Plant Names C-F
Flora of Southern Africa Eastern Cape Photo
Gallery 2008
Western Cape Photo Gallery 2010 Western Cape Photo Gallery 2012

Photo identifications L-R: Dianthus thunbergii, Cuspidia cernua, Pentanisia prunelloides, Haemanthus montanus, Dimorphotheca jucunda, Cyphia tysonii, Berkheya setifera.



The Eponym Dictionary of Southern African Plants
Plant Names C-F


Note: Names for which I have no derivations or about which I have further questions are being put on a separate page here and will be investigated further at a later date. I have included names which are no longer current because the individuals which these names commemorate nevertheless contributed to Southern African flora and deserve to be recognized and remembered. Also included here are the generic names of invasive species. Many of my entries have been added to and fleshed out by additional information from Hugh Clarke from the work which we hope at some point to have published, and I thank him greatly for the work he has done.


Caesalpinia: for Andrea Cesalpino (1519-1603), noted Italian botanist and plant collector, naturalist, philosopher and physician to Pope Clement VIII, professor of medicine and botany at Oisa and Rome, Praefectus of the first Botanical Garden of Pisa and founder of the second. He studied medicine and botany at the University of Pisa. He wrote on many subjects including the philosophical work Quaestionum peripateticarum libri V (1569), a medical work entitled Quaestionum medicarum libri duo (1593), the mineralogical work De metallicis libri tres (1596), and the celebrated botanical work De plantis libri XVI (1583) containing the first scientific classification of flowering plants based on morphology and physiology. He was one of the first botanists to create a herbarium, that which he produced for Bishop Alfonso Tornabono contained over 1500 plants. The genus Caesalpinia in the Fabaceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Caesia
: for Federico Cesi (Fridericus Caesius) (1585-1630), Italian botanist, microscopist and supporter of Galileo, discovered that ferns have spores. The genus Caesia in the Anthericaceae was published in 1810 by British botanist Robert Brown. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Cailliea: for Rene Caillie, French explorer (1799-1838), botanist, plant collector, the first European to return alive from the town of Timbuktu, author of Travels through Central Africa to Timbuctoo; and across the Great Desert, to Morocco (1824-1828). The genus Cailliea in the Fabaceae was published in 1833 by French botanists Jean Baptiste Antoine Guillemin and George Samuel Perrottet. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia; David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Calandrinia: for Jean Louis Calandrini (1703-1758), Swiss botanist, traveller and professor of mathematics and philosophy at Geneva, wrote on such subjects as the aurora borealis, comets, the effects of lightning, and flat and spherical trigonometry. This genus Calandrinia in the Portulacaceae was published in 1823 by German botanist Karl Sigismund Kunth. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia)

Caldesia: for Ludovico Caldesi (1822-1884), Italian botanist, politician, mycologist, naturalist, and member of Parliament. He was a student of the Italian botanists Filippo Parlatore and Giuseppe De Notaris, and was the author of Florae Faventinae Tentamen. The genus Caldesia in the Alismataceae was published in 1860 by Italian botanist Filippo Parlatore. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Calomeria: apparently "named after Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie (1763-1814), the first wife of Napoleon Bonaparte whom he called Joséphine de Beauharnais. Although Napoleon divorced her because she could not bear him a child, he seemingly loved her and mentioned her name on his deathbed. Étienne Pierre Ventenat (1757 – 1808), the author of Calomeria, was a French botanist. In 1803, he published Le Jardin de la Malmaison, being written at the request of Joséphine de Beauharnais, who wished to immortalize the rare species of plants found in the gardens and greenhouses of Chateau de Malmaison. He published the genus name Calomeria [in the Asteraceae] in 1804, the year of Napoleon and Joséphine's coronation." Ventenat described the species from plants in the Empress Joséphine's garden. The work Botanophilia in 18th Century France: The Spirit of the Enlightenment (2001) says that Ventenat dedicated the name to Napoleon, and further that the name Calomeria is "the Greek equivalent of bon partie," and hence was a pun of sorts on Napoleon's name. The word itself is derived from the Greek kallos, "beautiful,' and meris, "part." (Hugh Clarke; Botanophilia in Eighteenth-Century France: The Spirit of the Enlightenment by R.L. Williams)

Calpurnia: after Calpurnius, Roman 1st century AD poet, whose full name was Titus Calpurnius Siculus. The genus Calpurnia in the Fabaceae was published in 1836 by German botanist Ernst Heinrich Friedrich Meyer. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

cambouei: the only possible name I can come up with here is the Rév. Père Paul Camboué (1849-1929) on the JSTOR list of plant collectors who collected on Madagascar. He was a French-born Jesuit who received a legal training, served in the War of 1870, and went to Madagascar in 1882. He became a member of the Malagasy Academy and was additionally a correspondent member of the Académie des Sciences, in Paris. He was interested in a great number of subjects, but concentrated mainly on natural history and specializing on the invertebrates, butterflies, beetles, ants, spiders and other insects. He collected plants with the Rév. Père Victor S.J. Montaut. The taxon in southern Africa with this specific epithet is Campylopus cambouei. (Dictionary of African Christian Biography)

Camellia: for Georg Joseph Kamel (Camellus) (1661-1706), Moravian Jesuit missionary, apothecary, artist and botanist. "He was sent to the Mariana Islands (1683) and Manila, Philippines (1688) where he established a pharmacy, providing poor people with remedies for free. He botanised on Luzon island, north of Manila, collecting some 360 varieties of plants and herbs which he sent to the British botanists, Rev. John Ray, and James Petiver who published Herbarium aliarumque stirpium in insula Luzone Philippinarum (Herbs and Medicinal Plants in the island of Luzon, Philippines). Further specimens came from Chinese gardens at Manila. His first shipment of botanical drawings failed to reach England as a result of piracy. Kamel also wrote the first account of Philippines birds Observationes de Avibus Philippensibus (1702) published by the Royal Society. " The genus Camellia in the Myrsinaceae was published in 1753 by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus although he put it in the family Theaceae. (Hugh Clarke)

cameronii: for Kenneth John Cameron (1862-1917) who collected in South Africa and was a Scottish planter at Ntondwe in Nyasaland, Malawi, for the African Lakes Corporation. Stereochlaena cameronii was collected by K.J. Cameron in Malawi in 1899 and Erica cameronii was collected by a K. Cameron in 1913, so those are presumably named after him. There was an Aloe cameronii (not in southern Africa) which he discovered and sent to Kew Gardens in 1854, and there is also a Tulbaghia cameronii that might honor him as well. He died on active service with the South African Volunteers in WWI. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

camperi: for Manfredo Camperio (1826-1899), Italian-born resident of Eritrea, founder of the travel journal L’Esploratore. George August Schweinfurth published the name Aloe camperi in 1894 for his friend Manfredo Camperio based on the type material collected at 4600' near Ghinda in Eritrea. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Aloes and Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea)

candolleana/candolleanum/candolleanus/candollei:  for Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841), Professor of Botany in Geneva, author of many botanical works such as Théorie élémentaire de la botanique (1813), Synopsis plantarum in flora Gallica descriptarum (1806), Plantarum historia succulentarum (1799 in 4 vols.), and Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis. He was a greatly significant figure in the world of botany. His concept of nature at war with itself was an influence on Darwin who studied his natural system of classification. He had a son Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyrame de Candolle (1806-1893) and a grandson Anne Casimir Pyrame de Candolle (1836-1918) who were also botanists. There were several genera named for him, five named Candollea, one in the Dilleniaceae published in 1806 by Jacques Julien Houtou de Labillardiére, one in the Ericaceae published in 1810 by Johann Christian Gottlob Baumgarten, one in the Poaceae published in 1840 by Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel, one in the Polypodiaceae published in 1803 by Charles François Brisseau de Mirbel, and one in the Stylidiaceae also published by Labillardiére in 1805, and Candolleodendron, published in 1966 by Richard Sumner Cowan. His son also had a genus named for him, Candollina. There are several current taxa in the flora of southern Africa, Indigofera candolleana, Prismatocarpus candolleanus, Stylapterus candolleanus, Helichrysum candolleanum, and Euryops candollei, and the likelihood is that they are all named for Augustin de Candolle. (Wikipedia)

Caperonia: for Noël Caperon or Capperon of Orleans, an apothecary who was the first to call Fritillaria by that name. He was a Protestant and was murdered by a Catholic mob in 1572. The genus Caperonia in the Euphorbiaceae was published in 1826 by French botanist Auguste François César Prouvençal de Sainte-Hilaire. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

capornii: for Andrew St. Clair Caporn (1893-?) who collected the type specimen of Ruschia capornii. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

Cardotiella/cardotii: for Jules Cardot (1860-1934), French botanist, bryologist and plant collector in the Cameroon. He was author of Old World Mosses (1897) and co-author with Marie Hypolite Irénéa Thériot of The Mosses of Alaska (1902), and was considered one of the world's leading experts on the mosses of Antarctica. During his career he named 40 genera and 1,200 species, and was named knight of the Legion of Honour for his contributions to science in France. He was also the author of La flore bryologique des terres magellaniques (1908) and Mousses de Madagascar (1916). The genus Cardotiella in the Orthotrichaceae was published in 1981 by Australian botanist Dale Hadley Vitt, and there is a moss taxon Dicranella cardotii that was probably also named for him. (Dale Vitt, pers. comm.; JSTOR)

Carlina: supposedly for the Holy Roman Emperor Carolus Magnus (Charlemagne) (742-814) whose army was devastated by a plague, and when he prayed that it be cured, an angel appeared to him and revealed the carline thistle (probably Carlina acaulis or C. vulgaris) which saved them from the pestilence. (Carl might be the Latinized form of the name Charles?). The genus Carlina in the Asteraceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (The Names of Plants)

caroli-henrici: for Karl Heinz Rechinger (1906-1998), Austrian botanist, son of botanist Karl Rechinger (1867-1952), Professor of botany at the University of Vienna, member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and author of a number of books mostly focused on the Iraq and Iran areas including Flora Iranica. He is commemorated with Pelargonium caroli-henrici. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

carolo-schmidtii: for Karl (Carl M.?) Schmidt (1848-1919), plant collector in Madagascar and tropical Africa, owner of the Haage and Schmidt nursery in Erfurt, Germany. There was a former taxon named Crinum carolo-schmidtii which is now C. lugardiae, and there is a Stapelia caroli-schmidtii and a Cheiridopsis caroli-schmidtii. The names 'carolo' or 'caroli' as in caroli-henrici and caroli-linnaei have referred to people named Carl or Karl, but this is one that I'd like to have some confirmation for. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Cactus Art Nursery; Wikipedia)

carowii: for a Mr. R. Carow who discovered Aloe carowii in Nauchas, Namibia. The taxon was published in 1938 by Reynolds. ("What's In A Name: Epithets in Aloe and What To Call the Next New Species," Bradleya 28/2010)

carpianum/carpii: for Bernard Carp (1901-1966), South African naturalist, nurseryman and plant explorer in South Africa. This Bernard Carp apparently went on collecting expeditions with Mr. Harry Hall, the botanist in charge of succulents at Kirstenbosch Gardens. He initiated and financed many expeditions ini southern Africa. He was also Director of Bols Liquor Co. in Cape Town. Taxa in southern Africa with these specific epithets are Conophytum carpianum and Stoeberia carpii. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Memories of a Scientist: the Carp Expedition to the Save River in Zimbabwe by William Büttiker-Otto)

carringtoniana: for João Carrington Simões da Costa (1891-1892), Portuguese geologist, professor at the University of Porto, president of the Geological Society of Portugal, author of secondary school textbooks, commemorated with Vepris carringtoniana. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

carrissoi: for Luis Wettnich Carrisso (1886-1937), Portuguese botanist and director of the botanic garden at the University of Coimbra who collected in Angola, commemorated with the former taxon Haworthia carrissoi (now H. glauca) and the genus Carrissoa which does not appear in southern Africa.

Carrpos: for Denis John Carr (1915-2008), English botanist and professor in the Department of Developmental Biology, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University (1968-1980). "He obtained his Ph.D. from Manchest University and taught there (1958-1960) and was professor of botany at Queen’s university, Belfast (1960-1967). He and his wife Stella Grace M. (Maisie) (1912-1988), an ecologist, wrote a number of books together including People and Plants in Australia (1981) and Plants and Man in Australia (1983). They were noted for their work in the Alpine regions of New South Wales and Victoria and named several plant species including the bloodwood Eucalyptus dampieri in 1987." The bryophyte genus Carrpos in the Monocarpaceae was published in 1961 by German-American botanist Johannes Max Proskauer. (Hugh Clarke)

carruthersiana: for William Carruthers (1830-1920), British botanist and paleobiologist, Keeper of the National Herbarium of the British Museum, President of the Linnean Society, Fellow of the Royal Society, commemorated with Obetia carruthersiana. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

carsonii: for Alexander Carson (1850-1896), apparently an engineer involved with the Anglican missions in Zambia, and a plant collector in tropical Africa who collected Loranthus carsonii in Zambia in 1889. (Gledhill)

carterae: for Beatrice Orchard Carter (1889-1939), South African botanical artist at the Bolus Herbarium. She collected Delosperma carterae in 1927. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

carterianum: possibly for Mrs. Susan Carter Holmes (1933- ), British botanist at Kew, and authority on Euphorbia and Aloe, plant collector in Zimbabwe. The genus in southern Africa that at one time bore this specificepithet was Conophyllum carterianum, published by Harriet Margaret Louisa Bolus in 1954 and now synonymized to Mitrophyllum grande.

carvalhoi: for Manuel Rodriguez de Carvalho, a plant collector in Mozambique around 1884, commemorated with Chrysophyllum carvalhoi. (Monographieen afrikanischer Pflanzen-Familien und -Gattingen, Vol. 8 by Adolf Engler)

Casearia: for Johannes Casearius (1642-1678), Dutch clergyman and missionary, minister of the Dutch East India Company, and co-author of the first two volumes of Hendrik A. Van Rheede's Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. The genus Casearia in the Flacourtiaceae was published in 1760 by Dutch-born Austrian botanist Nicolaus Joseph von Jacquin. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Casimiroa: many sources including Umberto Quattrocchi's CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names, Gledhill's The Names of Plants, A.W. Smith's A Gardener's Handbook of Plant Names, the website Botanary, and my own website, have apparently incorrectly stated that this genus was named for Casimiro Gomez de Ortega (1740-1818), Spanish botanist, a physician who directed the formation of the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid and became the first professor there, and a Fellow of the Royal Society who published widely on the economic botany of plants discovered during Spanish explorations in South America. The genera Gomezia Mutis., Gomezium DC. and Gomortega were named for him, and this person would seem to be a logical choice, but the detective work of David Hollombe has revealed that the genus Casimiroa was named for a different individual similarly named, Casimiro Gómez (?-1815). This has arisen due to the work of German botanist Georg Christian Wittstein, whose Etymologisch-botanisches Handworterbuch (1852) chose this derivation based on the only person he knew of with a matching name. According to Hollombe, Gómez was "an Otomi Indian from the town of Cardonal in Hidalgo, Mexico, who fought and died in Mexico's war of independence." He was adopted by Pedro Marcos Gutiérrez, a Spanish merchant of Mexico. The genus Casimiroa in the Rutaceae was published in 1825 by Mexican priest, politician and naturalist Pablo de la Llave. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Cassebeera: for Dr. Johann Heinrich Cassebeer (1785-1850), German botanist, bryologist and geologist. a politician, wine expert, pharmacist and a specialist in cryptogams. who published a book on the evolution of mosses. He was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Pharmacy from the University of Marburg for his research. His civic interests were such that he served as a city councilor, as honorary mayor of Geinhausen and also as state representative in the Kassell district. The fern genus Cassebeera in the Adiantaceae was published in 1824 by German pteridologist Georg Friedrich Kaulfuss, but is apparently no longer considered a valid genus, the species having been moved to Doryopteris.

Cassinia: for Alexandre Henri Gabriel Comte de Cassini (1781-1832), French botanist and naturalist. "He was the youngest of five children of Jacques Dominique, Comte de Cassini, who had succeeded his father as the director of the Paris Observatory, famous for completing the map of France. He was also the great-great-grandson of famous Italian-French astronomer, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, discoverer of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and the Cassini division in Saturn's rings. He named many flowering plants and new genera in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), many of them from North America. He published 65 papers and 11 reviews in the [Nouveau] Bulletin des Sciences par la Société Philomatique de Paris between 1812 and 1821. In 1825, A. Cassini placed the North American taxa of Prenanthes in the new genus Nabalus, now considered a subgenus of Prenanthes (family Asteraceae, tribe Lactuceae). In 1828 he named Dugaldia hoopesii for the Scottish naturalist Dugald Stewart (1753-1828)." The genus Cassinia in the Asteraceae was published in his honor in 1813 by British botanist Robert Brown. (Wikipedia)

catherinae: for Mrs. Catherine van der Byl (1882-?), who helped Prof. Robert Harold Compton to find wild plants for the first description of this species. The name Leucospermum catherinae was published by Compton in 1933. (What's In A Name: The Meanings of the Botanical Names of Trees by High Glen)

Cautleya: for Sir Proby Thomas Cautley (1802-1871), English engineer and palaeontologist, best known for conceiving and supervising the construction of the 560 km long Ganges canal in India. "In 1819 he joined the Bengal artillery. By 1825, he was assistant to Captain Robert Smith, the engineer in charge of the construction of the Eastern Yamuna Canal, and in 1836 he was appointed General Superintendent for Northwest Indian canals. He was actively involved in Dr. Hugh Falconer's fossil expeditions in the Siwaliks, Southern Himalayas, and wrote numerous scientific papers on the geology and fossils of the Siwaliks (some with Hugh Falconer), which appeared in the Proceedings of the Bengal Asiatic Society and Geological Society of London. He was also involved in the establishment of the Roorkee college, the erstwhile Thomason College of Civil Engineering and now IIT Roorkee. Wikipedia says "Cautley's writings indicated his large and varied interests. He wrote on a submerged city, twenty feet underground, in the Doab: on the coal and lignite in the Himalayas; on gold washings in the Siwaliks, between the Sutlej and the Yamuna; on a new species of snake; on the mastodons of the Siwaliks and on the manufacture of tar. In 1860 he published a full account of the making of the Ganges canal." In 1837, he was awarded the Geological Society's Wollaston medal and on his return to England in 1858 was awarded the Knight Commander of the Order of Bath." The genus Cautleya in the Zingiberaceae was published in 1888 by British botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker. (Hugh Clarke; Wikipedia)

Cavacoa: for Alberto Judice Leote Cavaco (1916-?), Portuguese botanist and plant collector in Mozambique, and one of the principal assistants of Portuguese botanist and explorer Francisco d'Ascenção Mendonça (1889-1982). He taught many years at the Agricultural Institute in the Ecole Polytechnique and at the University of Lisbon, and ended his academic career studying phanerogams at the National Museum of Natural History of France. He was the author of Flora of Madagascar and the Comoros (1959), Flora of Gabon (1963), and Flora of Cameroon (1974), among other works. The genus Cavacoa in the Euphorbiaceae was published in 1955 by Belgian botanist Jean Joseph Gustave Léonard. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

cavanillesiana/cavanillesii: for Antonio José Cavanilles (1745-1804), Spanish taxonomic botanist and clergyman, director of the Royal Botanical Garden and Professor of botany at Madrid who was one of the first Spanish botanists to use the classification system of Linnaeus. He is commemorated with Pelargonium cavanillesii and probably also with the former taxon Hermannia cavanillesiana (now C. lavandulifolia.) (Wikipedia; JSTOR)

cecilae/ceciliae/cecilii: for the Honorable Mrs. Evelyn Cecil (1865-1941) (née Alicia Margaret Amherst, later Lady Rockley), plant collector and botanical illustrator, author of several books on gardens and Wild Flowers of the Great Dominions of the British Empire. Selago cecilae and Schizochilus cecilii were both collected by Mrs. Cecil in Zimbabwe, and there is a record of Tapinanthus ceciliae being collected by a "Cecil," also in Zimbabwe (actually Rhodesia), so they are probably all named for her. There is also an Indigofera cecilii, but I don't know about that one. (Gunn & Codd)

Celmisia: after Celmision (Celmisios), son of the Greek nymph Alciope. The genus Celmisia in the Asteraceae was published in 1825 by French botanist and naturalist Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Celsia: for Olof Celsius, the Elder (1670-1756), Swedish theologist, botanist, plant collector, teacher and patron of Linnaeus. The genus Celsia in the Scrophulariaceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

chabaudii: for John Anthony Chabaud (1799-1837) of Port Elizabeth, attorney at law and keen amateur botanist in whose garden Aloe chabaudii first bloomed in 1905 after being collected by J.M. Brown. (Cactus Art Nursery; San Marcos Growers; Desert Tropicals)

challisii: for Chris Challis, a Johannesburg businessman and lover of aloes and other succulents. He collected the species Aloe challisii while exploring a hiking trail at Verlorenkloof on the Steenkampsberg. (PlantzAfrica)

chalwinii: possibly for Henry James Chalwin (1849-1910), a horticulturist with the Gold Coast Botanical Station and Superintendent of the Cape Town Botanical Garden. He amassed one of the best collections of orchids in South Africa. The former taxon Haworthia chalwinii published by Marloth and Berger in 1906 has been synonymized to H. coarctata var. coarctata.

chamissonis: for Ludolf Adelbert von Chamisso (1781-1838) (born Louis Charles Adélaïde de Chamissot), a French-born German poet, gifted scientist, botanist, philologist and explorer. He was born French with the name Vicomte de Chamisso and baptized Louis Charles Adélaïde and later in Prussia took the name Adelbert. He spent several years in the Prussian army. In 1818 after returning he was made custodian of the botanical gardens in Berlin, and was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences. He botanized with Johann Friedrich Gustav von Eschscholtz in the San Francisco Bay region in 1816 and accompanied him on a Russian expedition in search of the Northwest Passage. All of the species in southern Africa that used to bear this specific epithet, Aspalathus, Philippia and Juncus, have disappeared through synonymy. (Gunn & Codd; Wikipedia)

chapelieri: for Louis Armand Chapelier (1779-1806), a plant collector in Madagascar and Mauritius, commemorated with Eragrostis chapelieri. (Etymological Dictionary of Grasses)

chaplinii: there is a JSTOR record of Strumaria chaplinii being collected by a J. Chaplin in South Africa in 1947, with no further information. The taxon was published originally in a different genus by Winsome Fanny Barker and then more recently revised and published in 1994 by South African botanist Dierdré Anne Snijman.

chapmannii/Chapmanolirion: for James Chapman (1831-1872), a South African explorer, hunter, trader and photographer. The genus was published in 1909 by German botanist and explorer Moritz Kurt Dinter. He explored across the Limpopo River to the Chobe and Zambesi Rivers, and almost reached Victoria Falls, then later got to parts of Lake Ngami, Northern Bechuanaland (now Botswana), the Okavango River, and Damaraland, ending at Walvis Bay. He had originally been meant to accompany David Livingstone as photographer but fell out with him over some disagreement and did not go. He tried to explore the Zambezi from Victoria Falls to its delta with his brother, Henry, and Thomas Baines but failed due to misfortune and sickness. Based on his travels he wrote the book Travels in the Interior of South Africa. One of his sons, Charles Henry Chapman, was lost on the Titanic when it sank in 1912. The genus Chapmanolirion in the Amaryllidaceae was published in 1909 by German botanist and explorer Moritz Kurt Dinter. Kew Herbarium has a record of Pancratium chapmannii (which is now P. tenuifolium) being collected with no date in South Africa by a J. Chapmann. This may or may not refer to the same individual, but probably does. His name is also on the Chapman's zebra, Equus quagga chapmanni, a subspecies of the plains zebra. (Wikipedia; Gunn & Codd)

charlieriana: for Captain H.A. Charlier (?-1887), former Director of the German company handling colonization and administration for South-West Africa, commemorated with Indigofera charlieriana. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Charpentiera: for Arsène Charpentier (1781-1818), professor at Antwerp (under French occupation) 1810-1814, professor at Cherbourg 1814-1816,  2nd naval pharmacien-en-chef at Toulon 1816-1817, and 1st chief pharmacist at Toulon in the French navy from 1817 until his death 11 Feb. 1818. The genus Charpentiera in the Amaranthaceae was published in 1829 by French botanist Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré in honor of his friend Arsène Charpentier based on specimens he, Gaudichaud, had collected in the Hawaiian Islands during his voyage around the world on the l'Uranie 1817-1820. He stated in Botanical Drawings of A. Poiret: "I dedicate this genus to the memory of my friend M. Charpentier, chief pharmacist of the navy, and one of its most distinguished professors." The CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names states (and this information has been picked up and repeated by numerous other sources) that Gaudichaud's companion on l'Uranie was Jean G.F. de Charpentier, but apparently there was no Charpentier aboard, and Jean G.F. de Charpentier was not even the Charpentier for whom the genus Charpentiera was named. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.; Annales maritimes et coloniales by Ministère de la marine et des colonies; Officiers de sante de la marine francaise de 1814 a 1835 (1967) by Jacques Leonard)

charpentieriana
: for Jean G.F. de Charpentier (1786-1855), German-born Swiss geologist, botanist and conchologist, author of Catalogue des Mollusques terrestre et fluviatiles de la Suisse, collected plants in France, Italy, Switzerland, the United States and Swaziland. The former taxa in southern Africa that bore this specific epithet were Herschelia charpentieriana, published by Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Kraenzlin, and Disa charpentieriana, published by Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach, both now synonymized to Disa multifida. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

chaseana: for Norman Centlivres Chase (1888-1970), banker and a leading collector of Zimbabwean plants, commemorated with Christella chaseana and Thelypteris chaseana. (Gunn & Codd)

chauviniae: for Marie von Chauvin (fl. 1920), German naturalist and Mesemb enthusiast, commemorated in Conophytum chauviniae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

