and refers
  to the shape of the fruit, and graveolens means 'very
  fragrant.'
Pentas
lanceolata

Egyptian star-
cluster,
Star flower
Rubiaceae
Introduced
  Fast-growing shrub with white to red flowers native
  to tropical Africa, Arabia and Madagascar. Attracts
  butterflies and hummingbirds.
Petrea
volubilis

Purple wreath,
Sandpaper vine
Verbenaceae
Introduced
  One of the common names refers to the rough texture
  of the leaves. Blooms winter through summer. Native
  to Mexico and Central America. Species name means
  'twining.'
Phoenix
canariensis

Canary Island
date palm
Arecaceae
Introduced
  With a large thick trunk, long stalks of attractive
  orange-colored fruits and a graceful crown of
  feathery fronds, this palm does well in most locations.
  Native to the Canary Islands.
Phoenix
dactylifera

Date palm
Arecaceae
Introduced
  This is the 'true' date palm from which the fruits are
  obtained. Native to North Africa, it has solitary and
  slender trunks that can grow 40'-50'. In Bermuda
  the orange fruits do not appear to mature properly to
  the edible stage. Dactilifera means 'finger-like.'
Phoenix
loureiroi

Dwarf date palm
Arecaceae
Introduced
  A solitary or clustering palm with cream-colored
  flowers among the leaves. Often planted as a pot
  ornamental. Native to East Asia. Fruit color is dark
  maroon to black. Name honors Portuguese botanist,
  physician and missionary Joäo de Loureiro
Phoenix
reclinata

Senegal date palm
Arecaceae
Introduced
  An African palm, this grows fairly commonly in
  Bermuda. Its multiple trunks sometimes form a large
  clump which can grow to about 25' tall. The foliage
  is dark green and the flowers are cream-colored.
Phoenix
rupicola

Cliff date palm,
Indian date palm
Arecaceae
Introduced
  A native of India, this palm does well in most soil
  types and has moderate salt tolerance. Solitary
  trunk with canopy of 30-50 pinnately-compound
  leaves that have spines on the petioles. Has white
  flowers.
Pimenta
dioica

Allspice,
Jamaica pepper
Myrtaceae
Introduced
  The name allspice comes from the fact that the fruit
  and leaves smell like a combination of cloves, black
  pepper, nutmeg, and cinnamon. Native to West Indies,
  southern Mexico and Central America. Only spice
  whose commercial production is confined to the New
  World.
Pinus
halapensis

Aleppo pine
Pinaceae
Introduced
  Native to Turkey, Greece and the Near East, this
  pine has needles in clusters of two or three. It is
  often planted as a windbreak and can grow to 50'.
  Halapensis means 'of or from Aleppo' which is in
  northern Syria.
Plumbago
auriculata

Blue plumbago,
Cape leadwort,
Skyflower
Plumbaginaceae
Introduced
  From South Africa. Locally called the sticker plant
  because it sticks to clothing and animals. Flowers
  have sticky hairs at the base. A favorite of butterflies.
Plumeria
alba

West Indian
jasmine,
White frangipani
Apocynaceae
Introduced
  Has poisonous milky sap like its relative oleander,
  and is most fragrant at night to attract its sphinx moth
  pollinator. Genus named for 17th century French
  botanist Charles Plumier.
Plumeria
rubra

Common
frangipani,
Red frangipani
Apocynaceae
Introduced
Native to Mexico and Central America, plumerias
have spread to all tropical regions of the world. The common name, "frangipani," comes from an Italian
noble family, a member of which invented a plumeria-scented perfume.
Podocarpus
macrophyllus

Japanese yew,
Yew pine
Podocarpaceae
Introduced
  Grows to about 25' with needle-like leaves. Male
  plants have pollen-bearing catkins and female plants
  produce small blue berries that are mildly toxic. It
  is native to Japan and southern China.
Psidium
guajava

Guava
Myrtaceae
Introduced
  Became naturalized in Bermuda in the 1970's but had
  been cultivated for decades. Fruits used in making
  jelly. The genus name derives from a Greek word
  for pomegranate. Native to tropical America.
Quisqualis
indica

Rangoon creeper
Combretaceae
Introduced
  Fragrant viney species with flowers that change from
  pink to red as they age. Native to tropical Asia, the
  Phillipines and New Guinea.

Rhapis
excelsa

Lady palm

Arecaceae
Introduced
  This palm grows with multiple slender stems forming
  a dense rounded cluster with shiny green leaves. In
  Bermuda often grown as a container plant. Native
  to southeast China where it has been grown as an
  ornamental for centuries.
Rondeletia
odorata

Fragrant
rondeletia,
Panama rose
Rubiaceae
Introduced
  Evergreen shrub 6-10' tall native to Panama and
  Cuba. Has orange tubular flowers with yellow
  throats and ovate leaves. The genus name honors
  Guillaume Rondelet, a 16th century French historian,
  physician, and botany instructor. Odorata means
  'fragrant.'
Rosa
bracteata

Macartney rose
Rosaceae
Introduced
  Native to warm parts of China, this is locally called the
  Fried Egg and is often seen scrambling on old walls.
  Discovered by Lord Macartney in 1765.
Russelia
equisetiformis

Bermuda heath,
Firecracker plant
Scrophulariaceae
Introduced
  Blooms all year. Attracts butterflies and humming-
  birds. Native to Mexico. The species name means
  'having the form of Equisetum.' Genus named for the
  Scottish naturalist Alexander Russell.
Sabal
bermudana

Bermuda palmetto
Arecaceae
Endemic
  Confined to the few remaining patches of lowland
  dry or marshy scrub. Largest population at Paget
  Marsh. Has a stout trunk, grows to 20' or so. Also
  called Bermuda fan palm.
Sabal
minor

Dwarf palmetto,
Blue palm
Arecaceae
Introduced
  This is a small fan palm with no real trunk that is
  native to the southeastern U.S. One of the hardiest
  palms in the world, it prefers moist soils.
Salix
babylonica

Weeping willow
Salicaceae
Introduced
  Believed to be native to western China, the weeping
  willow spread to the Middle Eastern area near the site
  of Babylon, which gives it its species name. Likes
  moist soil and has grown along the edges of marshes
  in Bermuda.
Scaevola
plumieri
Beach lobelia,
Inkberry,
Fanflower
Goodeniaceae
Native
  Uncommon. Colonizes dunes. Large dark purple
  berries. Originally from Australia, drift seeds reached
  Pacific Islands, Africa, and the Caribbean.
Schotia
brachypetala

African walnut,
Tree fuchsia,
Weeping boer-bean
Fabaceae
Introduced
  Handsome tree native to South Africa with a dense
  rounded crown. The fruit is a hard flattened woody
  dark brown pod. Genus honors Richard van der
  Schot, an 18th century Dutch visitor to SA and chief
  gardener of the Imperial Garden at Schönbrun in
  Austria.
Sophora
tomentosa

Coastal sophora,
Silverbush,
Necklace pod
Fabaceae
Native
  Has velvety silver-hued vegetation and typical pea-
  like yellow flowers. The name 'necklace pod' refers
  to the seed pods which are restricted at intervals.
  Has good salt tolerance and is native to coastal areas
  of south Florida and the Caribbean. Seeds are toxic.
Spathodea
campanulata

African tulip tree,
Coronation tree
Bignoniaceae
Introduced
  Blooms in the summer with scarlet tulip-like flowers.
  One of the common names refers to the fact that it
  was planted to commemorate the coronation of King
  George VI. Native to tropical Africa.
Sprekelia
formosissima

Aztec lily,
Jacobean lily
Amaryllidaceae
Introduced
  Native to rock outcroppings in the mountains of
  Mexico and Guatemala. Sometimes called orchid lily
  or St. James lily. The species name means 'very
  handsome, very beautiful.'
Syagrus
romanzoffiana

Queen palm
Arecaceae
Introduced
  Grows to 60' tall with a smooth gray trunk and a
  large canopy of lacy glossy-green fronds. Widely
  planted as a landscape tree. Native to Brazil, Para-
  guay and northern Argentina. Species name honors
  Nicholas Romanzoff, a Russian minister of state and
  financial supporter of scientific exploration
Tabebuia
pallida

Pink trumpet tree,
White cedar
Bignoniaceae
Introduced
  Naturalized in Bermuda from tropical North and
  South America and West Indies. Grows to 60' tall.
  Showy flowers, leathery leaves, long cylindrical
  fruit pods.
Tabernaemontana
divaricata

Pinwheel flower,
Butterfly gardenia,
Crepe jasmine
Apocynaceae
Introduced
  Named for German herbalist Theodor Jakob von
  Bergzaben who Latinized his name as Tabernaemon-
  tanus which means 'tavern in the mountains.' Also
  referred to locally as Bermuda gardenia. Native to
  India.
Tecomaria
capensis

Cape honeysuckle
Bignoniaceae
Introduced
  Widely planted in Bermuda usually as a sprawling
  hedge and sometimes called trumpet flower. Native
  to the Cape region of South Africa, hence the name.
  Tolerant of salt spray and attracts hummingbirds.
Thevetia
peruviana

Yellow oleander,
Lucky nut
Apocynaceae
Introduced
  Large shrub or small tree to 20'. Poisonous. Native
  to South America. Named for André Thévet, French
  missionary who collected plants in South America.
Thunbergia
alata

Black-eyed Susan,
Orange clock vine
Acanthaceae
Introduced
  A slender viney species often found growing wild in
  Bermuda. Can bloom all year round. The genus name
  honors Carl Peter Thunberg (1743–1828), a Swedish
  botanist, doctor, explorer and author, and one of the
  greatest pupils of Linnaeus.
Thunbergia
erecta

King's mantle,
Bush clock vine
Acanthaceae
Introduced
  Vigorous woody shrub from tropical Africa. Flowers
  are large and have a slight fragrance.
Tillandsia
usneoides

Spanish moss
Bromeliaceae
Introduced
  Name refers to its likeness to the lichen genus Usnea.
  Is epiphytic, has no roots, tiny, inconspicuous flowers,
  and drapes from tree branches so thickly that it can
  reduce their rate of growth. Ranges from SE U.S. to
  Argentina.
Washingtonia
robusta

Mexican fan palm
Arecaceae
Introduced

  Fast growing palm introduced from Mexico. Grows
  to 70'-80'. Leaves tend to remain forming a skirt
  around the stem. Genus name honors the first Presi-
  dent of the U.S. George Washington. Clusters of
  small whitish flowers mature into 1/2" black berries.

Wedelia
trilobata

Wedelia,
Creeping daisy
Asteraceae
Introduced
  Native to northern South America and West Indies.
  Very aggressive ground cover plant. Crushed leaves
  used as a poultice and to make a tea to alleviate
  cold and flu symptoms.
Yucca
aloifolia

Spanish bayonet,
Dagger plant
Liliaceae
Native
  Ranges from North Carolina to Florida and Mexico,
  West Indies and Bermuda in coastal areas. Often
  planted as a "security plant" beneath windows and
  other home access points.


© 2007 Michael Charters
Photographs may not be used without express permission of the author.
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