Chenia: for Chén Bāngjié (Chen Pan Chieh) (1907-1970), Chinese bryologist, who described the Asiatic species of the family Pottiaceae, author of Studien iiber die ostasiatischen Arten der Pottiaceae (1941), and also author or editor of Genera Muscorum Sinicorum (1963, 1978). The genus Chenia in the Pottiaceae was published in 1989 by American bryologist Richard Henry Zander. (Hugh Clarke)

chevalieri: for Auguste Jean Baptiste Chevalier (1873-1956), a French botanist, taxonomist, plant collector and explorer. Setaria chevalieri was collected by A.J.B. Chevalier in Gabon in 1904 and he also collected Sacciolepis chevalieri in Mali in 1899, also the former taxon Combretum chevalieri (now C. adenogonium). (Etymological Dictionary of Grasses)

chiarugii: the Harvard University Herbarium list of botanists does have an Alberto Chiarugi (1901-1960), but I don't know for sure if that is the derivation here. There was a taxon named Vernonia chiarugii, published in 1951 by Italian botanist Rodolfo Emilio Giuseppe Pichi Sermolli, which has now been synonymized to Gymnanthemum myrianthemum.

chilversii: for a C.W. Chilvers who collected a syntype of Ochna chilversii in South Africa in 1915. (JSTOR)

chippindalliae: for Lucy Katherine Armitage Chippindall (later Mrs. A.O. Crook) (1913-1992), South African agrostologist, Technical Assistant in the Division of Botany, Pretoria, author of Grasses of Southern Africa, commemorated with Pentaschistis chippindalliae. Gunn & Codd give her name as Lucy Kathleen Armitage Chippindall, but the Harvard University Herbarium list of botanists has it as Katherine. (Etymological Dictionary of Grasses; Gunn & Codd)

Chironia: after Chiron, the good Centaur of Greek mythology who studied medicine, astronomy, music, and other arts, and was a skilled herbalist who mentored many Greek heroes such as Achilles and Asclepius. Legend has it that despite being an immortal he was accidentally shot with a poisoned arrow by Hercules, and was in unbearable pain. Because of this, he voluntarily relinquished his immortality and died, whereupon Zeus put him in the sky at Alpha and Beta Centauri, the pointer stars for the Southern Cross. The genus Chironia in the Gentianaceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (PlantzAfrica; Wikipedia)

Chloris: after Chloris, the Greek goddess of flowers and the personification of spring. The genus Chloris in the Poaceae was published by Swedish botanist and taxonomist Olof Swartz in 1766. (W.P.U. Jackson)

cholnokyi: for Béla Junö Cholnoky (1899-1972), Hungarian algologist and professor of geography at Budapest, lecturer in botany at Pretoria University, specialist in diatoms, died in South Africa. He is commemorated with Mielichhoferia cholnokyi. (Gunn & Codd)

Chomelia: for Pierre Jean Baptiste Chomel (1671/1674-1740), French physician and botanist , author of Abrege de l'Histoire des Plantes Usuelles (1761). He received botanizing lessons from the French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, obtaining a doctorate in Paris in 1697. He succeeded his father as royal physician in 1705. Hugh Clarke provides the following: "In 1700 he undertook a research project in the mountainous areas around Auvergne looking for medicinal plants and also evaluating the snowmelt water quality. He found many unknown plant species which he sent to the Jardin du Roi. Between 1703-1720 he continued this research communicating his findings with the Academy of Sciences. He became a partner in this Academy in 1707 and was elected Dean of the faculty in 1738. He authored Abrege de l'Histoire des Plantes Usuelles (1712)." His intent with this work, in which he included both Latin and popular names, was to provide to physicians, pharmacists and those interested in the natural sciences an herbal which would include only those plants that had been used successfully. The genus Chomelia in the Rubiaceae was validly published in 1760 by Dutch-born Austrian botanist Nicolaus Joseph von Jacquin. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Hugh Clarke; Botanophilia in 18th Century France: The Spirit of the Enlightenment by R.L. Williams)

Christella/christii: for Konrad Hermann Heinrich Christ (1833-1933), Swiss jurist, botanist and plant geographer, pteridologist and professor of botany at Basel. He also worked with and supported missions in Africa. He was particularly interested in ferns. He died just short of his 100th birthday. The genus Christella in the Thelypteridaceae was published in 1915 by French botanist Augustin Abel Hector Léveillé, and Christ was also commemorated with Asplenium christii in southern Africa, and dozens of other species elsewhere. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

christianeae: for Christiane Peckover (fl. 1993), wife of Ralph Peckover, South African succulent plant enthusiast, commemorated with Brachystelma christianeae and Tenaris christianeae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

christiansenianum: for Willi Friederich Christiansen (1885-1966) of Kiel, for his contributions to the flora of Germany. The taxon in southern Africa with this specific epithet is Conophytum christiansenianum. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

christieana: presumably for the person who collected Heliophila christieana in 1909 in South Africa named G.R. Christie.

christinae: for Mrs. Christina du Toit-Reitz, commemorated with Lithops christinae, now synonymized to L. schwantesii. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Cienfuegosia: for Bernardo de Cienfuegos (c.1580-1640), Spanish physician and botanist, "who wrote seven hand-written bound volumes that are kept at the Spanish National Library and contain some 1,000 drawings of plants, most of them in colour. This monumental work contains a great deal of original data about plants and their application, especially in the realm of medicine. Cienfuegos also translated at least one book from Latin to Spanish, relating to the life of Father Gonzalo de Silveira, a Priest of the Society of Jesus, martyred at Monomotapa, a city in Caffraria (1614)." The genus Cienfuegosia in the Malvaceae was published in 1786 by Spanish botanist Antonio José Cavanilles. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Hugh Clarke)

cilliersiae: the taxon in southern Africa that bears this specific epithet is Glottiphyllum cilliersiae, published in 1938 by German botanist Martin Heinrich Gustav Schwantes, with no information as to its derivation.

claessensii: for a J. Claessens, plant collector in the Congo around 1909-1933, commemorated with Cycnium claessens, now synonymized to Cycnium tubulosum. (JSTOR; Harvard University Herbarium)

clareae: for Clare Archer (née Reid) (1955- ), Principle Scientist at the National Herbarium in Pretoria, specializes in Cyperaceae, married to botanist Robert Hermanus Archer, also on staff at SANBI. She is commemorated with Asparagus clareae. (JSTOR)

clarkei: possibly for Charles Baron Clarke (1832-1906), British botanist , Inspector of Schools in Eastern Bengal and later of India, and Superintendent of the Calcutta Botanical Gardens. He was president of the Linnean Society from 1894 to 1896. He is commemorated with Ecbolium clarkei.

Clausena: for Peder Claussen Friis (1545-1614), Scandinavian priest and naturalist, author of Norriges oc omliggende øers sandfaerdige bescriffuelse, and translator of old Norse sagas. He was the parish priest of Undal. Although the CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names describes him as Danish, he was born in Norway. The genus Clausena in the Rutaceae was published in 1768 by Dutch botanist Nicolaas Laurens Burman. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

clementiana: possibly for Simón de Roxas Clemente y Rubio (1777-1827), renowned Spanish botanist, librarian at the Madrid Botanic Gardens, author of Variedades de la Vid Común que Vegetan en Andalucía (1807) and Historia Natural de Titaguas. The taxon in southern Africa that bears this epithet is Physcia clementiana.

Clevea: for Per Theodor Cleve (1804-1905), Swedish chemist and geologist, expert in agricultural chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistries, geology, mineralogy, and oceanography, member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, had the mineral cleveite named for him, professor at Upsala University, father of the botanist and chemist Astrid Cleve. The genus Clevea in the Cleveaceae was published in 1868 by Swedish-Finnish bryologist Sextus Otto Lindberg. (Wikipedia)

cliffordii: for Clifford George Balkwill (1924- ), born in Great Britain. The author of Peristrophe cliffordii is Prof. Kevin Balkwill (1958- ). (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Cliffortia: for George Clifford (1685-1760), a rich Anglo-Dutch financier and a Director of the Dutch East India Company who was also a keen horticulturist. In Amsterdam, Linnaeus stayed with Clifford, who owned a large, famous garden and the Zoo. Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus named the genus Cliffortia in the Rosaceae after his patron in 1753. (PlantzAfrica)

Clivia: for Lady Charlotte Florentia Clive, Duchess of Northumberland (1787-1866), the daughter of politician Edward Clive and granddaughter of Baron Robert Clive who founded the British Empire in India. In 1831 she was appointed as a (mostly ceremonial as it turned out) governess of the future Queen Victoria, but was dismissed in 1837 by the princess's mother due to conflicts regarding the future queen's education. She had no children and was an avid plant entusiast, and cultivated Clivias in her garden. Some sources, such as the website of the National Trust Collections UK record her name as Florentina. Hugh Clarke provides the following: "Clivias were first discovered in 1815 by the naturalist and explorer William Burchell in the forests of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.  Additional plants were collected in the same area in the early 1820’s by plant collector and Kew gardener James Bowie, under the direction of Kew botanist James Lindley who named the plant ‘Clivia’ in 1828."  The genus Clivia is in the Amaryllidaceae.(CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia)

cloeteae: for Miss F. Cloete (fl. 1929) who collected Delosperma cloeteae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

Clutia/Cluytia: for Outgers or Outgaerts Cluyt, M.D. (Angerius Clutius; Theodorus Augerius Clutius) (1577-1636), Dutch botanist, apothecary, author of a botanical work in 1634, horticulturist, plant collector and close friend of botany professor and Curator of the Leyden Botanical Garden Charles l'Ecluse (better known as Carolus Clusius). He wrote a monograph on the ephemeral nature of the life cycle of the mayfly and a treatise on how to prepare and transport trees over long distances. Outgers was the son of pharmacist Dirck Ougaertszoon Cluyt (Clutius) from Delft (either 1546 or 1550-1598) who was an authority on medicinal herbs and had been appointed as an assistant to Clusius with the title of Hortulanus or Keeper of the Garden. He studied at the University of Montpellier for several years and travelled to Germany, France, Spain and North Africa studying and collecting plants, and sending many seeds and plants back to Leyden. There is disagreement about Outgers' birth and death dates with some sources giving 1590-1650 and others 1577-1636, but the latter dates are probably correct. The name Outgers is sometimes recorded as Outger. The genus Clutia in the Euphorbiaceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753, and the name probably derived from Clutius rather than Cluyt. Linnaeus was the first to publish the name as Clutia, but the genus was renamed Cluytia by a Mr. Dryander in Aiton's Hortus Kewensis according to Curtis's botanical magazine, Vol. 45, 1818, which states that "This genus was first established by [Herman] Boerhaave, in his Catalogue of the Leyden Garden, in honour of Outger[s] Cluyt, Professor of Botany in the University of Leyden. According to the fashion of the day, his name was latinized to Augerius Clutius, whence the genus was called by Boerhaave, Clutia; and was so continued by Linnaeus and others. We believe the late Mr. Dryander, in Aiton's Hortus Kewensis [1789], was the first to write the name Cluytia, which is not only conformable to the rule recommended, of spelling the name of the genus, as near to that of its prototype, as the genius of the Latin language will permit, but serves the useful purpose of distinguishing it from Clusia with which it was otherwise liable to be confounded; and, in conformity with the latter intention, it should be pronounced Clytia." Boerhaave apparently based his genus on the species Clutia pulchella. Then in 1840 Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel published the name Cluytia in the Euphorbiaceae in his Nomenclator Botanicus 2nd Edition. To further confuse the issue, in the 1824 volume The Botanical Register, Vol. 10, by Sydenham Teast Edwards and John Lindley, it is stated that Clutius's name was Antgers Cluyt and that the spelling of Clutia was changed to Cluytia by a Professor John Martyn in his Historia Plantarum Rariorum (1728-1737), which pre-dated the Hortus Kewensis. And the 1878 work The Natural History of Plants, Vol. 5, by Henri Baillon lists the genus as Cluytia Martyn. In any case, this does resolve the question of whether Clutia and Cluytia are separate genera. They are not and Clutia is the correct name. It is not likely that Outgers Cluyt was a professor in the current academic sense, but both he and his father may well have conducted various instructional courses. The 1999 work The Ambonese Curiosity Cabinet by Georg Eberhard Rumpf says that Boerhaave named the genus after both father and son. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; The Scientific Revolution in National Context ed. by Roy Porter and Mikulas Teich; Hugh Clarke, pers. comm.)

Coddia/coddiana/coddii: for Dr. Leslie Edward Wastell Codd (1908- 1999), South African botanist, director of the Botanical Resarch Institute in Pretoria from 1963-1973, described many new taxa, published Trees and Shrubs of Kruger National Park, edited the journal Bothalia (1958-1974), helped to found and became president of the South African Association of Botanists, amassed a collection of plant specimens that numbered over 11,000, and co-authored with Mary Gunn of the major biographical work Botanical Explorations of Southern Africa (1981). British biologist and taxonomist Bernard Verdcourt published the genus Coddia in the Rubiaceae in 1981, and Dr. Codd was also honored with the name Kniphofia coddiana and taxa in Hibiscus, Brachystelma, Tylophora, Eulophia, Berkheya, Macrotyloma, Agapanthus, Tulbaghia, Becium and others. (JSTOR)

coetzeei: for Dr. Ben Johan Coetzee (1943- ), South African botanist and ecologist at Kruger National Park, participated in a transect across southern Africa, and has published surveys of the Waterberg Mountains, Mlilwane nature reserve in Swaziland, and the Sudano-Zambesian region. He is commemorated with Bulbine coetzeei. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; JSTOR)

Coldenia: for Cadwallader Colden (1688-1776), Irish-born Scottish scientist and physician. He studied medicine in London, was a historian and botanist, emigrated to America and was the father of the American botanist Jane Colden. Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus published the genus in 1753. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

colei/coleorum: for Desmond Thorne Cole (1922- ), South African lecturer and then Professor and Head of Department of African Languages at University of the Witwatersrand, researcher on succulent plants who collected Lithops at over 300 localities, and his wife Naureen Adele Cole (née Lambert) (1935- ), co-authors of Flowering Stones, a study of Lithops. The taxon in southern Africa that used to have the specific epithet colei was Hoodia colei, now Hoodia pilifera, and they are also honored with the name Lithops coleorum. (Gunn & Codd)

colensoi: for Rev. John William Colenso (1814-1883), British-born Bishop of Natal, collected plants there and was responsible for a translation of the Scriptures into the Zulu language. He is commemorated with the species Chiodecton colensoi, and also with Crinum colensoi, a garden synonym of C. moorei. Not to be confused with Rev. William Colenso (1811-1899), New Zealand missionary, printer, botanist and explorer. There are other taxa in southern Africa with the specific epithet colensoica, but I don't know whether that relates to this person or not. (Gunn & Codd)

Colina: for Eugène-Jean-Baptiste Colin (or Collin) (1845-1919), French pharmacist and microscopist, with no further information. The genus Colina in the Schizaeaceae was published by American botanist Edward Lee Greene in 1893. (Hugh Clarke)

collinsiae: for Maria (Min ) Carolina Collins (?-1918), assistant to Mrs. Leendertz Pott at the Transvaal Museum, commemorated with Drosera collinsiae. (Gunn & Codd)

Columellea: for Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella, Roman soldier and farmer of the 1st century AD who wrote extensively on agriculture. The genus Columellea in the Asteraceae in the was published by Austrian botanist and chemist Nicolaus Joseph von Jacquin in 1798. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Columnea: for Fabio Colonna (Fabius Columnus) (1567-1640), Italian philologist, antique dealer, naturalist and writer on plants. "He studied law at the University of Naples (1589) but epilepsy prevented him from practicing law. His interests switched to ancient authors of medicine, botany and natural history with a special interests in fossils which he researched from 1606-1616. In 1592 he wrote Phytobasanos (translated as 'A critical examination of plants') and Ekphrasis, coining the word 'petal' previously known as 'floral leaves'. His books include Opusculum de purpurea (1675), Apiaro (1635) and Yesor Messicano (1628). He had an interest in the microscope and telescope and he invented a stringed instrument called the pentecotachordon. He was an early member of the Accademia dei Lincei. " The genus Columnea in the Gesneriaceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (Hugh Clarke)

Combea: for Sig. Francesco Comba (?-1892), Italian naturalist and taxidermist of the Royal Zoological Museum of the University of Turin. He assisted Sig. Vincenzo Griseri, the first person to undertake the rearing  of the Bombyx Cynthia silkworm moth on leaves of the castor-oil plant, and the first who introduced it into France.  He was also responsible for mounting fossil skeletons and was Director of the royal zoo and 'head of the royal hunts' and painter of scenes of the royal hunts. He became second preparator of zoology in 1833 and first preparator between 1853 and 1859. With Prof. Giuseppe Gené and Sig. Vittore Ghiliani, he participated in zoological research on the island of Sardinia 1833-1838. Plants collected during this research in 1838 were used by Giuseppe Giacinto Moris “in conjunction with his pupil and friend Prof. De Notaris” in a work called Florula Caprariae (1839). The fungus genus Combea in the Roccellaceae was published in 1846 by Italian botanist and mycologist Giuseppe (Josephus) De Notaris for his friend..

Commelina/commelinii: for Jan or Johan Commelin (1629-1692), his nephew Caspar Commelin (1667/1668-1731), and possibly his son Caspar as well, all Dutch botanists. The flowers of Commelina have two large showy petals and a single small petal, and according to Stearn supposedly the two large petals represented (at least for Linnaeus who adopted the name given by Plumier) Commelin senior and the nephew, while the small one represented the son who never achieved anything in the field of botany. The genus Commelina in the Commelinaceae was published in 1753 by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus. There also used to be a taxon named Aloe commelinii, which is now Aloe perfoliata, and I can only presume that it also is named for Jan Commelin. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

commersonii: for Philibert Commerçon (sometimes spelled Commerson) (1727-1773), French naturalist and plant collector who was on de Bougainville's circumglobal expedition beginning in 1766, and who botanized in Mauritius and Madagascar. Other taxa that were given this name include Callitris=Widdringtonia in the Cupressaceae. There is a JSTOR record of a plant collector named M. Commerson with no dates but this person apparently only collected in South America, so Philibert would seem more likely. The taxon in southern Africa that bears this specific epithet is Rhodobryum commersonii, and there are others such as Pachylepis commersonii, Paspalum commersonii, Rubus commersonii, and Scutia commersonii that have been lost to synonymy, most if not all of which were collected by and named for Philibert Commerçon. (Etymological Dictionary of Grasses; JSTOR)

comptoniana/comptonii: for Professor Robert Harold Compton (1886-1979), the second director of the National Botanical Gardens of South Africa. He started the Journal of South African Botany in 1935. During the 34 years that he was Director of Kirstenbosch, he was also Professor of Botany at Cape Town University. His interests were mainly in taxonomy. After his retirement he settled in Swaziland where he produced An Annotated Checklist of the Flora of Swaziland. His name is on the Herbarium at Kirstenbosch, he was honored with the name Haworthia comptoniana, and between thirty and forty other species in southern Africa currently bear the specific epithet comptonii, most if not all of which are commemorative of him, so he was without question a major figure in South African botany. (Gunn & Codd)

conradii: the taxon in southern Africa that bears this specific epithet is Conophytum conradii, published in 1937 by South African botanist Harriet Margaret Louisa Bolus, "a courtesy taxon, made at the suggestion of Hans Herre to honor his father Conrad." (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

conrathii: for Paul Conrath (1861-1931), Bohemian botanist, chemist, naturalist and plant collector in South Africa, worked at several dynamite factories. He is commemorated with Ceropegia conrathii, Senecio conrathii and Stiburus conrathii, which he collected, and also possibly for Cleome conrathii and Sporobolus conrathii. (CRC World Dictionary of Grasses; Gunn & Codd)

constanceae: for Konstanze (Constance) Zimmermann (fl. 1996), wife of German physician and amateur botanist Norbert Fritz Alfred Zimmermann (1955- ), commemorated with Schwantesia constanceae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

cookii: for F.J. Cook (fl. 1923-1932), commemorated with Moraea cookii which he collected in South Africa in 1922, Homeria cookii and the former Mesembryanthemum cookii (now Machairophyllum albidum). (JSTOR)

cooksonii: for Clive Cookson (1863-1885), plant collector in South Africa for W.W. Saunders, commemorated with Streptocarpus cooksonii. (Elsa Pooley)

cooperi: for Thomas Cooper (1815-1913), English botanist and plant explorer, employed by W.W. Saunders, studied and collected plants in the mid to late 1800's in Zulu territory and in the Drakensberg Mountains of eastern South Africa. Cooper came to South Africa in 1859. His daughter married British botanist Nicholas Edward Brown. He introduced many new species which were illustrated in Curtis' Botanical Magazine. He was memorialized in the names of many species which he collected including taxa in genera Streptocarpus, Drimia, Ledebouria,Adromischus, Crassula, Chlorophytum, Delosperma, Cyathea, Aloe, Sutera, Orbea,Wahlenbergia, Tritonia, Dierama, Moraea, Ranunculus, Asclepias, Disa, Helichrysum, Euphorbia and Haworthia. However according to JSTOR records, Erica cooperi was collected by a J. Cooper in 1882, so this may either refer to a different person or may just be a typographical error or an error in the transcription of the records. (Gunn & Codd)

Corbichonia: for Jean (Jehan or Jahan) Corbichon (or Corbechon) (fl. 1375-1400), a French writer and translator. He was an Augustinian friar, chaplain of King Charles V of France, and made himself known by a translation of a Latin encyclopedic treatise entitled De Proprietatibus Rerum (On the Properties of Things), authored around 1240 by Barthélemy l'Anglais ( Bartholomeus Anglicus), called Bartholomew the Englishman (not to be confused with Barthélemy de Glanville). This work, reviewed and corrected by another monk of the order named Pierre Ferget (Farget or Forget), was commissioned by Charles V in 1372 as part of his royal program to replace Latin with French as the language of learning, and was published under the title, Le Grand Propriétaire de toutes choses (Lyons, 1482, 1485, 1491, 1500; Paris, 1510; Rouen, 1556). The genus Corbichonia in the Mulliginaceae was published in 1777 by Tyrolean physician and naturalist Joannes Antonius Scopoli. This entry is a good example of the fluidity in the spelling of names hundreds of years ago. (Hugh Clarke; McClintock Biblical Encyclopedia)

corderoyi: for Justus Corderoy (1833-1911) of Blewbury, Berkshire, English farmer, miller and succulent plant cultivator, had a remarkable collection of cactus plants, commemorated with Duvalia corderoyi. (JSTOR; CactusWorld - Online)

Cordia: for Valerius Cordus (1514/1515-1544), German botanist and pharmacist, traveller and botanical collector who received a degree of bachelor of medicine at the University of Marburg. He was one of the fathers of pharmacognostics (a subfield of pharmacology which studies natural drugs, including the study of their biological and chemical components, botanical sources, and other characteristics) and died in Rome. The generic epithet may also honor his father Euricius Cordus (1486-1535), poet, professor of medicine at the Gymnasium in Bremen, and botanist. He was the author of Botanologicon. The genus Cordia in the Boraginaceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Coulteria: for Thomas Coulter (1793-1843), Irish physician, botanist and explorer, served as a physician in Mexico where he collected plants, best known for his exploration and botanical research in Mexico, Arizona and California in the early 1800s. In 1834 became curator of the herbarium at Trinity College, Dublin. The genus Culteria in the Fabaceae was published by German botanist Karl Sigismund Kunth in 1824. (Nature in Ireland: A Scientific and Cultural History by John Wilson Foster and Helena C.G. Chesney; Wikipedia)

Courbonia: for Alfred Courbon (1829 - 1895), French Professor at the Medical School of Toulouse and First class surgeon in the French Navy expedition which, on the orders of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, explored the Red Sea. "Courbon investigated the medical geography, taking special notice of the diseases peculiar to each district, as well as of the relative frequency, severity, difference, etc., of the diseases common to various countries. He collected plants in Eritrea in 1859–1860 and authored two works relating to the expedition, a book, Flore de l'île de Dissée (mer Rouge) (Red Sea) (1863) and a paper Observations topographiques et medicales recuillies dans le voyage a l'isthme de Suez, sur le littoral de la Mer Rouge et en Abyssinie (1861). " The genus Courbonia in the Capparaceae was published in 2863 by French botanist Adolphe Théodore de Brongniart. (Hugh Clarke)

Courtoisia/Courtoisina: for Belgian botanist Richard Joseph Courtois (1806-1835). The genus Courtoisia in the Cyperaceae was published in 1834 by German botanist Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck and Courtoisina also in the Cyperaceae in 1980 by Czech botanist Jiri Soják. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Crabbea: for the Rev. George Crabbe (1754-1832), British amateur botanist, church figure and poet, and a prolific writer. This genus Crabbea in the Acanthaceae was published in 1842 by Irish botanist William Henry Harvey. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Craibia: for William Grant Craib (1882–1933), a British botanist whose career included a spell as Assistant for India at Kew and a professorship at Aberdeen University. He was the author of Contributions to the Flora of Siam (1912) and Florae siamensis enumeratio (1925). He was born in Banffshire, Scotland, and published a Flora of Banffshire in 1912. He was a Fellow of the Linnean Society. The genus Craibia in the Fabaceae was published in 1911 by British botanist Stephen Troyte Dunn. (PlantzAfrica; CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names).

craibii: for Charles L. Craib (fl. 1997-2003), amateur botanist and plant collector in South Africa, author of Grass Aloes in the South African Veld and co-author of The Bushman Candles, currently working on a book on Nerines, commemorated with Ceropegia craibii and Aloe craibii. (JSTOR)

cramerianus: for Prof. Carl Eduard Cramer (1831-1901), Swiss botanist, Professor of botany at the Federal Polytechnic School at Zurich, director of the botanical garden at the University of Zurich, co-author with Karl von Nägeli of Pflanzen physiologische Untersuchungen (1855–1857), commemorated with the former taxon Cyphostemma cramerianus, now C. currorii. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

crausii: for Mr. Sebastian J. Craus of Pretoria, a succulent collector, commemorated with Haworthia crausii.

creaseyi: for Leslie Bernard Creasey (1904-?), British- or Welsh-born horticultural writer, author of "Under Glass at the Cape," "Lilies in South Africa," and "The Garden Gladiolus." He is commemorated with Oxalis creaseyi. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

cronemeyerianum: for Gustav Cronemeyer (1832?-?), curator of the Hanbury Botanical Garden in La Mortola, Italy, a position later held by Moritz Kurt Dinter. He prepared two catalogues of the plants grown at the Garden, one alphabetic and one systematic, that were published in 1889. He is commemorated with Delosperma cronemeyerianum. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

croucheri: for Joseph Croucher (1838-1917), for a time first head gardener and Superintendent at Kew Gardens and succulent plant specialist. In 1869 Hooker had described a species in Curtis's Botanical Journal stating, "This, the handsomest Gasteria of the kind that has hitherto flowered at Kew, is named after the intelligent foreman of the propagating department, Mr. Croucher, under whose care the succulent plants of the Royal Garden are placed, and to whose zeal and special love for this class of plant the collection owes much of its value and interest." (PlantzAfrica)

crozalsiana/crozalsii: for André de Crozals (1861-1932), French lichenologist, author of Lichens observés dans l'Hérault (1909) and Excursions lichénologiques dans le massif du Mont-Blanc (1910), commemorated with Riccia crozalsii and Canoparmelia crozalsiana.

crudenii: for Mr. Frank Cruden (fl. 1920), South African teacher, Master at Grey College, Port Elizabeth, collected in the East Cape, commemorated with Albuca crudenii. (Gunn & Codd)

crundallii: for Albert H. Crundall (1889-1975), British-born amateur botanist who travelled widely in SA and created a garden of rare plants in Pretoria. He is commemorated with Kalanchoe crundallii. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Gunn & Codd)

Cullen: for William Cullen (1710-1790), Scottish physician and chemist who lectured at the University of Glasgow on among other things botany. There is also a plant name author named James Cullen (1936- ) but this is obviously too recent. A communication from the Botanical Information Service of the National Herbarium of New South Wales states: "The genus Cullen is possibly named after William Cullen (1710-1790), Professor of Botany, Glasgow. This information comes from Legumes Of The World edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. Mackinder & M. Lock, published by The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2005." My thanks to Seanna McCune for her reply. The genus Cullen in the Fabaceae was published in 1787 by German physician and botanist Friedrich Kasimir Medikus. (Hugh Clarke)

Cullumia: for the Rev. Sir John Cullum (1733-1785), British botanist, geneologist, antiquarian and scholar, and author of History and Antiquities of Hawstead (1785), fellow of the Royal Society, and his brother Thomas Gery Cullum (1741-1831), a medical practitioner and surgeon, member of both the Royal and Linnean Societies, and author of Floræ Anglicæ Specimen imperfectum et ineditum (1774). Noted English botanist and founder of the Linnean Society Sir James Edward Smith dedicated his English Flora of 1824 to Thomas Cullum. The genus Cullumia in the Asteraceae was published in 1813 by Scottish botanist Robert Brown. (Hugh Clarke, pers. comm.)

culveri: for a W. Culver (?-1893) who collected in the Barberton area, especially orchids which he sent to Harry Bolus, commemorated with Habenaria culveri and Holothrix culveri, as well as the former Disa culveri (now D. hircicornis) and Eulophia culveri (now E. aculeata). (Gunn & Codd)

cummingii: for David M. Cumming, Scots-born Australian botanist who moved to South Africa, specialist in the cacti, plant collector in South Africa who is listed on a JSTOR specimen record as having collected Haworthia cummingii. He is also commemorated with Brachystelma cummingii. (JSTOR; Wikipedfa; Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

cunninghamiana: for Allan Cunningham (1791-1839), Australian botanist, explorer and superintendent of the Botanical Gardens in Sydney. He worked at Kew as clerk to the curator of the Royal Gardens, William T. Aiton, and it was there that he met Robert Brown and Joseph Banks. He spent two years in Brazil collecting for Kew, and then was sent to Australia. He also spent time in New Zealand, and during a visit to England was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society. He is commemorated with Casuarina cunninghamiana and other Australian species. (Australian Dictionary of Biography)

Cunonia: for Johann Christian Cuno (1708-1780), German naturalist and horticulturist who published a book of verse about his garden in which many exotic plants were growing. He made a fortune as a merchant in the West Indies and lived for years in Holland. He was also co-author with Johannes Burman of Wachendorfia (1757). There seems to be some uncertainty about his date of death. In addition to the 1780 date given above, I have seen 1796 and 1783. Also the CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names and David Gledhill's The Names of Plants describe him as a 'Dutch naturalist.' The genus Cunonia in the Cunoniaceae was published by Swedish botanist Linnaeus in 1759. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

cupaniana: for Francesco Cupani (1657-1711), Sicilian monk and author of works on Sicilian plants. He was the first Director of the botanic garden at Misilmeri, Sicily, and author of Catalogus plantarum sicularum Noviter adinventarum (1692), Syllabus plantarum Siciliae Nuper detectarum (1694), Hortus Catholicus (1696), and Pamphyton siculum (1713). He is commemorated with Aira cupaniana. (Hugh Clarke, pers. comm.; Etymological Dictionary of Grasses)

Curroria/currorii: for a Mr. Andrew Beveridge Curror (1811-1845?) of HMS Water-Witch, a Scottish surgeon and plant collector in Angola in the 1840's. He is remembered in the names Cyphostemma currorii and Hoodia currorii, and possibly also Ruellia currorii and Euphorbia currorii. The genus Curroria in the Asclepiadaceae was published by English botanist George Bentham in 1849. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

curtii: See Dintera/Dinteracanthus/Dinteranthus/dinteri/dinteriana.

curtisae: for Anita Diadamia Grosvenor Curtis (Mrs. Richard Cary Curtis) (1895-1980), commemorated with Moraea curtisae, now synonymized to M. stricta. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Curtisia: for William Curtis (1746-1799), nurseryman, entomologist, and founder of Curtis's Botanical Magazine, first published in 1786 and still going today. He was demonstrator of plants and Praefectus Horti at the Chelsea Physic Garden from 1771 to 1777 and then established his own London Botanic Garden at Lambeth in 1779. He was the author of Flora Londinensis in 6 vols., a work that was published over the period 1777-1798 and was devoted to urban nature. The genus Curtisia was published in 1789 by Scottish botanist William Aiton. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia)

curtisii: possibly for Moses Ashley Curtis (1808-1872), American botanist and mycologist. The taxon in southern Africa that bears this specific epithet is Riccia curtisii, published by Coe Finch Austin in 1864.

Cussonia: for Pierre Cusson (1727-1783), French physician, botanist, mathematician and professor at the University of Montpellier, an authority on the carrot family. He had travelled extensively throughout Majorca, Spain and the Pyrenees, and amassed an excellent collection of specimens, which were regrettably disposed of by an elderly female relative with whom he lived who cleaned his study in his absence. The genus Cussonia in the Araliaceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Peter Thunberg in 1780. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Cuviera: for Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert, Baron Cuvier (1769-1832), French naturalist. He succeeded Lamarck in the Chair of Comparative Anatomy at the Jardin des Plantes. He founded vertebrate paleontology as a scientific discipline. yet he was not a believer in evolution, being of the opinion that all species were created at once. The genus Cuviera in the Rubiaceae was published in 1802 by German botanist and physician Georg Ludwig Koeler. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Cyclopia: presumably after the mythological one-eyed Cyclops mentioned in literature by Hesiod, Homer, Virgil and Euripides. The genus Cyclopia in the Fabaceae was published in the year of his death, 1808, by French botanist Étienne Pierre Ventenat. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Cymodocea: after the sea-nymph Cymodoce, in mythology one of the Nereids and a companion of Venus. The genus Cymodocea in the Cymodoceaceae was published by German naturalist Karl Dietrich Eberhard Koenig (Charles Konig) in 1805. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)



dabneri: for a Mr. Dabner who first found the taxon Lithops dabneri for Harry Bolus in 1965. (Lithops - Treasures of the Veld by Steven Hammer; David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

dahlgrenii/Dahlgrenodendron: for Rolf Martin Theodor Dahlgren (1932-1987), a Swedish-born Danish botanist and plant collector in tropical and southern Africa, and professor of botany at the University of Copenhagen. Before his untimely death in a traffic accident he wrote extensively on plant systematics and cladistics. He developed a new, widely accepted system of angiosperm classification based on many more characters than previous systems, using instructive diagrams called Dahlgrenograms. He was the co-author of The Families of the Monocotyledons: Structure, Evolution, and Taxonomy (1985) with Harold Trevor Clifford and Peter Yeo. He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1986. He collected over 5000 specimens, mainly in the Cape area but also in Natal, the Transvaal and Zimbabwe. He is commemorated with Adenandra dahlgrenii and Penaea dahlgrenii, and also possibly with taxa in Amphithalea, Lotononis and Coelidium. The genus Dahlgrenodendron in the Lauraceae was published in 1988 by South African botanists Frederick Ziervogel Van der Merwe and Abraham Erasmus Van Wyk.(Gunn & Codd)

Dahlia: for Andreas (Anders) Dahl (1751-1789), Swedish botanist and physician, and a student of Linnaeus at Uppsala University. "Thanks to recommendations from Linnaeus, Dahl was employeed as a curator at Claes Alströmer's natural cabinett and botanical garden at Kristinedal in Gamlestaden outside Gothenburg. Andreas Dahl followed Claes Alströmer when he in 1785 moved to his estate Gåsevadsholm outside Kungsbacka, after that he had fallen into a bad economical predicament. In 1786 Dahl was conferred an honorary doctor's degree of medicine in Kiel and in 1787 he became associate professor and botanical demonstrator at the university of Turku (Åbo). To Turku he brought his herbarium which later was destroyed in the big fire in Turku in 1827. Parts of Dahl's collections are preserved and kept in Sahlberg's herbarium in the Botanical Museum at the University of Helsinki and in [Paul Dietrich] Giseke's herbarium in the Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh." (website of the Swedish Museum of Natural History) The genus Dahlia in the family Hamamelidaceae named by Swedish botanist Carl Peter Thunberg in 1792 is now considered by Tropicos to be an invalid publication. There is another genus Dahlia in the Asteraceae family which is also named for him, but it is not represented in South Africa. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Dalbergia: for Carl Gustav Dahlberg (1721-1781), Swedish planter, mercenary soldier in Suriname and botanical collector for Linnaeus, and his brother Nils Ericsson Dahlberg (1735/1736-1819/1820), botanist and physician, student of Linnaeus in 1755, personal physician of Gustav III from 1768, twice President of the Swedish Academy of Sciences. The genus Dalbergia in the Fabaceae was published in 1782 by Carl Linnaeus the Younger. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Dalechampia: for Jacques Daléchamps (1513-1588), French botanist, physician and professor of surgery, philologist, humanist and naturalist who lived in Lyon. His most important work was Historia plantarum generalis (1586-1687), a compilation of botanical knowledge of his time. He also made many translations of important works into French and Latin. His name is given variously as Daléchamps, Dalechamp, Dalechampius, or D'Aléchamps in the manner in which the spelling of names was not as fixed at that time as it is now. The genus Dalechampia in the Euphorbiaceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753. (Elsa Pooley; CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

dalenii: for Dr. Cornelius Dalen (1766-1852), Dutch botanist and physician, Director of the Rotterdam Botanic Gardens, commemorated with Gladiolus dalenii. This species was introduced to Europe from KwaZulu-Natal in the 1820's. (Elsa Pooley)

daltonii: for (1) Nick D'Alton, commemorated with Lobostemon daltonii which he brought to the attention of the plant name author Matt Buys who named it for him for his "friendly assistance during many visits to his farm." This is kind of a coincidence, because there is a Mick D'Alton, South African conservationist, Vice-Chairman of the Nuwejaars Wetland Special Management Area (SMA), owner of Kosierskraal Game Farm, and Chairman of the Overberg Crane Group, and we thought this might be the honoree, but the original publication says Nick D'Alton. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.); (2) Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911), English botanist and explorer, friend of Charles Darwin, plant collector at the Cape (briefly); magnus opus: his 7-volume Flora of British India. Taxa in southern Africa with this specific epithet that honors Hooker include Macrotyloma daltonii and the former Sarcostemma daltonii (now S. viminale). (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

dalyae: for Mary Florence Daly (later Mrs. James Read Heny) (1881-1968), South African botanist, assistant in the Albany Museum Herbarium, collected Albuca dalyae. Both Gunn & Codd and the Harvard University Herbarium list of botanists give her year of death as 1960, but I have seen a photograph of her gravestone and she definitely died March 18, 1968. (JSTOR)

danielii: for Thomas Franklin Daniel (1954- ), American botanist, member of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the California Botanical Society, the Association for Plant Taxonomy and the California Academy of Sciences, Chairman of the Department of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences, and research professor at San Francisco State University. He is commemorated with the former taxon Conophytum danielii, now synonymized to C. jarmilae. (Wikipedia)

dannenbergii: for Ernst Dannenberg (1826-1896), commemorated with Didymosphaeria dannenbergii. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Danthonia: for D. Étienne Danthoine, 18th century French botanist and agrostologist from Marseilles, student of the grasses of Provence. David Hollombe provided the following: "Étienne Danthoine was born in Manosque in 1739 and died in Grasse in 1794. At the time of his death he was the pharmacist in the military hospital in Grasse. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences of Marseilles and had written articles on grasses, bedstraws and (published posthumously) gall wasps." The genus Danthonia in the Poaceae was published in 1805 by Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Darea: for George Dare (fl. 1680's, 1690's), English apothecary, member of the Society of Apothecaries of London, and plant collector of Middlesex. He was responsible for introducing foreign species of Hymenophyllum into English horticulture. A will is dated 1711. The fern genus Darea (now Asplenium) in the Aspleniaceae was published in 1789 in Genera Plantarum by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Fiddlehead Forum: Bulletin of the American Fern Society)

darwinii: for Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), English naturalist who proposed the theory of evolution, author of The Voyage of the Beagle, On the Origin of Species, The Descent of Man and The Power of Movement in Plants, one of the most influential figures in the history of science for whom many geographic features and many botanical and zoological taxa have been named. Darwin stopped in Cape Town during his voyage on the Beagle and Bonatea darwinii (now B. cassidea) was named in his honor. There was even a suggestion that the genus Bonatea should be named Darwiniana, but that didn't happen.

Daubenya: for Charles Giles Bridle Daubeny (1795-1867), English botanist, geologist and physician, professor of chemistry and botany at Oxford, Fellow of the Linnean Society, and plant collector in the U.S., West Indies and Europe, author of On the Action of Light upon Plants, and of Plants upon the Atmosphere (1836), Sketch of the Geology of North America (1839), Lectures on Roman Husbandry (1857); in Climate: an inquiry into the causes of its differences and into its influence on Vegetable Life (1863), and Essay on the Trees and Shrubs of the Ancients, and a Catalogue of the Trees and Shrubs indigenous to Greece and Italy (1865). He conducted plant experiments at the Oxford Botanical Garden and his name is on the herbarium there. The genus Daubenya in the Hyacinthaceae was published by British botanist John Lindley in 1835. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Davallia/davallianum: for Edmund Davall (1763-1798), English-born botanist who resided in Switzerland most of his life, plant collector and Fellow of the Linnean Society, established a botanical garden at Orbe, Switzerland. The genus Davallia in the Davalliaceae was published by British botanist and entomologist Adrian Hardy Haworth in 1819, and Davall was also commemorated with the moss taxon Microbryum davallianum which he first found in Switzerland. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; The Mosses of Eastern North America)

davidsonae: for Dr. Lynette Elizabeth Davidson (née Cook) (1916-1996), South African botanist and plant name author, Lecturer in Botany at University of Witwatersrand and Curator of the Moss Herbarium, commemorated with Thesium davidsonae. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

davidsoniae: for Dr. (Mrs.) Lynette Elizabeth Davidson (née Cook) (1916-?), South African botanist and teacher, lecturer in botany at the University of Witwatersrand and Curator of the Moss Herbarium, commemorated with Drimiopsis davidsoniae. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.; Gunn & Codd)

daviesii: for (1) Charles Norman Knox-Davies (1879-1959), South African attorney and plant collector, uncle of plant pathologist Peter Sidney Knox-Davies, commemorated with Tulbaghia daviesii (now T. simmleri), collected in 1930, and Delosperma knox-daviesii, collected in 1934 (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names); (2) George Herbert Davies (1859-1916) who collected Streptocarpus daviesii in 1899 in the Qudeni Forest of Zululand. He was forest officer at Qudeni, where the type was collected, and later chief forest officer for Natal. He was the author of the novel Legions of the Dawn. He was born in Wales and died in KwaZulu Natal. (JSTOR; David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

davisii: there is a JSTOR specimen record of Glottiphyllum davisii being collected by a G.A. Davis in the Ceres Karoo region of South Africa in 1932, so I assume this is who it is named for.

davisonii: the taxon in southern Africa that used to bear this specific epithet was Gladiolus davisonii, now synonymized to G. mortonius, with no information as to its derivation.

davyae: for Alice Bolton (Mrs. Joseph Burtt Davy) (1863-1953). The taxon in question is the former Musa davyae which is a synonym of Ensete davyae and has now been placed in Ensete ventricosum. In 1904 the Transvaal Agricultural Journal displayed on its cover a picture of a Musa from an area which Mr. Joseph Burtt Davy, the Government Agrostologist and Botanist for the Transvaal, subsequently identified as the Drakensberg (Zoutpansberg District). It was first stated in 1907 by Burtt Davy to be M. livingstoniana, and then in 1911 referred to again by Burtt Davy as M. ventricosa. When seeds of this plant were provided to Kew later that same year, it was evidently not either of those taxa. "Last year, however, [1912] Mr. Burtt Davy sent drawings of the inflorescence, flowers and fruits made from the plant in 1906 by Mrs. Burtt Davy, and these rendered it possible to connect the Transvaal plant with good flowering specimens which were collected in 1907 by Mr. W.H. Johnson in Amatonga's Forest in Portuguese East Africa just over the Transvaal frontier, and almost in the same latitude as Zoutpansberg District." It was very close to the taxon Musa ensete which had been published in 1791, and is now considered Ensete ventricosum, published in 1947. The former specific epithet davyae was given to honor Mrs. Burtt Davy who played a significant role in the determination of what the taxon actually was. ("A New Banana from the Transvaal," by Otto Stapf, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, 1913)

davyana/davyi: for Joseph Burtt Davy (1870-1940), British botanist and agrostologist working in South Africa, Chief of Division of Botany, Department of Agriculture, trained at Kew, worked at UCLA, appointed botanist in the California state agricultural experiment station 1896-1901, then worked in Washington and finally moved to South Africa where he worked as botanist in the Transvaal Department of Agriculture. In the newly formed Union government he helped create the Department of Botany which became the National Botanical Institute. He was interested mainly in plants of economic or commercial importance. After his retirement, he returned to England, worked at Kew again, and produced in 1926 and 1932 Parts 1 and 2 of the major work A Manual of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Transvaal. He is commemorated with Oxalis davyana, Acacia davyi, Ficus burt-davyi, Eumorphia davyi, Streptocarpus davyi, Delosperma davyi and others. (Gunn & Codd)

daweana/dawei: for Morley Thomas Dawe (1880-1943), British botanist and civil servant, plant name author and collector, Kew gardener, Head of Botany, Forestry and Scientific Department, Uganda, Director of Botanic Gardens, Entebbe, Commissioner of Lands and Forests in Sierre Leone, Director of Agriculture, Cyprus, Director of Agriculture and Fisheries, Palestine. He is commemorated with Citropsis daweana and the former Dombeya dawei (now D. burgessiae). (Dictionary of British and Irish Botanists and Horticulturists)

deasii: for a W. Deas who collected Cotyledon deasii (now C. cuneata) in South Africa in 1914 and Veltheimia deasii (now V. capensis) in 1915. There was also a Leucadendron deasii which is now L. comosum which Deas also collected in 1915. (JSTOR)

debeerstii: for Gustave Debeerst (fl. 1894-1895), a plant collector in the Congo, commemorated with the former Cryptolepis debeerstii (now C. oblongifolia). (Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de L'État à Bruxelles)

deboeri: for Dr. Hindrik W. de Boer (1885-1970), Dutch food chemist and succulent plant enthusiast, who is remembered with the specific epithet of Lithops deboeri. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

decaryi: for Raymond Decary (1891-1973), French scientist, naturalist, anthropologist, geologist, historian, and linguist, commemorated with Campylopus decaryi. (Gledhill)

Decorsea: for Dr. Gaston Jules Decorse (1873-1907), French military physician who collected plants, insects and fossils for the natural history museum in Paris, author of From Congo to Lake Chad (1906), explored the area around Cap Andavaka in Madagascar, and according to W.P.U. Jackson wrote part of Flore de Madagascar. The genus Decorsea in the Fabaceae was published in 1952 by French botanist René Viguier.

degelii: probably for Gunnar Bror Fritiof Degelius (né Nilsson) (1903-1993), Swedish botanist and lichenologist at the University of Göteborg, best known for his taxonomic and floristic studies of parts of Sweden as well as North America, Iceland, the Azores and more recently the islands of Vega and Anholt, author of about 120 papers mostly on lichenology, commemorated with Hypotrachyna degelii. ("A Revision of the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) in Tropical America," by Mason Hale, Jr., Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, Num. 25)

degenii: for Árpád von Degen (1866-1934), Hungarian botanist and biologist, commemorated with Peltigera degenii, common name Degen's felt lichen. He was the head of the royal Seed Testing Station in Budapest from 1896, Professor of Botany at Budapest University from 1927, and a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He was the first to make a thorough botanical study of the highest mountain range in Croatia called the Velebit, and wrote dozens of articles about the flora of the Balkans. Thanks to David Hollombe for finding the original publication. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

dehniae: for Mrs. Gertrude Dehn (1884-?) who made extensive studies of Heteropyxis dehniae, the so-called lavender tree, and collected it in Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia). She also authoreda botanical book in Latin. (Tree Society of Zimbabwe)

Deinbollia: for Peter Vogelius Deinboll (1784-1874), Danish botanist, plant collector, clergyman, and member of Parliament. His collection of insects at the Natural History Museum in Oslo is one of the oldest collections at the museum. The genus Deinbollia in the Sapindaceae was published in 1827 by Danish botanists Heinrich Christian Friedrich Schumacher and Peter Thonning. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

dejagerae: for Ina de Jager (fl. 1919-1930), plant collector, commemorated with the taxa Drosanthemum dejagerae, Mesembryanthemum dejagerae, Psilocaulon dejagerae, Sceletium dejagerae and Ruschia dejagerae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; JSTOR)

dekenahii: for (1) Albert Jacob (Japie) Dekenah (1907-1981), professional photographer, curator of the Julius Gordon Africa Centre in Riverdale, collected many plants and sent them to Kirstenbosch and to leading authorities, contributed articles and photographs to African Wild Life, also collected shells, minerals, rocks and other items of Africana which he donated to the Cape Town Museum. He is remembered with the former taxon Haworthia dekenahii, which is now H. magnifica. (JSTOR); (2) Ivor Dekenah (1904-1997), South African magistrate and plant enthusiast, sent succulent plants mainly from Fraserberg to Dr. John Muir. He is commemorated with Antimima dekenahii and the former Pleiospilos dekenahii which is now P. compactus. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

dekindtiana/dekindtii: for Eugène Dekindt (1865-1905), German plant collector in Angola 1899-1902, described in another website in German as a Portuguese missionary. He collected Acacia dekindtiana (now Acacia karroo), Clerodendron dekindtii and Strychnos dekindtiana at Huilla in Angola in 1899. Other taxa that bear these names are Triumfetta dekindtiana, Euclea dekindtii (now E. crispa) and Dimorphotheca dekindtii (now D. caulescens). He collected with Père José Maria Antunes (1856-1928). (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

delaetiana/delaetianus/delaetii: for Frans de Laet (1866-1928/1929), Belgian coffee importer, horticulturist and succulent expert, commemorated with Argyroderma delaetii, Dracophilus delaetianus and the former Hoodia delaetiana (now H. officinalis). He also had a genus Delaetia named for him, not in southern Africa. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Delairea: for Eugene Delaire (1810-1856), head gardener at the botanical gardens in Orleans from 1837 to 1856. The genus Delairea in the Asteraceae was published in 1844 by French botanist (Antoine) Charles Lemaire.

deleeuwiae: for a Mrs de Leeuw (fl. 1966), South African plant explorer who first collected Delosperma deleeuwiae in 1926. (Paghat's Garden; JSTOR)

delessertii: for Adolphe Delessert (1809-1969), French traveller and naturalist with a particular interest in birds, author of Souvenirs D'Un Voyage Dans L'Inde Execute De 1834 A 1839. During this voyage he visited Mauritius, Réunion and Prince of Wales (today Pinang), Pondicherry, Malacca, Singapore, part of Java and Madras. His uncle was Jules Paul Benjamin Delessert (1773-1847), a French banker and naturalist, ardent botanist and conchologist with a botanical library that included 30,000 volumes for which he published a catalogue entitled Musée botanique de M. Delessert (1845). The taxon in southern Africa with this specific epithet is the former Radula delessertii, now synonymized to R. voluta. (Wikipedia)

delilei: for Alire Raffeneau Delile (1778-1850), French botanist and physician who participated in Napoleon Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign, was Director of the Cairo Botanical Garden, wrote the botanical sections of Travel in Lower and Upper Egypt by Dominique Vivant and was the author of Observations sur les Lotus d'Égypte, Flore d'Égypte in 5 vols., and Centurie des plantes d'Afrique. He spent several years in America, and later became professor of natural history at the University of Montpellier and Director of the botanical garden there. He is commemorated with the former taxon Kanahia delilei which is now K. laniflora, and he also was honored by the genera Delilia and Raffenaldia, neither of which appear in southern Africa. He was the brother of the French botanical artist Eulalie Delile (1800-1840). (Gledhill)

delpierrei: for Georges R. Delpierre, professor of biochemistry at Western Cape University with an interest in bulbs. The taxa in southern Africa that have this specific epithet are Gladiolus delpierrei and the former Tritonia delpierrei which is now Tritonia marlothii ssp. delpierrei. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Denekia: for a Dr. Carl Henry Deneke (1735-1803), botanist and surgeon in the Straslund area of Germany in the late 18th century and a friend of the genera's namer Swedish naturalist and botanist Carl Peter Thunberg. The genus Denekia in the Asteraceae was published in 1801. (Elsa Pooley)

dennisii: for Charles Dennis O'Donoghue (1865-1945), British teacher and plant collector of Ilford, Essex, who sent a few specimens to the Smithsonian in 1923. In going back over these entries, I can't find the source that I originally used for this, so it must be considered guardedly pending further confirmation. The taxon in southern Africa that has this name is Conophytum dennisii and it was published in 1931 by British botanist Nicholas Edward Brown.

Derenbergia/derenbergiana: for Dr. Julius Derenberg (1873-1928), German physician and succulent plant collector who had a particular interest in the Mesembs, friend of Moritz Kurt Dinter and Martin Heinrich Gustav Schwantes. The genus Derenbergia in the Aizoaceae was published in 1925 by Schwantes, and he was also commemorated with the species Cheiridopsis derenbergiana, Ebracteola derenbergiana and Anisodontea julii. . (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

Deroemera/Deroemeria: there has been a great deal of confusion, not least of which on my part, about these two generic names which are so similarly spelled. I was able to determine fairly quickly that Deroemeria is an orthographic variant of Deroemera, but there have been conflicting attributions for the name. Victor Samuel Summerhayes, who published at least one taxon in the genus, stated in the Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Gardens, Kew), Vol. 1927, No. 10 (1927), that Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach published the genus Deroemera in 1852 to honor Johann Jacob Roemer (1763-1819), Swiss physician, entomologist and professor of botany at the University of Zurich, and author of Genera Insectorum Linnaei et Fabricii (1789), a beautiful work with illustrations drawn and engraved by the Swiss artist and entomologist Johann Rudolph Schellenberg. He proceeded to explain in the Kew Bulletin, Vol 14, No. 1 (1960), that the genus Deroemera, which was published by Reichenbach in 1852, was later joined by Reichenbach with genus Holothrix on the basis that the two genera were not sufficiently distinct in certain botanical characteristics. Still later he apparently had a further change of heart and along with Alfred Barton Rendle resuscitated his original genus but spelled it incorrectly as Deroemeria, giving rise to much of the confusion that today exists regarding these names. The CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names attributed the generic name, incorrectly I at first thought, to a Mr. de Roemer (fl. 1852). Both the IPNI list of authors and the HUH index of botanists do include an R. de Roemer (fl. 1852), who is mentioned as well in a couple of other sources such as Flora Europea: Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae) by British botanist Thomas Gaskell Tutin. Finally David Hollombe provided me with a definitive source, Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach's original description of Deroemera in his publication 'De Pollinis Orchidearum' (1852) in which he states "Dicavi nobilissimo Do Roemer, Löthainensi ас Neumarkensi, qui thesaurorum botanicorum usum magna cum humanitate mihi concessit," and which refers to the German botanist Rudolf Benno von Römer (Roemer) of Neumark and Löthain (1803-1870) who maintained an extensive botanical library with valuable prints and was also honored with the genus Loethainia. According to the Plant List website maintained by Kew Gardens, all species of what used to be Deroemera are now synonyms of Holothrix, and the taxon in southern Africa that belonged to the genus Deroemera, D. culveri, is now synonymized to Holothrix culveri. The generic names Roemeria and Roemera (both honoring Johann Jacob Roemer) had already been used, so Reichenbach chose Deroemera. ("African Orchids: XXVII" by V.S. Summerhayes, Kew Bulletin, Vol 14, No. 1, 1960; De Pollinis Orchidearum; Wikipedia; CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Deschampsia: for Louis Auguste Deschamps (1765-1842), French botanist, naturalist and surgeon. A website of the National Herbarium of the Netherlands offers this information: "Surgeon-Naturalist of the expedition of the ‘Recherche’ in search of [the explorer Jean-François de Galaup, Comte de la Perouse] 1791-1793. When the expedition stranded in Java he was interned for a short interval, but Governor van Overstraten offered him to stay in Java to make natural history investigations for which he would get facilities to extend his research into the interior of the island. Deschamps accepted, as he says, in the interest of science, and took leave of his travel companions. In the subsequent years this Frenchman made numerous trips, and he certainly has been the first to make botanical collections on several of the mountains and in many remote localities of Java. It is a pity that evidently none of his botanical specimens are preserved, as his diary, drawings and MS. papers are such that we might have expected extremely valuable material. During his travels he was partly accompanied by some young assistants who were to help him with the description and drawing of plants and animals (he collected fishes too!). Afterwards he settled at Batavia as a physician until 1802, in which year he sailed for Mauritius. Later he settled at St. Omer in France." The genus Deschampsia in the Poaceae was published in 1812 by French naturalist Ambroise Marie Françoise Joseph Palisot, Baron de Beauvois.

Descurainia: for François Déscourain (1658-1740), French pharmacist and botanist, and friend of Antoine and Bernard de Jussieu. The genus Descurainia in the Brassicaceae was published in 1836 by British botanist Philip Barker Webb and French naturalist Sabin Berthelot. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Florida Ethnobotany by Daniel F. Austin and P. Narodny Honychurch)

Desmazeria: for Jean Baptiste Henri Joseph Desmazieres (1786-1862), French botanist, horticulturist, merchant and author of Plantes cryptogames de Nord de la France. He was the editor of the journals Annales des sciences naturelles and the Bulletin de la société des sciences de Lille, and he was a member of the Botanical Society of France, the Imperial Society of Science and the Botanical Society of Brussels. The genus Desmazeria in the Poaceae was published in 1822 by Belgian botanist Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

desmidtii: for R.A.H. Flugge de Smidt (1886-1969), South African plant collector, soldier, engineer, president of the South African Institute for Mining and Metallurgy, author and illustrator of Flowers by the Roadside (1947). He is commemorated with the species Watsonia desmidtii which is now W. wilmaniae.(Gunn & Codd)

despreauxii: for Jean-Marie Despréaux (1794-1843), French botanist specializing in bryophytes and lichens who collected in the Canary Islands, author of Essai sur les Laminaires des cotes de Normandie. His name is sometimes recorded as Louis Despreaux Saint-Sauveur and he was on the scientific mission which accompanied the land intervention of the French Army in the Peloponnese (at the time often still known by its medieval name, Morea) between 1828 and 1833, at the time of the Greek War of Independence. The so-called Mission of Morea was led by French botanist Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent and included botanist Antoine Vincent Pector and fourteen other scientists in other fields. He is commemorated with Heppia despreauxii. (Wikipedia)

desvauxii: for Nicaise Auguste Desvaux (1784-1856) (often written as Auguste-Nicaise or Augustin-Nicaise), French botanist, Director of the Angers Botanic Garden, author of Nomologie botanique (1817) and Flore de l'Anjou (1827). He is commemorated with Enneapogon desvauxii, and the genus Desvauxia which does not appear in southern Africa. (CRC World Dictionary of Grasses)

Deverra: after the Roman goddess of brooms (from the Latin deverro, 'to sweep away') who protects women in labor, and patroness of midwives. Supposedly the brooms were used to sweep away the evil spirits from the houses where the babies were born. This genus Deverra in the Apiaceae was published in 1830 by Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

devenishii: for Nicholaas James Devenish (1934- ), plant collector in South Africa. He received a BSc with a major in botany from Natal University. Most of the 2,200 specimens he collected were from the mountainous areas of Wakkerstroom, Piet Retief and Utrecht Districts. He collected Asparagus devenishii in 1964 and there is also a taxon Gymnosporia devenishii that probably relates to him. (JSTOR)

Devia: for Dr. Miriam Phoebe de Vos (1912-2005), South African botanist and botany professor at Stellenbosch University, author of The Genus Romulea in South Africa, interested in cytotaxonomy and embryology especially of Iridaceae. She was particularly fond of Moraeas and Clivias. The genus Devia in the Iridaceae was published by South African botanists Peter Goldblatt and John Charles Manning in 1990. (Gunn & Codd)

devriesii: for Vincent de Vries (1953- ), a South African-born pharmacist and teacher of Dutch descent who began a succulent plant nursery around 1990 and later incorporated Hoodia cultivation for the pharmaceutical industry, has done extensive field work in South Africa and has been honored by the names of at least two Haworthia species devriesii and vincentii. (All You Wanted To Know About Haworthias and Gasterias)

dewetii: for J.F. de Wet (fl. 1937), Headmaster of Vryheid Junior School in S.A., commemorated with Aloe dewetii. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

dewevrei: for A. Dewevre (fl. 1895) who collected Aristolochia dewevrei in the Congo in 1895. This possibly refers to Alfred Prosper Dewèvre (1866-1897), Belgian pharmacist and mycologist with a doctorate in the natural sciences. He was highly interested in economic plants, especially rubber. At the behest of the Congolese government, he organized the first purely botanical exploration in the Independent Congo State. He was especially interested in commercial plants such as rubber. He died of malaria while on an expedition. (JSTOR)

Dewinterella/dewinteri/Dewinteria: for Dr. Bernard de Winter (1924- ), South African botanist at the Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria, and author of Sixty-six Transvaal trees. The genus Dewinterella in the Amaryllidaceae was published in 1994 by German botanists Dietrich Müller-Doblies and Ute Müller-Doblies, and Dewinteria in the Pedaliaceae in 2007 by South African botanists Ernst Jacobus van Jaarsveld and Abraham Erasmus van Wyk. Dr. de Winter was also commemorated with Kirkia dewinteri, Silene dewinteri, Aloe dewinteri, Aristida dewinteri and Euclea dewinteri. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Etymological Dictionary of Grasses; Gunn & Codd)

dickiana: for (Viktor?) Dick, manager of Namaqua Diamond Mines, commemorated with Hexacyrtis dickiana (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Dicksonia: for James (Jacobus) J. Dickson (1738-1822), British botanist and mycologist, gardener, botanical collector and nurseryman. He came from a family of nurserymen and in 1772 set up a business as a nurseryman and seedsman in Convent Garden; by 1781 he became interested in cryptogams. Between 1785 and 1801 he produced his Fasciculus plantarum cryptogamicarum Britanniae, a four-volume work in which he published over 400 species of algae and fungi occurring in the British Isles. He was also the author of A Collection of Dried Plants (1789-1791) and Hortus siccus britannicus (1793-1802). He was a fellow of the Royal Society, a founder member of the Linnean Society and a founder member of the Royal Horticultural Society. He was friends with Joseph Banks to whom he introduced his brother-in-law the Scottish explorer Mungo Park, and who sponsored Park's expedition to West Africa in 1795 during which he became the first westerner to see the Niger River. He was also acquainted with the horticulturist William Forsyth. The genus Dicksonia in the Dicksoniaceae was published in 1788 by French botanist Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia)

Dielsia/dielsiana/dielsii: for Friedrich Ludwig Emil Diels (1874-1945), German botanist who travelled widely through South Africa, Java, Australia and New Zealand, later New Guinea and Ecuador, making large collections of plants, and writing an important monograph on the Droseraceae vice-director and then director of the BerlinDahlem Botanical Gardens. His collections were destroyed in an air raid in 1943. He is commemorated with Diascia dielsiana, Spiloxene dielsiana, Drosera dielsiana, Agathosma dielsiana, Cotula dielsii and the former Crassula dielsii, now C. dentata. The genus Dielsia in the Restionaceae was published in 1904 by German botanist Ernest Friedrich Gilg. (Wikipedia; Gunn & Codd)

diemontianum: for Marius Annè Diemont, Jr. (1912-2001), S. A. Supreme Court Justice and a friend of the author who was allowed to use the judge's house at Boboskloof in the Cold Bokkeveld while studying the plants in the area, commemorated with Leucadendron diemontianum, published in 1972 by South African engineer and botanist Ion James Muirhead Williams. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

dieterleniae/dieterlenii: for Anna Dieterlen (1858/9-1945), French missionary and amateur botanist who collected in Lesotho. She is commemorated with many taxa including the current Scleria dieterlenii, Cineraria dieterlenii, Relhania dieterlenii, Wahlenbergia dieterlenii and Cymbopogon dieterlenii, and older names that have been synonymized, such as Funaria dieterlenii (now F. spathulata), Euryops dieterleniae (now E. evansii), Lotononis dieterlenii (now L. lotononoides), Tulbaghia dieterlenii (now T. leucantha), Eragrostis dieterlenii (now E. caesia) and Gladiolus dieterlenii (now G. crassifolius). (Elsa Pooley; Etymological Dictionary of Grasses)

Dietrichia: a number of Dietrichs were botanists including (1) Albert Gottfried Dietrich (1795-1856), curator of the Botanical Garden in Berlin and publisher of Allgemeine Gartenzeitung, a newspaper on gardening, (2) David Nathaniel Friedrich Dietrich (1800-1888), curator of the Jena University Herbarium and author of a number of botanical works, [since the name was published in 1812, these two would seem to be too young to be so honored], (3) Adam Dietrich (1711-1782), botanist, D.N. Dietrich's great-great-uncle, and (4) Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Dietrich (1765-1850), D.N. Dietrich's uncle and editor of an encyclopedia of gardening and botany. This was a well-known botanical family and very likely the genus commemorated one or more of them. The most likely candidate here is J.F.G. Dietrich, and in fact a website called Deutsche Biographie created by the Bavarian State Library makes this assertion, and gives the following: "Dietrich machte als Zwanzigjähriger auf einer botanischen Exkursion bei Jena die Bekanntschaft Goethes, der ihn 1785 als Reisebegleiter nach Karlsbad mitnahm und seinen weiteren Lebensweg bestimmte, indem er ihm mit Unterstützung des Herzogs Karl August von Weimar eine wissenschaftliche Ausbildung in Jena und Reisen ins Ausland (Kew und Chelsea) ermöglichte. 1792-1801 war er herzog|licher Gärtner (ab 1794 Hofgärtner) in Weimar. In dieser Zeit kam er häufig in Berührung mit Goethe, den er für seine botanischen Studien mit Pflanzenmaterial belieferte und auch gärtnerisch betreute. 1801-45 war er als Schöpfer und Garteninspektor (Direktor) des herzoglich Botanischen Gartens in Wilhelmsthal bei Eisenach tätig, erhielt den Titel eines Großherzoglichen Rats, wurde Dr. phil. und Professor der Botanik. Ihm zu Ehren wurde die Pflanzengattung Dietrichia benannt (später zur Gattung Rochea gezogen). Er war seit 1795 einer der frucht-barsten botanischen und hortensischen Schriftsteller seiner Zeit (besonders lexikographische Neigung) und Mitglied vieler wissenschaftlicher Gesellschaften (unter anderem der Botanischen Gesellschaft zu Regensburg, Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, Leipziger ökonomischen Societät)." The fractured Google translation of this is as follows: "Dietrich was the age of twenty on a botanical excursion in Jena the acquaintance of Goethe, who took him in 1785 as companion to Carlsbad and certain his future by giving him with the support of Duke Karl August of Weimar, a scientific education in Jena and trips abroad (Kew and Chelsea) enabled. 1792-1801 he was Duke Licher Gartner (gardener from 1794) in Weimar. In that time he often came into contact with Goethe, he wrote for his botanical studies in plant material supplied and supervised gardening. 1801-45, he served as creator and Services Inspector (Director) of the Duke of botanical gardens in Wilhelmsthal in Eisenach, was awarded the title of Grand Ducal Council, was Dr. Phil. and professor of botany. In his honor, was named the plant genus Dietrichia (later moved to the genus Rochea). He was one of the most fruitful since 1795 and hears botanical Saxon writers of his time (especially lexicographic inclination) and a member of many scientific societies (to include the Botanical Society of Ratisbon, society naturally inquiring friends Berlin, Leipzig economic Societat)." I couldn't find any non-German sources to try to clear this up, but the basics are that he was assisted in his botanical career by Goethe, he authored books on botany and horticulture, he designed and directed botanical gardens, he visited the Kew, Huntington and Chelsea gardens, and he held a chair as professor of botany. The genus Dietrichia in the Crassulaceae was published in 1812 by Austrian botanist Leopold Trattinnick. It is curious that IPNI lists a Carl F. Dietrich as being the person honored by the other genus Dietrichia in the Zingiberaceae. The Harvard University Herbaria database of botanists and collectors includes no such person although it does have a Friedrich Carl Dietrich (1805-1891), curator of the botanical museum of Berlin. IPNI further contains the note that this genus has often been spelled Dieterichia. Henri Baillon's Dictionaire de Botanique (1886) lists both spellings as synonyms, and has an entry for Albert Dietrich, David Nathaniel Dietrich and Friedrich Gottlieb Dietrich, but doesn't say who the genus was named for. Georg-Rudolph Boehmer's Lexicon re herbariae (1802) lists genus Dieterichia as for Carl Fr. Dietrich, but again this is not the Dietrichia in the Crassulaceae. Georg August Pritzel's Thesaurus Literaturae botanicae omnum gentium (1872) implies that Dieterichia L. is named for Karl Friedrich Dieterich. For the time being this must remain unclear.

dilleniana/dillenii: for Johann Jacob Dillen (Dillenius) (1684-1747), German botanist, physician and plant collector, professor of botany at Oxford and prolific author. Linneaus spent a month with him at Oxford and afterwards dedicated his Critica Botanica to him. His greatest work was the Historia Muscorum published in 1741. He is commemorated with Opuntia dillenii. (Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 15)

dines: according to Gunn & Codd, this specific epithet in genus Oxalis commemorates Enid Phoebe Du Plessis (née Immelman) (1919- ), botany instructor at Cape Town University and Rhodes University, on the staff at the National Botanic Garden, Kirstenbosch, and later with the Council for Scientific and.Industrial Research in Pretoria, co-author with Hilda Mason of Western Cape Sandveld Flowers (1972) and with Mary Gunn of The Flora Capensis of Jakob and Johann Philipp Breyne (1978). What the specific epithet means or refers to I don't know, and it is the only taxon that has it. (Gunn & Codd)

Dintera/Dinteracanthus/Dinteranthus/dinteri/dinteriana: for Moritz Kurt Dinter (1868-1945), German botanist, explorer, and plant collector in SW Africa. Wikipedia says "Dinter covered an estimated 40,000 km on foot, by wagon and motor vehicle during the course of his collecting trips, which spanned 38 years, in South-West Africa. His collection of pressed specimens numbered in excess of 8400. Large quantities of living plants and seeds, and his wife's collections, were never numbered." He began his botanical and horticultural studies at the Botanic Gardens of Dresden and Strasbourg. Later he was engaged by Sir Thomas Hanbury to take charge of the wonderful collection of plants at the La Mortola garden, spent six months at Kew Gardens, and then left for South-West Africa where he relied on the sale of botanical specimens for his livelihood, and was hired by the German government to be the botanist for the area. In 1913 he accompanied Adolf Engler on a trip through the area, following which he went to Germany and was forced to remain there for the duration of WWI. His periods of time in South-West Africa were 1897-1914, 1922-1925, 1928-1929 and 1933-1935, during which he described over 100 new species. Many other new species were described by other botanists although taxonomic changes have caused some of those names to disappear. His wife Helena Jutta Schilde accompanied him on many expeditions and he placed her name on many new species in recognition of her contributions to his work. The botanical journal Dinteria was named in his honor. Dinter and his wife are commemorated with the generic names Dintera in the Scrophulariaceae, published in 1900 by Austrian botanist Otto Stapf, Dinteracanthus in the Acanthaceae, published in 1915 by Swiss botanist and explorer Hans Schinz, and Dinteranthus in the Aizoaceae, published in 1926 by German botanist Martin Heinrich Gustav Schwantes, and many species names. See also dinterae, kurtdinteri, and Juttadinteria/juttae. (Gunn & Codd; Wikipedia)

dinterae: for Mrs. Helena Jutta Dinter (née Schilde), wife of German botanist and explorer Moritz Kurt Dinter. Her name is on the former taxon Mesembryanthemum dinterae, now synonymized to Chasmatophyllum musculinum.

Dioscorea: for Pedanius Dioscorides (circa 40—90 AD), Greek physician, pharmacologist and botanist, and author of De Materia Medica, a 5-volume encyclopedia on the subject of herbal medicines which was widely read in Latin, Greek and Arabic and consulted more or less continuously for 1500 years. It was also the foremost classical source of modern botanical terminology. The genus Dioscorea in the Dioscoreaceae was published in 1753 by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus. (Wikipedia; Encyclopedia Britanica)

dipageae: for Mrs. Di Page (fl. 1993), South African naturalist and specialist in the Swartkops Valley bushveld vegetation, commemorated with Drosanthemum dipageae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

Dirichletia: for Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirchlet (1805-1859), German mathematician and member of the Prussian Academy of Science. He specialized in number theory and was one of the first mathematicians to give a formal definition of a function. His name is also on a crater on the moon and on an asteriod. The genus Dirichletia in the Rubiaceae was published in 1853 by German pharmacist and botanist Johann Friedrich Klotzsch. (Wikipedia)

Disa: possibly for a mythical Queen Disa of Sweden, or possibly from the Latin dis, dite, ditis, "rich," for the richness and beauty of the flowers. The genus Disa in the Orchidaceae was published in 1767 by Swedish botanist Peter Jonas Bergius. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Dittrichia: for Manfred Dittrich (1934- ), German botanist, specialist in the Asteraceae, and Director of the Herbarium of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem. The genus Dittrichia in the Asteraceae was published in 1973 by Swiss botanist Werner Rodolfo Greuter. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

dixonii: probably for Hugh Neville Dixon (1861-1944), prominent British bryologist, author of the Student's Handbook of British Mosses and Studies in the Bryology of New Zealand, founding member of the Moss Exchange Club, first president of the British Bryological Society. He was also Director of the London Missionary Society and Secretary of the Northamptonshire Naturalists Society and Field Club. His name was placed on several moss species such as Bryum dixonii and Nitella dixonii which are not present in southern Africa. The taxon in southern Africa that has this specific epithet is Zygodon dixonii.

Dobrowskya: for Joseph Dobrowsky (1753-1829), Hungarian theologian and philologist, rector in the general seminary at Hradisch. His fame rests mainly on his slavonic studies but his botanical contributions were also noteworthy. He was temporarily confined to a lunatic asylum but recovered. The genus Dobrowskya in the Campanulaceae was published in 1836 by Bohemian botanist Carl Borivoj Presl. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

dodii: for Anthony Hurt Wolley-Dod (1861-1948), British soldier-botanist who collected in South Africa, Gibraltar, California and the U.K., author of several books on flora, commemorated with Staavia dodii, Serruria dodii, Crassula dodii, Helictotrichon dodii, Tritoniopsis dodii, Erica dodii, Phylica dodii and the former Ehrharta dodii (now E. rupestris) and Hypodiscus dodii (now Willdenowia humilis). (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names).

Dodonaea: for Rembert Dodoens (or Rembertus Dodonaeus) (1517/1518-1585), Flemish physician and herbalist on the faculty of medicine at Leyden University, court physician to the Austrian emperor Rudolph II in Vienna, prolific writer, and one of the foremost botanists of his day. He was the author of the herbal Cruydeboeck (1554) and at least a dozen other works. The genus Dodonaea that appears in southern Africa is in the Sapindaceae family and was published in 1754 by Scottish botanist Philip Miller, but there were two other genera at one time named for him, both of them now considered to be invalid publications, in the Rutaceae and the Anacardiaceae. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia)

dodsoniana: for Dr. John (Jay) W. Dodson (1901-1999), American succulent enthusiast and founder of the International Succulent Institute, commemorated with Haworthia dodsoniana. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

Doellia: possibly for German botanist Johann Christoph Doell or Döll (1808-1885), author of Rheinische Flora (1843). A genus of grasses, Doellochloa, was also named for this same person, and specific names of doellii and doelliana refer to him, so this is the likely derivation. The genus Doellia in the Asteraceae was published in 1843 by German botanist Carl Heinrich 'Bipontinus' Schultz (so named to differentiate him from the other contemporaneous German botanist Carl Heinrich Schultz called Carl Heinrich 'Schultzenstein' Schultz).

doidgeae/doidgeana: for Ethel Mary Doidge (1887-1965), British-born mycologist and plant bacteriologist, assistant to Dr. I.B. Pole Evans in the Transvaal Department of Agriculture, author of the major work The South African Fungi and Lichens, carried out important work in the fields of taxonomic mycology, and bacterial and fungal diseases of crop plants. She is commemorated with Crotalaria doidgeae and Aplanodes doideana. (Gunn & Codd)

doldii: for Anthony (Tony) Patrick Dold (1965- ), botanist at the Schoenland Herbarium, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, Republic of South Africa, commemorated with the former taxa Orbea doldii, now synonymized to Orbea macloughlinii, and Haworthia cooperi var. doldii, now synonymized to Haworthia cooperi var. cooperi. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

dolfiana: for Adolf Wilhelm Stander Schumann (Dolf) Schumann (1918-2001), South African amateur botanist and colleague of Ted Oliver, geologist, mining engineer, company executive, President of South African Chamber of Mines,  photographed many species of Erica and produced a book on the genus, commemorated with Erica dolfiana. (Ted Oliver, pers. comm.)

Dombeya: for Joseph Dombey (1742-1794), French botanist, physician, naturalist, explorer and traveller in Chile and Peru, author of Flore Péruvienne, L'Herbier de Dombey explique, and Observations de Dombey faites au Chili et au Pérou, all of which were published posthumously. He was at one time in Paris an assistant to botanist Bernard de Jussieu, and in 1777 was appointed royal botanist on an expedition to South America led by Spanish botanists Hipólito Ruiz and José Pavón. He gathered much valuable information relating to the cinchona plant, from which quinine was derived. He also put together a large herbarium of Peruvian plants. He had bad luck regarding the things he collected as the British captured the ship carrying his collection home and never returned it, and then the local authorities in Callao, Peru, confiscated over 300 original illustrations of rare plants on the pretext that works of native artists were not allowed to be exported. These illustrations were given to Pavón and Ruiz, who used them in their work Flora Peruviana et Chilensis. He was appointed as physician-in-chief for the city of Concepcion, Chile, during a cholera outbreak. His bad luck continued when he arrived in Cadiz and more than half of his collection was siezed by Spanish authorities who did not want him to publish before Ruiz and Pavón. He returned to France in 1785 and retired to Lyon, where he became involved in the French Revolution as a surgeon in a military hospital. In 1793 he undertook a mission to the United States to collect botanical specimens and, more importantly, to carry metric measurements to the new American government, measurements which if he had been able to deliver them might have made the United States a metric country today, but he had one final series of unlucky episodes, and I quote the following description of these events from the website of PhysicsWorld.com: "Due to a series of misfortunes, Dombey never made it to American shores. In March, as the boat neared Philadelphia, a fierce storm damaged the brig and drove it south to the Antilles, where it had to land at Point-à-Pitre in Guadeloupe. This French colony was as politically divided as France itself. Its governor was royalist, but Point-à-Pitre was full of revolutionary sympathizers. Dombey was helpless to avoid becoming a political pawn. The presence of an emissary of the revered Committee of Public Safety from the home country inflamed the fervour of the locals against the governor, who had Dombey arrested and imprisoned. A mob amassed to demand the release of the man who was an official representative of the French government. Dombey's release incited the mob to take revenge against his captors. Standing on the bank of a channel, Dombey tried to stop the violence, but was pushed off the bank into the water. He was unconscious when fished out, and caught a raging fever. The governor took Dombey into custody, interrogated him and put him back aboard the Soon. Right after it left the harbour, the ship was attacked by British privateers who seized its cargo and took the crew hostage. Despite disguising himself as a Spanish sailor, Dombey was recognized and imprisoned for ransom at the British colony of Montserrat, where in April – still ailing – he died and was buried." Other indications of his bad luck were that he was orphaned at the age of 14 and contracted dysentery while in South America. The genus Dombeya in the Malvaceae (formerly Sterculiaceae) was published in 1786 by Spanish botanist and taxonomist Antonio José Cavanilles. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; PhysicsWorld.com; Wikipedia)

domokosii: for Janos Domokos (1904-1978), Hungarian botanist specializing in horticulture, travelled with the author iin Transylvania, commemorated with Xanthoparmelia domokosii. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

donianum: for David Don (1799-1841), worked at the Chelsea Physic Garden in London, was keeper of Aylmer Bourke Lambert’s library and herbarium, met Cuvier and Humboldt in Paris, appointed librarian to theLinnean Society, and was professor of botany at King’s College, London. He wrote Volumes 5-7 of Robert Sweet's British Flower Garden, and was the brother of Scottish botanist and plant collector George Don (1798-1856) who collected in Africa and elsewhere. He is commemorated with Bryum donianum. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Doodia: for Samuel Doody (1656-1706), British botanist, pharmacist, Curator of the Chelsea Physic Garden, student of cryptogams, Fellow of the Royal Society, and plant collector for the Rev. Adam Buddle. The genus Doodia in the Blechnaceae was published in 1810 by Scottish botanist Robert Brown. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

doreeniae: for Grace Doreen Court (1928- ), author of Succulent Flora of South Africa, Research Associate of the Botany Department at Rhodes University and a Fellow of the Linnean Society. She was born in the Little Karoo, educated in Grahamstown and spent nearly 30 years in Zimbabwe, lives now in George in the Western Cape. She is commemorated with Gasteria doreeniae. (JSTOR)

Doria: there are two listings for the publication of the genus Doria in the Asteraceae both in Tropicos and IPNI, the first by German botanist Philipp Conrad Fabricius in 1759 and second by Swedish botanist Carl Peter Thunberg in 1800. If my reading of the records is correct, the first publication by Fabricius in his Enumeratio Methodica Plantarum is apparently not considered as a valid publication, and neither is the subsequent publication in 1763 by Michel Adanson in his Familles des Plantes. It was therefore left to Thunberg in 1800 to validly publish the name. The USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) lists Thunberg as the author of the genus. One possibility for this name is Captaine Andreas Dorias (Andrea Dorea) (1468-1560), an Italian nautical pioneer, admiral, statesman and contemporary of Christopher Columbus. W.P.U. Jackson however says that the name is derived either from the Greek dora, dore or dory, "a hide or skin," or from the word Doric meaning Greek, and was unexplained. Gledhill records the epithets dorius, doria and dorium as "From Doria, the Peloponnese area once conquered by the Dorians; pole-like, tall single-stemmed." This is another of the generic epithets which must remain for the time being unexplained.

dorotheae: for Dr. Dorothea Christina van Huyssteen, the daughter of Aletta Helena Eksteen and Dr. D.P. van Huyssteen who cultivated the type specimen of Lithops eksteeniae (= L. dorotheae). (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

Dorotheanthus: for Dorothea Schwantes (1849-?) (née Meyer), wife of farmer Jurgen Meyer and mother of German botanist Gustav Martin Heinrich Gustav Schwantes who published the genus Dorotheanthus in the Aizoaceae in her honor in 1927. (PlantzAfrica)

Dortmannia: for a certain Herr Dortmann, Dutch apothecary. This possibly refers to the apothecary of Groeningen Jan Dortmann. The genus Dortmannia in the Campanulaceae was published in 1891 by German botanist Carl Ernst Otto Kuntze. (English Naturalists from Neckham to Ray by Charles Raven)

Dovea: for Heinrich Wilhelm Dove (1803-1879), Prussian meteorologist and physicist, a professor at the University of Königsberg, Director of the Prussian Meteorological Institute. He was an associate professor at the University of Königsberg, an associate professorship at the University of Berlin, and then a full professor at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. He was also the Director of the Prussian Meteorological Institute and studied the effect of climate on the growth of plants. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, and has a crater on the moon named after him. The genus Dovea in the Restionaceae was published in 1841 by German botanist Karl Sigismund Kunth. (Wikipedia)

Dregea/dregeana/dregeanum/dregeanus/dregei/Dregeochloa: for Johann Franz (Jean Francois) Drège (1794-1881), German plant collector and a botanical explorer and traveller who arrived in the Cape in 1826 with his brother Wilhelm Eduard to join his other brother Carl Friedrich who had come in 1821 He was employed at various major botanic gardens at Riga, Munich, Berlin and St. Petersburg. After joining his brother Carl in South Africa, they established a collecting enterprise with himself collecting botanical specimens and Carl collecting zoological and ethnological specimens. They made several expeditions with Danish botanist Christian Friedrich Ecklon. His herbarium which was transferred to Berlin in 1915 was largely destroyed during WWII. Judging by the number of species on which his name appears and by the copious records he kept of collections and geographic localities, he is clearly one of the most significant plant collectors ever to have worked in South Africa. The genus Dregea in the Apocynaceae was published by German botanist Ernst Heinrich Friedrich Meyer, and the genus Dregeochloa in the Poaceae was published by German botanist and agrostologist Hans Joachim Conert in 1966. J.F. Drège is also commemorated with the genus Ifdregea which does not appear in southern Africa, and in many species names such as Muraltia dregei, Oxalis dregei, Indigofera dregeana, Arctotis dregei, Sebaea dregei, Asclepias dregeana, Babiana dregei, Gladiolus dregei, Cyathea dregei, Cromidon dregei, Anthospermum dregei, Begonia dregei, Pavonia dregei, and many others. There was at one time a genus Dregea in the Apiaceae which was published by Ecklon and Zeyher in 1837, but is no longer considered valid. (Gunn & Codd; Trees and Shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park; JSTOR; CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

droogmansianum: for M. Droogmans, Secretary of the Department of Agticulture of the Congo. The taxa in southern Africa that carried this specific epithet was Trichodesma droogmansianum, which was collected in the Congo and published by Belgian botanists Émile Auguste Joseph de Wildeman and Théophile Alexis Durand, and is now T. physaloides. (Bulletins de la Societe Royale de Botanique de Belgique, Vol. 39, 1900)

drudeana: for Carl Georg Oscar Drude (1852-1933), German botanist and university professor, considered as one of the founders of plant ecology as a discipline. He was the Director of the Botanical Garden of Dresden, and author of Atlas der Pflanzenverbreitung (1887) and Die Ökologie der Pflanzen (1913), and co-editor with Adolf Engler of Die Vegetation der Erde. He is commemorated with the taxon Monsonia drudeana. (Wikipedia)

drummondii: for (1) Thomas Drummond (1780-1835), Scottish botanist, curator of the Belfast Botanical Garden, an authority on Scottish mosses, and traveller and plant collector in the U.S. He was one of the earliest plant collectors in Texas, which he reached in 1833. He was the brother of the well-known plant collector in Australia James Drummond. I quote the following from the website PlantAnswers.com: "The conditions Drummond endured on his collecting trips through Texas seem incredible by modern standards. Having made arrangements to go to Galveston, Texas by sea, he was struck down by cholera while staying in a small town consisting of only four houses - his captain and eight others died, and the survivors were so weak that Drummond almost starved to death before he recovered. He packed up and sent off about a hundred species each of plants and birds, and snakes, land-shells and seeds, and then returned by boat to Brazoria, Texas across flooded coastal prairie areas from 9 to 15 feet under water. In the autumn he returned to the Texas coast to winter on Galveston Bay, where he again almost starved while waiting for migrating birds to pass through. His health failed and he endured 'bilious fevers', boils, hand infections and ulcers on his legs, but was determined to sail to Cuba to collect and then travel to Key West and through the rest of Florida. What happened then still remains a mystery. Sir Joseph Hooker, who had been receiving many of Drummond's specimens, was sent three boxes containing Drummond's scanty personal possessions, followed by a letter from the American counsel in Havana, Cuba enclosing his death certificate. The letter referred to particulars given in an earlier letter, which was never received, so the exact fate of Thomas Drummond has never been known." He is commemorated by the taxon Oenothera drummondii; (2) Robert Baily 'Bob' Drummond (1924-2008), British botanist who worked at Kew on the Flora of Tropical East Africa, former Keeper of the National Herbarium in Harare, Zimbabwe, commemorated with Nesaea drummondii and many other taxa which do not appear in southern Africa. One plant he discovered, Triceratella drummondii, while sitting down in the bush having lunch, then he was the next person to find it again, in the same place ten years later. Eventually it turned up on Mozambiquan sand dunes thirty years later and 1000 km away. He was the author of Weeds of Zimbabwe, co-author with Darrel Plowes of Wild Flowers of Zimbabwe, did several treatments for Flora Zambesiaca, and much work on Coates Palgrave's Trees of Southern Africa. (Gunn & Codd; Kew Bulletin Vol. 63)

Duchesnea: for Antoine Nicholas Duchesne (1747-1827), French horticulturist, agronomist and botanist, a pioneer in hybridization at the Royal Gardens at Versailles, author of L'Histoire des Frasiers, first to conduct an in-depth taxonomic study of the genus Cucurbita and produced 258 paintings of gourds of that genus. The genus Duchesnea in the Rosaceae was published in 1811 by British botanist James Edward Smith. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

duckittiae/duckittii: for some member of the Duckitt family of the Western Cape. There was a Miss Hildagonda Johanna Duckitt (1840-1905), who was the sixth child of Frederick Duckitt and his wife Hildagonda Johanna Versfeld, who was in turn the great-grandniece of Christiaan Hendrik Persoon.. Assigning particular taxa to her is somewhat problematic because there were many Duckitts, and Cotula duckittiae at least was collected by a Wm. or W.M. Duckitt (fl. 1931). The Duckitt family became one of the oldest English families in South Africa. William Duckitt Sr. was a prominent inventor of agricultural implements and his son William was sent to South Africa by the British Secretary of State for War and the Colonies to introduce agricultural implements to improve farming efficiency. He settled there and among his sons was another William. Another plant collector with the same name is Frederick W. Duckitt (fl. 1997-1998?). The '-ae' name ending usually indicates that it commemorates a woman unless the original names ends in an 'a'. A website I found called the Duket Website (about the Ducket/Duckett/Duckitt family) says "Many of the Duckitt descendants became farmers in Darling District, and the name became well known throughout South Africa because of the family's association with wild flowers and conservation." There is also mention of a Duckitt Nurseries where a new species of Cymbidium was grown, so this is clearly the right family, but more than one Duckitt probably collected and more than one Duckitt may have been honored by the assignment of their name to a taxon. There is also a Duckitt (fl. 2008) on the IPNI list of plant name authors. There is a large Duckitt orchid nursery today in Darling.

Dufourea/dufourii: for Léon Jean Marie (or Jean-Marie Léon) Dufour (1780-1865), French physician, botanist, mycologist and naturalist. He was an army doctor during the Peninsular War between France and the allied powers of Spain, Portugal and the United Kingdom that lasted from 1807 to 1814. He was a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the author of Recherches anatomiques sur les Carabiques et sur plusieurs autres Coléoptères and 232 articles on arthropods. The lichen-forming fungi genus Dufourea in the Teloschistaceae was published in 1837 by French botanist Jean Charles Marie Grenier, and is listed by Tropicos as 'Incertae sedis,' which means 'of uncertain placement' and indicates that it is in a group for which its broader relationships are currently unknown or poorly defined. Dufour was also commemorated with Sticta dufourii. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia)

duftii: possibly for Gustav Duft (1859-1924?), German mining official in Namibia. Antholyza duftii was collected by a Mr. Duft at Rietfontein, Namibia, in 1899. This appears to be the same Gustav Duft who was involved in the German-Ovaherero War 1904-1908. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Dumasia: for Jean-Baptiste-André Dumas (1800-1884), brilliant French chemist, co-founder of Annales des Sciences Naturelles, a member of the legislative assembly, Minister of Agriculture, a Senator, and President of the Paris Municipal Council, husband of Hermine Brongniart and son-in-law of French chemist, minerologist and zoologist Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847) who was Director of the Royal Porcelain works at Sévres. Dumas was the brother-in-law of botanist Adolphe Théodore Brongniart, son of Alexandre Brongniart and sister of Hermine Brongniart. The genus Dumasia in the Fabaceae was published in 1825 by Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

dummeri: for Richard Arnold Dummer (formerly Dümmer or Duemmer) (1887-1922), South African plant collector who worked in South Africa, Kenya and Uganda, commemorated with the former taxa Andropogon dummeri (now A. schirensis) and Nanobryum dummeri (now Fissidens gladiolus). There is also a current taxon in the Asteraceae, Marasmodes dummeri, which is probably also commemorative of him, although I can't be certain because JSTOR records show an F. Dümmer who collected in South Africa around 1911. However R. Dummer could easily have been mistaken for F. Dummer in the written records, and certainly 1911 is within the period of time that R. Dummer was working, so this could refer to Richard Arnold Dummer as well. (Etymological Dictionary of Grasses; CRC World Dictionary of Grasses)

Dumortiera: for Barthélemy Charles Joseph, Baron Dumortier (Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier) (1797-1878), a Belgian politician and botanist, member of the Académie de Bruxelles and chairman of the Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique, author of Observations sur les graminées de la flore de Belgique (1823), Flora Belgica (1827) and Analyse des familles des plantes, avec l'indication des principaux genres qui s'y rattachent (1829). He also had a great deal to do with the creation of the state botanic garden. The genus Dumortiera in the Marchantiaceae was published in 1824 by German botanist Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck. (National Botanic Garden of Belgium History)

dunantii: for Philippe Dunant de Salatin (1797-1866), Swiss botanist, associate of Jean Louis Berlandier, commemorated with Roella dunantii and Wahlenbergii dunantii. (Histoire de la Botanique Genevoise by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle)

duncaniae: the taxon in southern Africa that bears this specific epithet is Lejeunea duncaniae, published in 1961 by Swedish botanist Sigfrid Wilhelm Arnell. Originally described by Thomas Robertson Sim in 1926 as Stylolejeunea duncaniae, the type was collected by a Mrs. Duncan at Hells Gate, Uitenhage.  Mrs. Duncan also collected a number of other bryophyte specimens, including other Sim types. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

duncanii: for (1) Graham Dugald Duncan (1959- ), South African horticulturist and plant collector who worked at Kirstenbosch, winner in 2001 of the Herbert Medal, the highest award the International Bulb Society bestows, commemorated with Lachenalia duncanii (JSTOR); (2) W. Duncan who collected Faucaria duncanii in South Africa. (JSTOR)

dunnii: for Edward John Dunn (1844-1937), British-born Australian geologist who spent many years in South Africa, author of Geology of Gold and The Bushman, based on his own experiences in South Africa, who prepared the first geological map of South Africa, and is listed in JSTOR records as a plant collector and also on the list of South African plant botanical authors. He is commemorated with Streptocarpus dunnii. (Elsa Pooley; JSTOR; Gunn & Codd)

dunsdoniana: may have the same derivation as the following entry. The taxon in southern Africa that has this specific epithet is Aspalathus dunsdoniana, published in 1960 by Swedish-Danish botanist Rolf Martin Theodor Dahlgren. The description of this taxon was based on a specimen that had been displayed at the British Empire Exhibition in 1925, the displays of flowers for which had been arranged by a Mr. Dunsdon of Caledon.

dunsdonii: for Mr. L. Dunsdon (fl. 1934) according to Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names. JSTOR records show the taxon Disphyma dunsdonii having been collected by a J. Dunsdon in 1930, but this could easily be an example of a misprint in the records, something that frequently occurs.

duparquetiana: for Rev. Père Charles Victor Aubert Duparquet (1830-1888), French Catholic missionary, naturalist, traveller and collector in Nambia, Angola, Gabon and Nigeria. He is commemorated with the former taxon Nerine duparquetiana, now N. laticoma. (Gunn & Codd)

duplessiae/duplessii: for Miss Rosalie Du Plessis (later Mrs. C. Gill) (fl. 1932-1955), staff member of the Bolus Herbarium who collected Acrodon duplessiae and Drosanthemum duplessiae in South Africa in 1932, according to Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names and JSTOR collection records. The Women and Cacti website however says that these two taxa are named for an Enid du Plessis (1881-?) who may or may not be the same individual. The JSTOR plant collectors list does have an Enid Phoebe du Plessis but gives her birth year as 1929. Gunn & Codd have an entry for South African botanist Enid Phoebe du Plessis (née Immelman) (1929- ), lecturer at Cape Town University and Rhodes University, on the staff of Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, and co-author with Hilda Mason of Western Cape Sandveld Flowers. According to this entry Enid Phoebe du Plessis is commemorated with Oxalis dines. I think the bottom line is that the Women and Cacti site is wrong. There is also an entry in Gunn & Codd for a Stefanus Johannes du Plessis (1908-?), South African plant pathologist, but how he relates to the others with the same last name I have no idea. A former taxon in southern Africa is Cheiridopsis duplessii, collected by Louisa Bolus in 1933, now synonymized to C. namaquensis, but I don't know who this is named for. There are also other collectors in Africa with the name du Plessis.

durandii: for Théophile Alexis Durand (1855-1912), Belgian botanist, author of Sylloge Florae Congolanae written in collaboration with his daughter Hélène, a famous plant illustrator. He began his career by collecting plants as a youth and then after moving to Switzerland for health reasons began working with botanist Henri Francois Pittier on Swiss flora. In 1879 he became a volunteer at the state botanic garden in Brussels and soon was offered a job there. His writing on various botanical subjects led to the publication of Index Generum Phanerogamarum in 1888 and eventually, after becoming an authority on Congolese plants, to the Sylloge Florae Congolanae (1909) written in collaboration with his daughter Hélène, a famous plant illustrator. He was the director of the National Botanical Garden after the retirement of François Crépin. He is commemorated in the old taxon Celtis durandii which has now been synonymized to C. gomphophylla. (National Botanic Garden of Belgium History)

Duranta: for Castore Durante (1529-1590), Italian botanist-herbalist and poet, physician to Pope Sixtus V, author of De bonitate et vitio alimentorum centuria (The Treasure of Health) (1565) and Herbario Nuovo (1585). The genus Duranta in the Verbenaceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1754. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

dusenii: for Per Karl Hjalmar Dusén (1855-1926), Swedish botanist who collected plants in Cameroon and Liberia, explorer and botanical collector, civil engineer, bryologist and author of New and Some Little Known Mosses from the West Coast of Africa, commemorated with Trachyphyllum dusenii and the outdated taxon Lophocolea dusenii, now synonymized to L. lucida. (CRC World Dictionary of Grasses)

Duthiastrum/duthiae/duthieae: for Dr. Augusta Vera Duthie (1881-1963), South African plant collector, born in Knysna, lecturer in botany at Victoria College which later became Stellenbosch University, established the Stellenbosch herbarium, spent a year at Cambridge (1912) and a year in Australia (1920). She is commemorated with the taxa Psilocaulon duthiae, Ruschia duthiae, Stomatium duthiae, Ischyrolepis duthieae, Erica duthieae, Eriospermum duthieae and Impatiens duthieae. The genus Duthiastrum in the Iridaceae was published in her honor in 1975 by South African botanist Miriam Phoebe de Vos. Her name is also on the Duthie's golden mole, Chlorotalpa duthieae. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; The Eponym Dictionary of Mammals; Gunn & Codd)

Duvalia: for Henri Auguste Duval (1777-1814), French physician and botanist, famous for his catalogue Plantae succulenta in horto Alenconio (1809), and author of Enumeratio plantarum succulentum in horto Alenconio, first person to describe the plant genera Gasteria, Haworthia and Ligularia, and author of a book on all the species found naturally in the environs of Paris. Both the genus Duvalia in the Fabaceae, published by Aimé Jacques Alexandre Bonpland in 1816, and the genus Duvalia in the Apocynaceae, published by Adrian Hardy Haworth, are named for this individual. Duval named the genus Haworthia in 1809 for Haworth and Haworth returned the favor in 1812. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia; Gledhill)

Duvernoia/duvernoia: for Johann Georg Duvernoy (1692-1759), German botanist and professor of anatomy and surgery who studied under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort. One of his students was the botanist Johann Georg Gmelin and another was Victor Albrecht von Haller. He established that certain large bones found in Siberia belonged to mammoths and not elephants, and was the author of Designatio Plantarum Circa Tubingensem Arcem Florentium (1722) about the native flora of the Tubingen area. He was honored with the name Adhatoda duvernoia, which has interestingly been synonymized to Duvernoia adhatodoides. The genus Duvernoia in the Acanthaceae was published in 1847 by German botanist Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

dyckii: for Fürst Joseph Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck (1773-1861), recorded in the HUH list of botanists as Joseph Franz Maria Anton Hubert Ignatz Fürst zu Salm-Reifferscheid Dyck or Joseph Salm-Reifferscheid Dyck, German botanist, botanical artist, horticulturist and succulent plant collector, owner of the Castle Dyck, commemorated with Lampranthus dyckii. He also has two genera named for him, Dyckia and Salmea, neither of which appear in southern Africa. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

dyeri/dyerianus: for (1) Sir William Turner Thiselton-Dyer (1843-1928), British botanist, commemorated with Aloe dyeri. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names); (2) Dr. Robert Allen Dyer (1900-1987), Director of the Botanical Research Institute in Praetoria, South Africa. He is commemorated with Encephalartos dyerianus, and taxa with the specific name dyeri in Brachystelma, Eriospermum, Acacia, Agapanthus, Cylindrophyllum, Hereroa, Euryops, Limonium, Delosperma, Rhombophyllum and Raphionacme. (PlantzAfrica; Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

Dyerophytum: for Sir William Turner Thiselton-Dyer (1843-1928), British botanist. The genus Dyerophytum in the Plumbaginaceae was published in 1891 by German botanist Carl Ernst Otto Kuntze. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

dykei: for Edward Stuart Cardinal Dyke (c. 1873-1915), "South African railway worker, mountaineer, plant collector, and photographer. Marloth considered Dyke’s landscape and botanical photography among the best achieved, and published a considerable number of his photographs in his Flora of South Africa (1913-1915)." He died of wounds suffered in South-West Africa during World War I. He is commemorated with the taxa Lessertia dykei, Syncarpha dykei and the outdated taxa Protea dykei (now P. rupicola) and Erica dykei (now E. thodei). (JSTOR)

Dymondia: for Margaret Elizabeth Dryden-Dymond (1909-1952), noted South African horticulturalist, who first collected Dymondia margaretae in 1933. She was on the horticultural staff at Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden and was honored with both the specific and generic epithet for this taxon. The genus Dymondia in the Asteraceae was published in 1953 by South African botanist Robert Harold Compton who published Dymondia margaretae at the same time. This species is the only one in the genus, and this is perhaps the only instance I can think of where both the specific and generic epithets honor the same person. (PlantzAfrica)



eardleyae: for Constance Margaret Eardley (1910-1978), systematic botanist, lecturer in botany, University of Adelaide (1933-71) and Curator of the two university herbaria, commemorated with Atriplex eardleyae. (Australian Plant Collectors and Illustrators)

Eberlanzia/eberlanzii: for Friedrich Gustav Eberlanz (1879-1966), German decorator, botanist and amateur naturalist, roamed the Namib desert for fifty years collecting plants, animals, minerals and Stone Age tools which he donated to the Lüderitz Museum. The genus Eberlanzia in the Aizoaceae was published in 1926 by German botanist Martin Heinrich Gustav Schwantes, and he is also commemorated with Lithops karasmontana ssp. eberlanzii. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names, CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Ecklonea/ecklonea/eckloneus/eckloniana/ecklonianum/ecklonianus/ecklonii/ecklonis: for Christian Friedrich Ecklon (1795-1868), a Danish pharmacist, botanist and plant collector, and one of the early botanical explorers of the Cape. He moved to South Africa in 1823 as first an apothecary's apprentice and then pharmacist and collected plants from 1823 to 1833, returning to Europe in 1828 with vast amounts of collected material which were distributed to German and Danish botanists. During part of this time he worked with Karl Ludwig Philipp Zeyher with whom he published a catalogue of South African plants (1835-7). From 1833 to 1838 he was in Hamburg working on revising his collection, later returning to South Africa where he eventually died. The genus Ecklonea in the Cyperaceae was published in 1829 by German botanist Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel, but it has since become Trinoptiles. Ecklon was one of the most productive plant collectors in South Africa. The specific epithets that are named for him are too numerous to list, with ecklonii being memorialized on at least 23 taxa, eckloniana on at least 18, ecklonis on 8 more, and this doesn't exhaust the full list, not to mention all the taxa that have been synonymized out of existence, and the algae genera Eckloniopsis that does not appear in southern Africa. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

eckmanii/ekmanii): for Erik Leonard Ekman (1883-1931), Swedish botanist and explorer, worked at the Natural History Museum in Stockholm. "Ekman contributed to the knowledge of the Caribbean flora more than any other previous scientist. He described more than 2,000 species new to science (a great many of which are named after him), remarkably so, since by then the flora of the Caribbean was considered to be pretty well documented. His collections are still very actively used in the research on the West Indian flora. He collected around 36,000 numbers, amounting with duplicates to more than 150,000 specimens. Ekman also made some geographical discoveries, he mapped several mountains of Haiti and was among the first to measure accurately the highest Caribbean mountain, Pico Duarte. Ekman also collected birds, mammals and reptiles, of which several species bear his name, e.g. the Hispaniolan nightjar [Caprimulgus ekmanii]." He is commemorated with the southern African taxon Taraxacum eckmanii. There is a lot of confusion about the spelling of his name at least insofar as the specific epithets which honor him. There are at least six Ekmans in the JSTOR database of plant collectors and literally hundreds of taxa with the epithet ekmanii, but no Eckmans. I have no reason to think that any of the taxa with either the name ekmanii or eckmanii are named for anyone other than E,L. Ekman. However, there is a specimen record for Dioscorea eckmanii which is recorded as having been collected by E.L. Eckman, no doubt a misspelling. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.; Wikipedia)

edithiae: for Miss Edith Elizabeth Brown (1876-?), daughter of Nicholas Edward Brown, commemorated with Lithops edithiae and Conophytum edithiae. (Women and Cacti)

Edmondia: the genus Edmondia in the Asteraceae was first described in 1818 by French botanist and naturalist Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini in Bulletin des Sciences, par la Sociéte Philomatique, and then the following year in an article in Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles (14:252) but in neither source was his epithet explained. W.P.U. Jackson says "Probably after James W. Edmond, died 1815. Scottish botanist." This would seem to fit with the publication date if indeed this is when he died, but a website of the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust says that Edmond died in 1875, and a communication I have had with Henry Noltie at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh confirms that James Williamson Edmond died in Inveresk, Scotland, in 1875, so he could not have been the one so honored because he would have been very young in 1818. Mr. Noltie raised the intriguing possibility that the Edmond in question might have been a French botanist. The specimens Cassini based his description on are apparently at the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris and I am in the process of making inquiries of them to see if they can tell me anything.

eduardoi: for Dr. Eduardo José Santos Moreira Mendes (1924- ), Portuguese botanist and Director of the Lisbon herbarium, collected in Angola, commemorated with Euphorbia eduardoi. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

edwardii: for Edward Taylor (1848-1928), British grower of succulent plants, commemorated with Conophytum edwardii. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

edwardsiae: for Gwendoline Edwards (1888-1960), South African teacher and plant collector, founding member of the Arboricultural Society of South Africa, commemorated with Conophytum edwardsiae, Delosperma edwardsiae, Drosanthemum edwardsiae and Lampranthus edwardsiae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Gunn & Codd)

edwardsii: for (1) Denzil Edwards (1929- ), ecologist and plant collector, appointed to Botanical Survey Section of the Botanical Research Institute in 1960, later Officer in Charge and then Assistant Director in 1973, President of the Grasslands Society of South Africa. He is commemorated with Combretum edwardsii and possibly Helichrysum edwardsii (Gunn & Codd); (2) Miss G. Edwards who collected Campylopus edwardsii in South Africa in 1917. (JSTOR)

Eenia/eenii: for Ture (Thure) Johan Gustaf Een (1837-1883), Swedish mariner and trader, who explored Namibia, went to Tristan da Cunha as Captain of the Telegraph, and served under H.M. Stanley in the founding of the Congo Free State. He died while on board the S.S. Biafra at the Congo River mouth. The genus Eenia in the Asteraceae was published in 1899 by British botanists William Philip Hiern and Spencer Le Marchant Moore. He was also commemorated with Aspilia eenii, Dicliptera eenii, Hermannia eenii, Lycium eenii, Senecio eenii, Pteronia eenii, Rennera eenii and several others that have been synonymized. (Biographies of Namibian Personalities)

eggelingii: for William Julius ('Joe') Eggeling (1909-1994), Scots-born Assistant Conservator with the Uganda Forest Department, eventually Head of the Forest Department in Uganda, collected thousands of specimens for Kew and the British Museum of Natural History, Director of the Scottish Nature Conservancy, Vice-President of the Scottish Wildlife Trust, Vice-Chairman of the Nature Reserves Committee of Northern Ireland, President of the Scottish Ornithologist Club, and author of The Isle of May: A Scottish Nature Reserve, The Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, An Annoted List of the Grasses of the Uganda Protectorate and Elementary Forestry. He is commemorated with the former taxon Erythrina eggelingii, which has been synonymized to E. abyssinica. (JSTOR)

ehrenbergiana: for Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, see next entry. The taxon in southern Africa that has this specific epithet is the former Tephrosia ehrenbergiana, now synonymized to T. villosa. (David Holloombe, pers. comm.)

ehrenbergii: for (1) Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876), German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, geologist and microscopist, and one of the most famous and productive scientists of his time, studied theology, medicine and natural science, author of the two-volume Symbolae physicae (1828–1834), professor of medicine at Berlin University, member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and a foreign member of the Royal Society of London. The "Ehrenberg Collection" at the Museum für Naturkunde at the University of Berlin includes 40,000 microscope preparations, 5,000 raw samples, 3,000 pencil and ink drawings, and nearly 1,000 letters of correspondence. He was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and a foreign member of the Royal Society of London. He was the author of Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen (1838 in 2 vols.) and Mikrogeologie (1854 in 2 vols.). The taxon Trichostomum ehrenbergii, which was moved into Barbula by M. Fleisch in 1901, was collected by and named for Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (David Hollombe, pers. comm.); and/or (2) Carl August Ehrenberg (1801-1849), brother of Christian Gottfried, a botanist and plant collector who worked for a mining company in Central America and Mexico. He collected plants, animals and minerals for sale in Europe, and was in close correspondence with Diederich Franz Leonhard von Schlectendal, the Director ofthe Royal Herbarium of Berlin. He collected the former Barbula ehrenbergii which is now Barbula bolleana. However Trichostomum ehrenbergii and Barbula ehrenbergii are synonyms for the same taxon, so which one was intended to be honored by this epithet is unclear to me at this point.

Ehretia: for George Dionysius Ehret (1708-1770), 18th century German botanical artist, gardener briefly at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris before moving to England, and colleague and correspondent of Linnaeus in Holland, where he was co-author with Linnaeus of the Hortus cliffortianus in 1738, a critical and influential example of early botanical literature. His illustrations were in great demand by people such as Sir Joseph Banks, and more than 3000 of them remain in various collections. The genus Ehretia in the Boraginaceae was published in 1856 by Irish physician and botanist Patrick Browne. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Ehrharta: for Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart (1742-1795), Swiss-born German botanist, naturalist and pupil of Linnaeus at Uppsala University and friend of his son, also Director of the Botanical Garden of Hannover. Important collections of this outstanding German botanist are kept at the Herbarium of Moscow University. He was supposedly the first person to use the rank of subspecies in botanical nomenclature. The genus Ehrharta in the Poaceae was published in 1841 by German botanist Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Eichhornia: for Johann Albrecht Friedrich Eichhorn (1779-1856), Prussian minister of education and public welfare, court advisor and politician. The genus Eichhornia in the Pontederiaceae was published in 1843 by German botanist Karl Sigismund Kunth. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

eichingeri: for Alfons Eichinger (1883-?), German botanist, collected in Tanzania around 1911-1916 and is commemorated with the former taxon Eragrostis eichingeri now synonymized to E. congesta. (Etymological Dictionary of Grasses)

eickii: for Emil Eick who collected in Tanzania around 1898-1899. The taxon in southern Africa that has this specific epithet is Manilkara eickii now synonymized to M. discolor. (JSTOR)

eilyae: for Eily Edith Agnes Archibald (later Mrs. Gledhill) (1914-2007), botanist from Port Elizabeth, author of Eastern Cape Veld Flowers (1969), botany lecturer at Rhodes University and co-founder of the University herbarium, conducted a botanical survey of Alexandria District, and founded a company to build low-cost housing. She is commemorated with Haworthia eilyae (now H. glauca). (JSTOR; Gunn & Codd)

Ekebergia: for Carl Gustav (Gustaf) Ekeberg (1716-1784), Swedish sea captain and explorer whose sponsorship made it possible for the genus author, Swedish botanist Anders Sparrman whom he had met on a voyage to Canton in 1765, to visit Africa where he found and named Ekebergia capensis in 1779. Ekeberg trained as a chemist and physician and was a ship's doctor and expert navigator before becoming a captain, he was the author of Voyages aux Grandes-Indes dans les années, and was elected a fellow of the Swedish Academy of Sciences. He was an excellent cartographer and published precise maps of coastlines he had sailed (including that of the Cape) in his book Ostindiska Resa (Ostindische Reise in Den Jahren 1770 und 1771). He was also co-author of A Voyage to China and the East Indies. He made ten voyages to the Far East. The genus Ekebergia in the Meliaceae was published by Danish botanist, zoologist and physician Anders Sparrman in 1779. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

ekmanii: see eckmanii

eksteeniae: this is another name for which there is some confusion in the public records. It is often stated that it is named for Dr. Dorothea Christina van Huyssteen, whose father, Dr. D.P. van Huyssteen, obtained plants of Lithops eksteeniae from her mother, Aletta Helena Eksteen (1891-1987), who first discovered it in 1935. Lithops eksteeniae is now L. dorotheae. It is not clear to me why the name should commemorate Dorothea Eksteen rather than the person who found it. The JSTOR specimen record for the holotype of Lithops divergens (which states that it is synonymous with L. eksteeniae) merely records that it was collected by someone named Eksteen in 1933 30 miles north of Van Rhynsdorp in the Knersvlakte. There is also a JSTOR specimen record for the holotype of Lithops dorotheae (which also states that it is synonymous with L. eksteeniae) that was collected, again by Eksteen, in Pofadder in the Kenhardt Division in 1938. The Cactus Art Nursery website also states that it commemorates 'Dorothea Eksteen.' However, a source I have found that appears to me to be authoritative is one devoted to Lithops called Flowering Stones, which states that the taxon was "[c]ollected by Mrs Aletta Helena Eksteen in 1935 (NOT by 'Mrs Dorothea Eksteen' as stated in some publications), and named for Dr. Dorothea van Huyssteen, daughter of Dr. D.P. van Huyssteen, from whom [G.C.] Nel obtained them, but who did not know (according to Nel) whence he had received them. Mrs. [Louisa] Bolus waited for her plants to flower before publishing the taxon as L. eksteeniae, but her publication appeared 15 days after that of Professor Nel, so the name L. dorotheae takes priority and Mrs. Eksteen receives no credit for her discovery of one of the most sought-after of the Lithops species. This is still confusing since some references are to Mrs. Dorothea Eksteen and some to Dr. Dorothea van Hyssteen, and some give her mother's name as Eksteen and others as Ekstein. So Louisa Bolus must have intended the taxon to be named for its collector Aletta Helena Eksteen but Professor Nel named it for Dorothea van Huyssteen instead. (Lithops by Brian Fearn; JSTOR: Au Cactus Francophone; Etymology of Cacti and Succulent Species by John Chippindale; Women and Cacti)

elisabethiae: for Mrs. Elisabeth Schneider, plant collector of South Africa, commemorated with Lithops elisabethiae, originally published by Moritz Kurt Dinter and now synonymized to Lithops pseudotruncatella. (Women and Cacti)

elisae: for Miss J.J. Elisa van den Thoorn, secretary of The Netherlands Society of Succulent Plant Collectors 1935-1943, who made significant contributions to the development of the Society and its journal, Succulenta. She is commemorated with Lithops elisae. (Women and Cacti)

eliseae: for Mrs. Elise Bodley van Wyk (1922-1997), South African botanical artist, commemorated with Cotyledon eliseae. (Women and Cacti)

elishae: according to David Hollombe, "The first publication refers to 'M. G. Elisha" but other references give 'Mr. G. Elisha, Canonbury Park [Islington, London] Mesembryanthemums.' A George Elisha of 24 Canonbury Park, North Canonbury, died in 1921. He was a master house decorator, born in 1833." The taxon in southern Africa that bears this specific epithet is Conophytum elishae, published in 1922 by Nicholas Edward Brown. The 'ae' ending normally indicates that it is derived from the name of a woman, but it also is applied to names ending in 'a' such as Elisha. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

elizae: the taxon in southern Africa that bears this specific epithet is Juttadinteria elizae, published in 1928 by South African botanist Harriet Margaret Louisa Bolus, with no information as to its derivation. May relate to the following entry.

elizeae: for Elize Esterhuizen, wife of J.M. ("Essie") Esterhuizen, commemorated with Haworthia elizeae. (All You Wanted to Know About Haworthias)

ellaphieae: for Johanna Ellaphie Ward-Hillhorst (1920-1994), cartographer, freelance commercial artist and botanical artist especially of succulents. She painted over 800 watercolors in 24 years, including 42 that were in The Flowering Plants of Africa, and frequently contributed to Bothalia, Veld and Flora, South African Journal of Botany and Cactus and Succulent Journal. She is commemorated with Tylecodon ellaphieae, Pelargonium ellaphieae, Diascia ellaphieae, and Gasteria ellaphieae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

ellenbergeri: for Rev. Rene Ellenberger (1873-1944), affiliated with the Societe des Missions Evangeliques de Paris, who collected Aloe ellenbergeri (recorded for some reason in the Plants of Southern Africa Checklist as Aloe ellenbergii) in Lesotho. He was the son of missionary D. F. Ellenberger, and was born in Lesotho and died in Johannesburg. He founded the Paris Evangelical Mission Society Archives at Morija, was a missionary to the Basotho, and taught Bantu languages at the University of the Witwatersrand. This taxon, published by French botanist André Guillaumin, is now synonymized to Aloe aristata.

elliottiana: for (1) Capt. George Henry Elliott, Jr. (1813-1892) of Farnborough Park, Hampshire, England, in whose garden Zantedeschia elliottiana grew from seed. Elliott died in Switzerland. (Latin for Gardeners); (2) Mrs. F.W. (Friedrich Wilhelm) Kolbe (née Isabella Maria Elliott) (1830-1893), plant collector commemorated with the former taxon Mahernia elliottiana, published in 1862 by British botanist William Henry Harvey, and now synonymized to Hermannia elliottiana. She was the daughter of the Rev. William Elliott (see next entry) and the mother of the Monsignor Friedrich Carl Kolbe (1854-1936). She sent plants to Harvey in Dublin. (Gunn & Codd; David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

elliottii: for (1) William Allan Elliott (1851-1932), British Congregational missionary in Matabeleland, Zimbabwe 1877-1892, commemorated with Hemizygia elliottii (now synonymized to Syncolostemon elliottii) and Ipomoea elliottii (now synonymized to Ipomoea verbascoidea) (JSTOR); (2) Charles Frederic Elliott (1847-1911), Conservator of Forests in Kenya, previously deputy conservator in Baluchistan and Punjab, commemorated with Weihea elliottii (now synonymized to Cassipourea malosana); (3) for George Francis Scott-Elliot (1862-1934), Scottish botanist who collected in South Africa. "He worked as a botanist mainly in Africa and was employed on the French and English Delimination Commission of the Sierra Leone Boundary (1891-1892), also participating on the British East Africa Expedition or Ruwenzori Expedition (1893-1894). Scott-Elliott became a lecturer in Botany at the Royal Technical College, Glasgow (1896-1904) and was President of the Dumfries and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society." He is commemorated with Moraea elliotii, Gladiolus elliotii, Albuca elliotii (now synonymized to A. shawii), Triraphis elliotii (now T. ramosissima), Metzgeria elliotii and Bulbophyllum elliotii (JSTOR; Elsa Pooley; Gunn & Codd; David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Elphegea: I have no idea whether this epithet commemorates a specific person or not, but I will leave this entry here until I find out one way or another. The CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names says: "possibly referred to the Italian province of Emilia and its capital, Bologna, where Gian [Giovanni] Domenico Cassini (1625-1712) held the chair of astronomy at the University (1650-1669); or named after some unknown individual. Who knows? Maybe the name of a friend or member of the family." The genus Elphegea in the Asteraceae was published in 1818 by Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini for whom the genus Cassinia was named and who was a direct descendant of Giovanni Domenico Cassini, discoverer of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter and the Cassini division in Saturn's rings. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia)

elsana: for Elsa Susanna Pooley (née Bond) (1947- ), South African botanist and accomplished botanical artist, author of The Complete Field Guide to Trees of Natal, Zululand & Transkei (1993), A Field guide to Wild Flowers of KwaZulu-Natal & the Eastern Region (1998) and Mountain Flowers, A Field Guide to the Flora of the Drakensberg and Lesotho (2003). She has also written many articles and contributed text and hundreds of illustrations for other works. She has collected plants, undertaken vegetation mapping studies, laid out botanical gardens and established a field herbarium for the Natal Parks Board research center. She is thewidow of Tony Pooley, who was a game ranger and world authority on crocodiles. Elsa Pooley is commemorated with the taxon Raphionacme elsana. (Women and Cacti)

elsiae/Elsiea/elsieae/elsieana: for Elizabeth (‘Elsie’) Esterhuysen, (1912-2006), ‘the most outstanding collector ever of South African flora.’ (Prof. Karel Bremer); she amassed 36,000 herbarium collections, many high-altitude species, and was a botanist at the Bolus Herbarium, the oldest functioning herbarium in South Africa established in 1856. The genus Elsiea in the Hyacinthaceae was published in 1944 by South African botanist Frances Margaret Leighton, and E.E, Esterhuysen was also commemorated with many plant names, including taxa in Athanasia, Corymbium, Troglophyton, Hydroidea, Anderbergia, Trieenea, Hesperantha, Geissorhiza, Moraea, Watsonia, Muraltia, Erica and Crassula, and probably a number of others. (Hugh Clarke, pers. comm.; CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

elskensii: for Octave Adrien Jean Elskens (1879-1935), plant collector in the Congo and Burundi, commemorated with the former taxon Cycnium elskensii, which is now C. tubulosum, and which he collected in 1922. (JSTOR)

emelyae/emiliae: for Mrs. Emily Pauline Reitz Ferguson (1872-?), a plant collector of Riversdale in South Africa who collected in the Riversdale and Swellendam areas in the 1920's and 1930's, commemorated with Haworthia emelyae, Gladiolus emiliae, and Watsonia emiliae. See also fergusoniae. Why the spelling inconsistency is unknown to me. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; JSTOR)

emiliana: for Emily Haines Sloane (1886-1968), wife of American botanist and author Boyd Lincoln Sloane (1885-1955), commemorated with Duvalia emiliana. The taxon was published by Alain Campbell White who was a colleague of her husband.

Emorya: for Maj. William Hemsley Emory (1811-1887), Army officer and Director of the Mexican Boundary Survey. He was born in Maryland of wealthy and socially prominent parents, the inheritor of an aristocratic tradition of soldiers, his grandfather having fought during the Revolution and his father during the War of 1812. As a boy, he was close friends with such future notables as President of the Confederacy Jefferson Davis, Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston and Senator, Speaker of the House and presidential candidate Henry Clay. In 1823, with the help of John C. Calhoun, a close friend and business colleague of his father, he received assurances of an appointment to West Point, entering the school in 1827 and graduating in 1831. He served at a number of different posts during the next five years culminating with his involvement in the removal of the Creek Indian nation from Georgia to the Indian Territory. In 1836 the Secretary of War invited him to become an assistant United States civil engineer and he resigned his Army commission. When the Corps of Topographical Engineers was established in 1838 directly under the Secretary of War, Emory was one of those who were recruited by Col. John J. Abert, Chief of the Topographic Bureau of the Army, and he returned to service and was recommissioned as a 1st Lieutenant. That was a notable year also because he married Matilda Wilkins Bache of Philadelphia, the great-granddaughter of Benjamin Franklin. He worked on a variety of projects, then in 1843 was made an assistant in the Topographic Bureau in Washington. He conducted boundary surveys along the Texas-Mexican border in 1844, producing a new map of Texas. From 1844 to 1846 he was part of the Northeastern boundary survey assigned the difficult task of surveying the border between the U.S. and Canada, a job which won him acclaim and respect, and enhanced his reputation as a skillfull and meticulous surveyor. He served during the Mexican War (1846-1848) as chief topographical engineer first on the staff of General Stephen Kearny, and then as second-in-command of a regiment of Maryland volunteers. From 1848 to 1853 he conducted a boundary survey along the United States-Mexican border, and then surveyed the Gadsden Purchase from 1854 to 1857. He was an excellent cartogropher and the accuracy of many of his maps rendered previous ones obsolete. He was a brigade, division and Corps commander during the Civil War, rising to the eventual rank of Major-General, and performed competently yet without great distinction. He held mostly administrative and Department command positions after the war, and retired in 1876. His marriage produced 10 children and he died in 1887.  The genus Emorya in the Buddlejaceae was published in 1859 by American botanist John Torrey. [Information mostly from The Handbook of Texas Online by the Texas State Historical Association and from the University of Arizona Press]

engelianum: for a Dr. Engel who collected in Namibia in 1909 and who is a complete mystery to me, honored with the former Helichrysum engelianum, now H. cerastiodes. (JSTOR)

englerana/engleranus/Englerastrum/engleri/Engleria/engleriana/englerianum/englerianus/Englerdaphne/Englerophytum: for Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (1844-1930), German botanist, professor at the University of Berlin and director of the Berlin Botanical Gardens, also founder and editor of the periodical Botanische Jahrbücher, notable for his work on plant taxonomy and phytogeography, author of many books and scientific papers. The genus Englerastrum in the Lamiaceae was published in 1894 by Swiss botanist and plant collector John Isaac Briquet, Engleria in the Asteraceae was published in 1890 by German botanist Karl August Otto Hoffmann, Englerodaphne in the Thymelaeaceae in 1894 by German botanist Ernest Friedrich Gilg, and Englerophytum in the Sapotaceae in 1914 by German botanist Kurt Krause. He is also commemorated with many current specific epithets in genera Ozoroa, Dialium, Hibiscus, Trichocaulon, Tromotriche, Stapelia, Gnaphalium, Albuca, Ornithogalum, Petalidium, Searsia, Rhus, Malephora, Diascia, Sporobolus, Oxalis, Hermannia, Pelargonium and Combretum. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

englishiae: for Mrs. N. English (fl. 1917) who collected the type specimen of Prenia englishiae and is also commemorated with Mesembryanthemum englishiae and Aridaria englishiae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

erckertii: for Friedrich von Erckert (1869-1908), German military officer, "father of the camel-riding troops" who served twice in German South-West Africa climaxed by his successful campaign against the rebellious Hottentots of Simon Kopper during which he was killed. The taxon in southern Africa that bears this specific epithet is Herniaria erckertii. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

erici-rosenii: for Count Carl Gustaf Bloomfield Eric von Rosen (1879-1948), Swedish Honorary doctor, patron, explorer and ethnographer. He participated in expeditions to Lappland, South America and the White Nile, and wrote successful books about them. I've encountered two stories involving Hermann Göring and von Rosen, one is that Göring married the sister of von Rosen's wife, and the other that he married his niece. I think the former is correct. His son Carl Gustaf Ericsson von Rosen was a pioneer aviator and flew combat missions for Finland and for the rebels in Biafra. The taxa in southern Africa which bear this specific epithet are Moraea erici-rosenii and Ficus erici-rosenii.

ernestianum: for Ernst Heinrich Friedrich Meyer (1791-1858), German professor and botanist whose herbarium of 24,000 specimens was largely destroyed during World War II bombing. He is commemorated with Helichrysum ernestianum, now synonymized to H. sessile. In going back over these entries, I have been unable to find the source I originally used for this derivation, and thus it must for the time being be considered with a degree of caution, especially because of the spelling inconsistency between ernestianum and Ernst. The isotype was collected in 1827 by Johann Franz Drège in the Camdeboosberg area of South Africa and the taxon name published in 1838 by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle.

ernesti-ruschii: for Ernst Julius Rusch (1867-1957), German-born farmer in Namibia and one of the founders of Windhoek. He came to South-West Africa as a soldier and stayed as a farmer, botanist, plant collector and succulent plant nurseryman. He made frequent collecting trips with his son Ernst Franz Theodor Rusch (1897-1964), and the two of them were honored together with Lithops ruschiorum. Ernst Julius Rusch is also honored with the genus Ruschia, and with Hermannia ernesti-ruschii and Gasteria pillansii var. ernesti-ruschii and the former taxa Boophone disticha var. ernesti-ruschii (now B. haemanthoides) and Dipcadi ernesti-ruschii (now D. marlothii). (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

ernestii: for Dr. Ernest E. Galpin (1858-1941), South African banker and incredibly prolific amateur botanist, Fellow of the Linnean Society and member of the South African Association for the Advancement of Science, commemorated with Euphorbia ernestii and Lampranthus ernestii, and at least six dozen taxa with the name galpinii. See also Galpinia/galpinii. (Gunn & Codd; Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

erniana/ernianum/ernii: for Franz Sales Erni (1878-1952), Swiss prospector, hotelier and farmer, became interested in succulent flora while on prospecting outings, after returning to Switzerland came back to South-West Africa and Tanzania where he died. His son was also a plant collector. He is commemorated with Cephalophyllum ernii and the former taxa Lithops erniana (now L. karasmontana) and Conophytum ernianum (now C. taylorianum). (Gunn & Codd)

ernstii: for Ernst Jacobus van Jaarsveld (1953- ), collector and horticulturist first at Lowveld Botanic Garden in Nelspruit and then at Kirstenbosch, co-author of Gasterias of South Africa (1994), Flowers of Southern Africa (1995), Cotyledon and Tylecodon (2004) and Succulents of South Africa (2005). He is commemorated with Conophytum ernstii, Eriospermum ernstii and Plectranthus ernstii. (Elsa Pooley; Gunn & Codd; Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

Escallonia: for "Antonio Escallón y Flórez (1739-1819), physician, explorer, student and botanical associate and friend of Spanish botanist Jóse Celastino Mutís in Columbia who named the genus Escallonia in his honor in 1821. He was also an adviser to the Viceroy Pedro de la Cerda Massia. He was from Spain and travelled and collected plants in South America. He settled in New Granada (present-day Columbia)." The genus Escallonia in the Escalloniaceae was published in 1782 by Spanish priest, botanist and mathematician José Celestino Bruno Mutis after an initial description by Carl Linnaeus the Younger, and was later published in the Convolvulaceae by Mutis in 1821. (Hugh Clarke)

Eschscholzia: for Dr. Johann Friedrich Gustav von Eschscholtz (1793-1831), an Estonian surgeon, zoologist, entomologist and botanist who was with the Russian expeditions to the Pacific coast in 1816 and 1824 under the command of Otto von Kotzebue. On their first visit to the San Francisco region, his name was put on the previously undescribed California poppy by his friend and companion the German poet and botanist Adelbert von Chamisso, and subsequently on dozens of other newly discovered flowers. Later he returned the favor by naming a lupine after his friend, Lupinus chamissonis. He was the author of System der Akalephen (1829) and the Zoologischer Atlas (1829–1833). Kotzebue named an island in the Marshall chain Eschscholtz Atoll, but it has become more familiar to us by its subsequent name, Bikini Atoll. Eschscholtz was only 38 when he died. The genus Eschscholzia in the Papaveraceae was actually published in 1820. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

estelleana: for Mrs. Estelle Bayliss (née Dell) (fl. 1960-1968), wife of Lt. Col. Roy Douglas Abbot Bayliss (1909- ) and accompanied him on several of his shorter collecting excursions, made the second collection of Brachystelma campanulatum. She collected the holotype of Ceropegia estelleana in 1963 in the Fish River Valley. It has since been synonymized to C. fimbriata. (Gunn & Codd)

esterae: for Ester Chodat, sister of the author of Polygala esterae, Robert Hippolyte Chodat (1865-1934), Swiss botanist and phycologist who was a professor and director of the botanical institute at the University of Geneva and a leading authority on Polygalaceae. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

esteriana: for Elsie Esterhuysen, see entries below, commemorated with the taxon Erica esteriana, published in 1987 by South African botanist Edward George Hudson Oliver. (Ted Oliver, pers. comm.)

esterhuizenii: for J.M. ("Essie") Esterhuizen (fl. 1997-2003), plant collector in South Africa, husband of Elize Esterhuizen, commemorated with Haworthia esterhuizenii.

Esterhuysenia/esterhuyseniae: for Elsie Elizabeth Esterhuysen, (1912-2006), ‘the most outstanding collector ever of South African flora.’ (Prof. Karel Bremer); she amassed 36,000 herbarium collections, many high-altitude species, and was a botanist at the Bolus Herbarium, the oldest functioning herbarium in South Africa established in 1856. In addition to the specific epithets elsiae and elsieae named for her, the epithet esterhuyseniae is on taxa in Bulbine, Aridaria, Delosperma, Erepsia, Gibbaeum, Lampranthus and Ruschia. The genus Esterhuysenia in the Aizoaceae was published for her in 1967 by South African botanist Harriet Margaret Louisa Bolus. (Hugh Clarke, pers. comm.; CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

etaylorii: the taxon in southern Africa that bears this specific epithet is Conophytum etaylorii, published in 1929 by German botanist Martin Heinrich Gustav Schwantes, and it may commemorate Edward Taylor (1848-1928), British grower of succulent plants and lover of mesembryanthemums. This is the only taxon I am aware of that bears this specific epithet. (Botanary)

etheliae: for Ethel Bolus (1866-1890), South African plant collector who was the discoverer of the species Bartholina etheliae, also commemorated with Erica etheliae. She was the daughter of Harry Bolus. (Hugh Clarke, pers. comm.)

ettae: for Miss Etta Stainbank (later Mrs. English). Gledhill gives this derivation without saying specifically that it is for the taxon Apodolirion ettae, which is the taxon in southern Africa and which has been synonymized to A. buchananii. However, IPNI lists no other taxon with this specific epithet. Further, in Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society, Vol. 18, 1907, in reference to A. ettae, it states "This plant was collected in 1885, on the side of a hill where the grass had been recently burned off, and it has not since been met with in Natal. It is named for Miss Etta Stainbank (now Mrs. English), who was one of the party when it was gathered." Another source says that John Medley Wood, who collected it, requested that it be named for Miss Stainbank. I don't know for sure whether she was related to Henry Ellerton Stainbank (1836-1915), listed by JSTOR as a plant collector in South Africa, whose wife's name was Eliza Stainbank (née Munro), also listed as a plant collector, however given that Etta Stainbank was with this collecting party in 1885, and JSTOR lists Eliza Stainbank as fl. 1886, it seems likely that they are one and the same person, and that Etta may have been a nickname. One curiosity is that H.E. Stainbank was born in Peckham, Surrey, and I found an online reference to a mortgage taken out in 1878 by Richard Henry Stainbank and Eliza Stainbank for a property in Peckham, Surrey. According to online geneology records, Richard Henry Stainbank was Henry's father and Henry had a sister named Marion Eliza.

eugene-maraisii: for Eugène Nielen Marais (1871-1936), South African lawyer, writer and naturalist, and one of the greatest of the Afrikaaner poets, commemorated with Encephalartos eugene-maraisii. (South Africa History Online; Wikipedia)

eugenea: the taxon Erica eugenea, published by Erica specialist Hans Dulfer in 1964, is probably not named for a person but rather derived from the Greek eugenes, "well born," a pun on its former name of Erica nobilis. (Ted Oliver, pers. comm.)

Eugenia: for Prince Eugene of Savoy (1663-1736), French-born book collector and patron of botany, one of the greatest of the Austrian Hapsburg generals. He distinguished himself in many campaigns, most notably against the Turks who were besieging Vienna, again against the Turks after they recaptured Belgrade, and against the French in Italy and Provence during the War of Spanish Succession. He was the only person whose name has been given to warships of four different navies, British, Austro-Hungarian, German and Italian. The German World War II Admiral Hipper class heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen operated alongside the battleship Bismarck when the latter sank HMS Hood in the Battle of the Denmark Strait. His name is also on the World War I Tegetthoff class Austrian battleship SMS Prinz Eugen, the British World War I Lord Clive class monitor HMS Prince Eugene, and the World War II Condottieri class Italian light cruiser Eugenio di Savoia. A division of the German Waffen-SS called the 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen was also named for him. Of his great book collection, works of natural history and geography were of particular interest. The genus Eugenia in the Myrtaceae was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1754. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Eulalia: for Eulalie Delile (1800-1840), botanical artist who illustrated the work of the French naturalist Victor Jacquemont. She was the sister of French botanist Alire Raffeneau Delile (1778-1850). The genus Eulalia in the Poaceae was published by German botanist Carl Bernhard von Trinius in 1833. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Eupatorium: for Mithridates VI (134-63 BC), also known as Eupator Dionysius, King of Pontus and Armenia Minor of Greek and Persian origins, who is said to have discovered in one of the species an antidote to a commonly used poison. He was one of the most successful enemies of the Roman empire having engaged the great generals Sulla, Lucullus and Pompey the Great in the Mithridatic Wars. It is also possible that the species he discovered was itself poisonous and that he took regular small doses of it to build up his tolerance. He was notoriously paranoid about being poisoned probably because of the assassination of his father and fashioned several complex so-called universal antidotes which he ingested every day as a means of avoiding being poisoned. It is ironic that after his final defeat by Pompey in 63 BC, he attempted suicide by poison but the attempt failed due to his immunity, so he was forced to request a bodyguard to kill him by the sword. The genus Eupatorium in the Asteraceae was published in 1753 by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Euphorbia: for Euphorbus, Greek physician of Juba II, King of Mauretania. Juba was educated in Rome and married the daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. He was apparently interested in botany and had written about an African cactus-like plant he had found or which he knew about from the slopes of Mt. Atlas which was used as a powerful laxative. That plant may have been Euphorbia resinifera, and like all Euphorbias had a latexy exudate. Euphorbus had a brother named Antonius Musa who was the physician to Augustus Caesar in Rome. When Juba heard that Caesar had honored his physician with a statue, he decided to honor his own physician by naming the plant he had written about after him. The word Euphorbus derives from eu, "good," and phorbe, "pasture or fodder," thus giving euphorbos the meaning "well fed." Some sources suggest that Juba was amused by the play upon words and chose his physician's name for the plant because of its succulent nature and because of Euphorbus' corpulent physique. The genus Euphorbia in the Euphorbiaceae was published in 1753 by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

eustacei: for Charles Eustace Pillans (1850-1919), South African horticultural assistant of the Department of Agriculture in the Cape of Good Hope colony, author and plant collector who at the time of his discovery of Euphorbia eustacei was Director in the Cape Government service and keen collector of Cape succulents, father of Neville Stuart Pillans. He is commemorated with Erica eustacei and Euphorbia eustacei. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

evansiana/evansii: for (1) Maurice Smethurst Evans (1854-1920), British-born South African businessman, politician and plant collector in Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. He came to Natal in 1875 and was co-author with John Medley Wood of Natal Plants. He was a member of parliament and is commemorated with Indigofera evansii, Erica evansii, Kniphofia evansii, Euryops evansii, Helichrysum evansii and the former taxa Senecio evansii (now Heteromma decurrens) and Philippia evansii (now Erica evansii). There are also the taxa Indigofera evansiana and Lotononis evansiana in southern Africa, but I'm not sure who they are named for. (Elsa Pooley; JSTOR; Gunn & Codd; Dictionary of British and Irish Botanists and Horticulturists); (2) Dr. Illtyd Buller Pole Evans (1877-1968), Welsh botanist, mycologist and plant pathologist, plant collector, traveller, Fellow of the Linnean Society, Director of the Botanical Survey of South Africa 1918-1939, first editor of the Flowering Plants of South Africa, member of the Transvaal Department of Agriculture, commemorated with the former Albizia evansii (now A. petersiana). His name is sometimes hyphenated and sometimes not. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Gunn & Codd); (3) for the taxon Euphorbia evansii there is disagreement with Trees and Shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park assigning it to M.S. Evans and the Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names assigning it to I.B. Pole Evans. At least one other source says the type specimen was collected by Pole Evans near Barberton.

evelynae: for the mother of the author Reinhold Conrad Muschler, named Evelyne, commemorated with Senecio evelynae. The taxon was published in 1909. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

exleeana: for James Lee (1715-1795), Scottish nurseryman, senior partner in the Vineyard Nursery, the famous firm of nurserymen Lee & Lewis Kennedy of Hammersmith, London, the largest commercial distributor of protea plants during the late 18th and 19th centuries, which occupied the same site from 1745 to 1890. Lee walked from his home in southern Scotland to London in 1732, began the nursery in 1745 and published in 1760 An Introduction to Botany. He became an international figure in horticulture and was widely known for introducing many new plants. He was friends with Sir Joseph Banks and his daughter Ann became a botanical artist of note. His second partner was named John Kennedy. There were at least four generations of Lees that ran the nursery, first James Lee, second his son James Lee, third John and Charles Lee, and fourth William Lee. He is commemorated with the former taxon Philippia leeana, now Erica exleeana, a taxon named by Ted Oliver. (James Lee and the Vineyard Nursery, Hammersmith, by E.J. Wilson; Journal of Horticulture and Practical Gardening, Vol. 3)

eylesii: for Frederick Eyles (1864-1937), English journalist, miner, farmer, government botanist who collected in Zambia and Zimbabwe and is commemorated with the taxa Euphorbia eylesii, Digitaria eylesii, Pavetta eylesii, and the former taxa Rhynchelytrum eylesii (now Meliinus subglabra), Sporoblus eylesii (now S. congoensis), Tristachya eylesii (now T. nodiglumis), Hyparrhenia eylesii (now Elymandra grallata), Lissochilus eylesii (now Eulophia angolensis), Aspilia eylesii (now Melanthera albinervia) and Euclea eylesii (now E. linearis). (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; JSTOR)


fabricii: for Friedrich Wilhelm Peter Fabricius (1742-1817) who received a medical doctorate from the University of Edinburgh in 1767 with the thesis Tentamen medicum inaugurale, de emetatrophia. He was also co-author of Disputatio medica de motu humorum progressivo veteribus non ignoto (1762). The taxon in southern Africa with this specific epithet is Lapeirousia fabricii, published in 1809 by British botanist John Bellenden Ker Gawler. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Fabronia: for "Giovanni Valentino Mattia Fabroni (1752-1822), Italian naturalist, economist, agronomist and chemist. He set up a natural history museum in Florence (Museo di Fisica e Storia Naturale di Firenze) in 1775 with the Italian physicist Felice Fontana (1730-1805). He also wrote Reflexions sur l'état actuel de l'agricolture (1777-1778) which had an impact on farming methods and agrarian reform. He was involved in economic matters and was instrumental in the development of the metric system in Italy. As a chemist, he did work in electrochemistry and wrote a work on anthracite, Dell'Antracite o carbone di cava detto volgarmente carbone fossile (1790). He became a member of the Accademia dei Georgofili in 1783." The genus Fabronia in the Fabroniaceae was published in 1808 by Italian botanist Giuseppe Raddi. (Hugh Clarke)

Fagelia: for Hendrik Fagel the Elder (1706-1790), 2nd Greffier of the Dutch Staten-Generaal (States-General or parliament) (1742-1744), 1st Greffier of the Dutch Staten-Generaal (1744/1790). A greffier is an administrative position somewhat equivalent to a secretary of state. He met and was acquainted with the diarist James Boswell. He also knew the Dutch explorer of South Africa Robert Jacob Gordon and received many letters from him containing long accounts of his expeditions with many ethnographic, geographic and zoologic details. Upon his death Hendrik Fagel the Younger inherited both his book collection and his position. Then there was a hendrik Fagel III (1765-1838) who was also greffier. The genus Fagelia in the Fabaceae was published in 1774 by Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, but is now considered to be an invalid taxon which has been synonymized to Rhynchosia. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey; David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Fagonia: for Guy-Crescent Fagon (1638-1718), French botanist, chemist, patron of botany, chief physician to Louis XIV, professor of botany at the Paris Jardin du Roi, 1671-1708, and from 1699 to 1718 its director. The genus Fagonia in the Zygophyllaceae was published in 1753 by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Faidherbia: for Louis Léon César Faidherbe (1818-1889), French general and colonial administrator, Governor of Senegal 1854-1861 and 1863-1865. Following his governorship in French West Africa, he undertook military duties in Algeria and then during the Franco-Prussian War. Although a most able commander who won a number of smaller battles, he was ultimately ordered by his political leaders to engage the Prussians in an ill-advised action and his army was destroyed. In 1871 and 1872 he undertook a scientific mission to Upper Egypt where he studied monuments and inscriptions. From 1879 to 1888 he was a Senatorial member of the National Assembly for the département of the Nord. An article in Wikipedia states that: "For his military services he was decorated with the grand cross, and made chancellor of the order of the Legion of Honor. An enthusiastic geographer, philologist and archaeologist, he wrote numerous works, among which may be mentioned Collection des inscriptions numidiques (1870), Epigraphie phenicienne (1873), Essai sur la langue poul (1875), and Le Znaga des tribes sénégalaises (1877), the last a study of the Berber language. He also wrote on the geography and history of Senegal and the Sahara, and La Campagne de l'armée du Nord (1872)." The genus Faidherbia in the Fabaceae was published in 1934 by French botanist, taxonomist and explorer of tropical Africa Auguste Jean Baptiste Chevalier. (Wikipedia; Sappi What's in a Name: The Meanings of the Botanical Names of Trees by Hugh Glen; Trees in Keren Kayemeth LeIsrael - Jewish National Fund Forests, Wildflowers of Israel; Kew Gardens website; Botanary)

fairii: for Charles Bass Fair (1840-1907), member of the Cape Colonial Civil Service, friend of Harry Bolus. Mr. Fair discovered Erica fairii in 1892 amongst rocks on top of mountains near Simonstown, and Bolus published the name in 1894. (Hugh Clarke, pers. comm.; Journal of Botany, British and Foreign)

Falkia/falkia: for Johan Peter Falck (Falk) (1733-1774), Swedish botanist and doctor, traveller, professor of botany at St. Petersburg, and pupil of Linnaeus. He accompanied Linnaeus on his expedition to the island province of Gotland and tutored Carl Linnaeus the younger. He undertook an expedition at the behest of the Russian Academy of Sciences to explore a vast area of Siberia during which he collected a great deal of information about plants, animals and local peoples and customs. He committed suicide in Kazan after having become addicted to opium and enduring long spells of depression. The genus Falkia in the Convolvulaceae was published in 1781 by Swedish botanist Carl Peter Thunberg. He was also honored with the name Convolvulus falkia. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; A General System of Gardening and Botany by George Don)

Fallopia: for Gabriele Falloppio (1523-1562), Italian anatomist, physician, and professor of anatomy who discovered the tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus. He occupied the chair of anatomy and surgery at the University of Padua, was professor of botany,and superintendent of the botanical gardens. He was considered one of the great anatomists of his time. The genus Fallopia in the Polygonaceae was published by French botanist Michel Adanson in 1763. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Fanninia/fanninii: for George Fox Fannin (1832-1865), Irish botanist, plant collector and farmer who died at an early age in Natal. After moving to South Africa he became interested in the local plants and collected many which he sent to Irish botanist William Henry Harvey at Dublin. His sister Marianne Edwardine Fannin (later Mrs. M.E. Roberts), who also lived in South Africa, painted and pressed many of these collected specimens. The genus Fanninia in the Asclepiadaceae was published in 1868 by Irish botanist William Henry Harvey. He is also commemorated with the taxon Anenome fanninii, which he first collected in 1863 at his farm in Dargle, KwaZulu-Natal. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Gunn & Codd)

fanniniae: for Marianne Edwardine Roberts (née Fannin) (1845-1938), artist who pressed and painted plants collected by her brother G.F. Fannin. Also the mother of noted ornithologist Austin Roberts. She is commemorated with Disperis fanniniae, Streptocarpus fanniniae, and the former taxa Disa fanniniae (now D. nervosa) and Brownleea fanniniae (now B. galpinii). There are also the current taxon Sisyranthus fanniniae and the former taxon Satyrium fanniniae (now S. bracteatum) that were probably named for her as well. (Elsa Pooley; Gunn & Codd)

fanshawei: for Dennys Basil Fanshawe (1915-1993), plant collector who worked in Zambia who has important collections at the University of Zambia Herbarium, and is commemorated with Ipomoea fanshawei. (JSTOR)

Faurea: for William Caldwell Faure (1822-1844), South African botanist, soldier and naturalist, and son of the second Dutch Minister of the Reformed Church of Cape Town, Rev Abraham Faure. He was a teacher of mathematics at South African College, went to India for the East India Co. and became an Ensign in the 2nd European Light Infantry. He died in an ambush at the early age of 22. He made a particular study of the genus Oxalis but collected widely from the Cape floristic area. The town of Fauresmith, however, was named for the Rev. Phillip Faure of the Dutch Reformed Church in the Cape Colony and Sir Harry Smith, Governor of the Cape Colony 1847-1852, whose wife Juana gave her name to Ladysmith in KwaZulu-Natal. The genus Faurea in the Proteaceae was named in 1847 by Irish botanist William Henry Harvey, who complimented Faure's knowledge of Cape plants and predicted that had he lived he would have become a fine botanist. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Gunn & Codd; JSTOR)

feddeanum: for Friedrich (Friderico) Karl Georg Fedde (1873-1942), German botanist, plant collector and plant name author who described many plants. He was an associate at the Berlin Botanical Museum and later a professor there. He was the author of and known mainly for the work Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis (1907). The taxon in southern Africa that formerly had this specific epithet was Aptosimum feddeanum, published by German botanist Robert Knud Friedrich Pilger, now synonymized to A. glandulosum. He is also honored with genus Feddea, which is not in southern Africa.

Felicia: the entry in CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names well illustrates the difficulty of figuring out some of these derivations, to wit: "Possibly after a German official, possibly in Regensburg, possibly a certain Herr Felix, possibly d. 1846, [possibly the Mayor of Regensburg]; or from the Latin felix, licis "happy, cheerful" [a reference to the bright flowers]; or for the Italian Fortunato Bartolomeo de Felice (1723-1789)." This latter was a scholar from Yverdon who led the European team responsible for writing the Yverdon Encyclopedia published between 1770 and 1780 in 58 quarto volumes, which superseded the Parisian Encyclopedia of Diderot and d’Alembert published between 1751 and 1772. The name Felicia in the Asteraceae was given by French botanist and naturalist Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini in 1818 who frequently did not explain his names, and so must for the moment remain essentially unexplained. (Elsa Pooley, Mountain Flowers)

Felipponea: probably for Dr. Florentino Silvestre Felippone (1849-1939), botanist, bryologist, naturalist and plant collector from Uruguay and interested in the flora and fauna of Uruguay. He was the editor of Contribution á la flore bryologique de l’Uruguay. The moss genus Felipponea in the Leucodontaceae was published in 1912 by Finnish botanist and bryologist Viktor Ferdinand Brotherus, and is a generic epithet considered by Tropicos to have been illegitimately published. There is also a genus of freshwater snails called Felipponea named for the same person.

felixii: probably for Henri Jacques-Felix (1907-2008), French botanist and plant collector. The taxon in southern Africa with this epithet is the former Ophioglossum felixii, published in 1948 by French botanist Marie Laure Tardieu, now synonymized to Ophioglossum costatum. (EurekaMag.com Science Magazine)

Fellhanera: for Josef Hafellner (1951- ), Austrian mycologist at the Institute of Plant Sciences of the University of Graz, specialist in lichens and their parasites, and a pupil of the famous lichenologist Josef Poelt (1924-1995). He is co-author of Diversity and Ecology of Lichens in Polar and Mountain Ecosystems (2010) and many scientific publications including monographs for the genera Karschia, Letroutia and Brigantiaea. He has collected 150,000 specimens of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Australia, Austria, Greece, Italy, Spain, the U.S., South Africa, the Canary Islands and Madeira. The lichenized fungi genus in the Pilocarpaceae was published by Czech licheologist Antonín Vězda in 1986. This epithet is a near anagram of Hafellner. (Josef Hafellner, pers. comm. to Hugh Clarke)

fenarolii: probably for Luigi Fenaroli (1899-1980), Italian botanist, agronomist, geneticist and plant collector in Angola and the Brazilian Amazon. He was Vice-Director of the Forestry Experimental Station in Florence, junior professor at the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Milan, produced some 275 publications, on subjects such as phytogeography, systematic botany, forestry, flora and nature conservation, visited Egypt, Japan, Canada and the United States, and taught at the University of Milan and elsewhere. The taxon in southern Africa with this specific epithet is Chamaecrista fenarolii which was collected in Angola and published by British botanist John Michael Lock in 1988. Additional evidence that supports this is that the other taxa with this specific epithet, which do not appear in southern Africa, namely Cassia fenarolii, Crotalaria fenarolii and Dissotis fenarolii, were all collected in Angola, and the last of these is recorded by JSTOR specifically as having been collected in 1930 by Luigi Fenaroli. He published about 275 articles on subjects including phytogeography, systematic botany, forestry, flora and nature conservation. (Wikipedia; JSTOR)

fenchelii: for Tobias Fenchel (1844-1910), missionary in Keetmanshoop (Namibia), plant collector, commemorated with the former taxon Mesembryanthemum fenchelii, now synonymized to M. guerichianum. (Gunn & Codd)

fendleri: for August(us) Fendler (1813-1883), German-American plant collector in North and Central America. He came to the United States in 1836 and worked at a variety of occupations, and essentially became an itinerant traveller from New York to St. Louis, then to New Orleans and Texas and back to Illinois. Whenever he arrived somewhere, he seemed to almost immediately want to go somewhere else. He returned to Germany, but discovered the financial potential of dried plant specimens, so with the assistance of George Engelmann and Asa Gray, he set about collecting, enduring unfortunate events such as losing his drying papers in a flood and his collections, notes and journals in the great fire of 1849 in St. Louis. He went to Panama and Venezuela and made large collections from there. Rheumatism forced him to seek a warmer climate and he and his brother went to Trinidad in 1877 where he lived until his death. He was an accomplished and prolific plant collector and was also interested in physics and meteorology, but his book The Mechanism of the Universe, was not a success. He also wrote a book called Meteorology, and with Asa Gray Plantae fendlerianae novi-mexicanae. Engelmann and Gray did name the genus Fendlera for him, but in southern Africa he is commemorated with the taxon Arenaria fendleri, also published by Gray. (Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 73:3, 1986)

fenzelianus: possibly for Eduard Fenzl (1808-1879), Austrian physician and botanist, head of the botanical department of the Vienna Natural History Museum, professor of botany and then head curator of the museum. He was a member of the Viennese Academy of Sciences and vice president of the Horticultural Society. The taxon in southern Africa with this epithet is the former Cyperus fenzelianus, published in 1854 by German physician and botanist Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel, now synonymized to Cyperus rotundus. There are two other taxa with the specific epithet fenzelianus, neither of which appear in southern Africa, and at least one of them is recorded by JSTOR as having been collected by a G. Fenzel, so this cannot be discounted as a possibility either. (Wikipedia).

Feretia: for A. Ferret, French plant collector active in Ethiopia1839-43. This is likely to be the Captain Pierre Victor Ad Ferret who with Joseph Germaine Galinier published Voyage en Abyssinie in 1847. The genus Feretia in the Rubiaceae was published in 1843 by French botanist Alire Raffeneau Delile. (Sappi What's In a Name: The Meanings of the Botanical Names of Trees by Hugh Glen; Origins and Meanings of Names of South African Plant Genera by W.P.U. Jackson; IPNI)

fergusoniae: for Mrs. Emily Pauline Reitz Ferguson (1872-1947), a plant collector of Riversdale in South Africa who collected in the Riversdale and Swellendam areas in the 1920's and 1930's. She is commemorated with the taxa Lampranthus fergusoniae, Antimima fergusoniae, Pelargonium fergusoniae, Trichodiadema fergusoniae, Glottiphyllum fergusoniae and Watsonia fergusoniae, probably for taxa in Freesia and Moraea for whom JSTOR records list a Ferguson or E. Ferguson as collector, and also possibly Cyrtanthus. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; JSTOR)

Fernandoa: for "Dom Fernando II (1816-1885), German-born King of Portugal and husband of Queen Dona Maria II. In terms of Portuguese law, he obtained this title, aged 21, on the birth of their son in 1837 and held this title until the death of his wife in 1853. Then he assumed the title of regent of Portugal which he held for two years (1853–1855) during the minority of his son King Pedro V. During her pregnancies (they had 11 children), he took over her role as King of Portugal which he did competently. They worked well as a team. Later in life, in 1869, he was invited to become King of Spain but declined the offer. Among his other functions, he was President of the Royal Academy of Sciences and the Arts and Lord-protector of the University of Coimbra." The genus Fernandoa in the Bignoniaceae was published in 1865 by German botanist Berthold Carl Seemann after an initial description by Friedrich Martin Joseph Welwitsch. (Hugh Clarke; Wikipedia)

Ferraria: for Giovanni Battista Ferrari (1584-1655), Italian botanist, entered the Jesuit order in Rome in 1602, was a professor of Hebrew and Rhetoric at the Jesuit College in Rome, and held a position as horticultural advisor to the papal family. He was the author of many illustrated botanical books including De Florum Cultura in 4 vols. (1633) devoted to the planning and planting of gardens, and was the first scientist to provide a complete description of the limes, lemons and pomegranates and their use in preventing scurvy. The genus Ferraria in the Iridaceae was published in 1759 by Dutch botanist and physician Johannes Burman. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Feuilleea: for "Louis Éconches Feuillée (Feuillet) (1660-1732), French explorer, botanist, astronomer and geographer. He studied at the Minim convent of Mane, was taught botany by renowned Charles Plumier, and astronomy and cartography by Jean Mathieu de Chazelles. During his career he journeyed to the Levant (1699), Antilles (1703-1706), and western South America (1707-1711). He compiled an inventory of his observations in three volumes (1714-1725). His publications include Journal des observations physiques, mathématiques, et botaniques (1714) and Suite du Journal (1725). As a result of his achievements he was made a member of the Order of the Minims, and received the title of “Royal Mathematician” from Louis XIV of France who also built an observatory for him on the Michaelmas Plain at Marseilles." The genus Feuilleea in the Fabaceae was published in 1891 by German botanist Carl Ernst Otto Kuntze. (Hugh Clarke)

Ficinia: for Heinrich David Auguste Ficinus (1782-1857), German botanist, physician, naturalist and professor of physics and chemistry. He wrote several literary works and textbooks in the fields of botany, optics and mineral chemistry. The genus was published in 1832 by German botanist Heinrich Adolph Schrader. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

filarszkyana: for Dr. Nandor Filarszky (1858-1941), Hungarian botanist, director of the botany department at the National Museum in Budapest, specialist in phycology, plant morphology, and plant systematics, co-author of Kaukasus: Reisen und Forschungen im kaukakischen Hochgebirge, commemorated with Xanthoparmelia filarszkyana.

Finckea: for August Fincke (1805-1873), Polish pharmacist and botanist of Silesia who took over as apothecary in Krappitz in 1836. He was interested in researching the flora of upper Silesia. The genus Finckea in the Ericaceae was published in 1838 by German botanist Johann Friedrich Klotzsch. (The Treasury of Botany by John Lindley and Thomas Moore).

finckei: for an H. Fincke, German apothecary in Namibia. There are taxa in southern Africa with this specific epithet in the genera Catillaria, Lecidea, Acarospora and Dermatocarpon. (David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

Fingerhuthia: for Carl (Karl) Anton Fingerhuth (1798-1876), German botanist and physician, author of Monographia Generis Capsici (1832) and Tentamen florulae lichenum Eiffliacae (1829), and co-author with Matthias Joseph Bluff and Karl Friedrich Wilhelm of Compendium florae Germaniae. The genus Fingerhuthia in the Poaceae was published by German botanist Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck in 1834. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Fintelmannia: likely for Gustav Adolph Fintelmann (1803-1871), German gardener for King Frederick William III, also worked as animal keeper for the menagerie on Pfaueninsel (Peacock Island) in the Havel River between Berlin and Potsdam. He was also the Royal Gardener at Wilhelmshöhe Palace above the city of Kassel, a position his family had held for generations. He was the author of Über Nutzbaumpflanzungen (1856). The genus Fintelmannia in the Cyperaceae was published in 1837 by German botanist Karl (Carl) Sigismund Kunth.

fionae: for Fiona Mary Getliffe Norris (1941- ), the PhD supervisor of Professor Kevin Balkwill, Head of School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand. She was Lecturer in botany at the University of Durban-Westville and Senior Lecturer at Witwatersrand University, emigrated to the U.S. after she married Richard E. Norris of California, and is commemorated with Dicliptera fionae. (Kevin Balkwill, pers. comm.; Gunn & Codd)

Firmiana: for "Karl Joseph von Firmian (proper name Karl Gotthard von Firmian) (1716-1782), Austrian noble and Governer-General of Lombardy, an area in northern Italy, while under Austrio-Hungarian rule. He studied at the University of Leyden and travelled extensively through France and Italy. In 1753, he was recruited by Fancis 1 (1708-1765), King of the Holy Roman Empire, to become its ambassador to Naples, and three years later took over his plenipotentiary minister role. He was an avid supporter of the arts and sciences. When he died he left a legacy of a library of 40,000 volumes and precious art collections." The genus Firmiana in the Sterculiaceae/Malvaceae was published in 1786 by Giovanni M. Marsili. (Hugh Clarke)

fischeri/fischerianum: for Dr. Gustav Fischer (1848-1886), German doctor, explorer, and naturalist who collected in Tanzania, commerorated with Rothmannia fischeri, Tapura fischeri, and Ficus fischeri. (Flora of Zimbabwe)

Flacourtia: for Étienne de Flacourt (1607-1660), botanist and traveller, Director of the French East India Company, Governor of Madagascar 1648-1655, author of Histoire de la Grande Isle Madagascar (1658), and one of the first Europeans to describe the elephant bird, Aepyornis maximus. The genus Flacourtia in the Flacourtiaceae was published in 1786 by French botanist Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Flanagania/flanaganii: for Henry George Flanagan (1861-1919), a prolific South African-born collector and traveller. Flanagan also owned Prospect Farm in Komga District of the Eastern Cape, where he developed a noteworthy garden containing rare exotics as well as South African trees and shrubs and native bees. The genus Flanagania in the Asclepiadaceae was published in 1894 by German taxonomist and botanist Friedrich Richard Rudolf Schlechter. Flanagan was also honored by having his name attached to many genera including Euphorbia, Glumicalyx, Manulea, Selago, Greyia, Gladiolus, Cassipourea, Hypoxis, Erica, Cyrtanthus, Abutilon, Tylophora, Aspidoglossum, Raphionacme, Mystacidium, Corycium, Felicia, Senecio, Helichrysum, Vernonia, Scolopia, Crassula, Ecbolium and others. (PlantzAfrica; Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

flanaganiae: for Florence Reynolds (Mrs. Henry George) Flanagan, who discovered Mrs. Flanagan's impatiens, Impatiens flanaganiae, in the Eastern Cape. (PlantzAfrica)

fleckii: for Dr. Eduard Fleck (fl. 1890), German geologist and plant collector in South Africa, sent to South-West Africa in 1888 by Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft, crossed the Kalahari in 1890. He is commemorated with Acacia fleckii, Acrotome fleckii, Hermbstaedtia fleckii, Tylophora fleckii and probably with taxa in the genera Rhynchosia, Jamesbrittenia, Nemesia, Hibiscus, Albuca and Blepharis. (Gunn & Codd; Etymological Dictionary of Grasses)

Flemingia: for Dr. John Fleming (1747-1829), English botanist and physician, member of the Indian Medical Service in Bengal, Physician-general and President of the Bengal Medical Board, Fellow of the Royal and Linnean Societies, the Royal Society of Edinburgh and the Horticultural Society, and author of Catalogue of Indian Medical Plants and Drugs (1810). He also made a large collection of drawings done by native artists of Indian plants. He entered the Indian Medical Service in 1768, became a surgeon in 1771, and a member of the Medical Board in 1786. He remained in the Service until his retirement in 1813, when he returned to England. He had corresponded with Sir Joseph Banks and had sent him specimens for his collection, and became a member of the Medico-Botanical Society of London. In 1818 he was elected a Member of Parliament, a position he held for only two years. This epithet is a good example of the confusion surrounding some of these names, to wit: (1) The CRC World Dictionary gives John Fleming (1747-1829), English botanist of the Indian Medical Service; (2) The Leguminosae by Ethel Kullman Allen gives Dr. John Fleming, Scottish naturalist and Physician-General of the East India Company's Medical Establishment in Bengal; (3) There was a Scottish naturalist of this name with the dates 1785-1857 but according to Wikipedia he had nothing to do with India; (4) Trees and Shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park gives John Fleming (1785-1857), doctor and botanist; (5) The Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 19, by Sir Leslie Stephen and Sir Sydney Lee, gives John Fleming, doctor and botanist, died 1815; (6) The website Indianetzone: History of India says John Fleming (1770-1829) of the East India Company`s Medical Service, and this is repeated in The History of British India: A Chronology by John Riddick; (7) Wikipedia has John Fleming (1747-1829) as a British politician and MP, but says nothing at all about his career in India; (8) The Western Antiquary of 1888-1889 edited by W.H.K. Wright gives 1827 as his death date. What this all boils down to is that the person honored here is British botanist John Fleming (1747-1829), and the Scottish naturalist named John Fleming (1785-1857) was the one for whom the genus of fossil plants Flemingites was named. The genus Flemingia in the Fabaceae was published in 1812 by Scottish botanist William Townsend Aiton after it had originally been named by Scottish botanist and surgeon William Roxburgh, called the 'Father of Indian Botany,' as a tribute to Fleming because of his knowledge of Indian plants. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Journal of Botany - History of the Indian Medical Service.)

Fleurya: one source (F.N. Hepper and Fiona Neate's Plant Collectors in West Africa) says this generic epithet was dedicated to the French plant collector Francis Fleury (1882-1919) who died during an expedition to India and Malaya, however the name was published in 1830 by French botanist Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré, so that's not possible. A second source, Thesaurus literaturae botanique omnium gentium by George August Pritzel, states that the genus is named after a J.F. Fleury (fl. 1819), a French botanist and writer on orchids, which attribution is repeated in The Century Supplement to the Dictionary of Gardening, Vol. 10, by George Nicholson, A Flora of Manila by E.D. Merrill and The Bahama Flora by Nathaniel Lord Britton. But according to information unearthed by David Hollombe, Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré named a number of new genera after officers involved in the 1817-1820 circumglobal expedition on which he sailed as botanist, among whom was a Camile Fleury, so this would seem to be a much greater likelihood for the derivation of this epithet. This accords with An Etymological Dictionary of Australian Plant Genera and F.A. Stafleu's Index Herbariorum which state that the genus was named for C. Fleury, a merchant service apprentice on the Uranie, one of the two ships involved in the expedition. And since the genus was published in Gaudichaud's description of the expedition Voyage autour du Monde, entrepris par Ordre du Roi, . . . Execute sur les Corvettes de S.M. l'Uranie et la Physicienne . . . par M. Louis de Freycinet, this commemoration makes sense. Fleury was listed in this work as a member of the crew and was elevated to the rank of ensign during the course of the expedition. The genus Fleurya is in the family Urticaceae.

floerkeana: for Heinrich Gustav Flörke (Floerke) (1764-1835), German lichenologist, professor of botany, author of De Cladoniis Difficillimo Lichenum Genere Commentatio Nova, and co-author of Oekonomische Encyclop, commemorated with the taxon Cladonia floerkeana. The taxon is referred to as Florke's cup lichen.

flotowii: for Dr. Julius Christian Gottlieb Ulrich Gustav Georg Adam Ernst Friedrich von Flotow (1788-1856), German military officer, lichenologist, moss specialist, author of Über Haematococcus Pluvialis (1844) and Lichenes Florae Silesiae (1849-1850), commemorated with the former taxon Usnea flotowii, synonymized to U. maculata, and the genus Flotovia, which does not appear in southern Africa.

Flueggia: for Johann(es) Flüggé (Fluegge) (1775-1816), German physician, cryptogamic botanist, university lecturer, established the first botanical garden in Hamburg in 1810, did research on grasses. The genus Flueggia in the Euphorbiaceae was published in 1883 by British botanists George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Fockea: for Gustav Waldemar (Woldemar) Focke (1810-1877), German physician of Bremen, plant physiologist, amateur microscopist and author of De respiratione vegetabilium (1833) and Physiologische Studien (1847). Hugh Clarke adds "He studied at the University of Heidelberg obtaining a Ph.D. in 1833 and did post-doctoral studies under Stephan Ladislaus Finite (1804-1829), professor and director of the botanical garden at the University of Vienna, and under professor Christian Gottfried Erenberg (1795-1876), at the University of Berlin, the founder of the science of  micropaleontology and microbiology, and also spent some time at the University of Halle. Despite all his training, he did not publish many papers concerning his research although he delivered a lot of lectures. He was highly involved in scientific societies and a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, among others." The genus Fockea in the Asclepiadaceae was published in 1839 by Austrian theologian and botanist Stephan Friedrich Ladislaus Endlicher. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names).

foermeriana: probably for Rudolf Förmer (Foermer) (fl. 1900-1901), German botanist, soldier in a regiment sent to South-West Africa, collected in Namibia. The taxon in southern Africa with this specific epithet is the former Geigeria foermeriana, now G. plumosa, which was collected in Namibia. (Etymological Dictionary of Grasses; Gunn & Codd)

foleyana/foleyi: for Mr. W.J. Foley (fl. 1916-1918), of the South African Museum Herbarium, then of the National Herbarium in Pretoria, plant collector in South Africa, commemorated with Bulbine foleyi and Pteronia foleyi. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Gunn & Codd)

fontanesianum: for René Louiche Desfontaines (1750-1833), French botanist, member of the French Academy of Sciences, spent two years in Tunisia and Algeria, author of Flora Atlantica in two volumes which included 300 genera new to science, professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes, Director of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. (Etymological Dictionary of Grasses; Wikipedia)

Forbesia/forbesiana/forbesianum/forbesii: for John Forbes (1799-1823), an English plant collector and naturalist who visited the Cape in 1822 having been appointed by the Horticultural Society of London, and died on the Zambesi River in Mozambique the following year. The expedition under the command of Captain William Owen aboard the Leven sailed from England to Lisbon, Madeira, and the Cape Verde Island, then to Rio de Janeiro and across to the Cape of Good Hope, then to Port Elizabeth and to Delagoa Bay in Mozambique, where almost a third of the crew died of malaria. They went on to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands before returning to the Cape. After John Forbes died in 1823 the expedition continued to the Seychelles, Mauritius, Bombay and Muscat, eventually drawing some 300 charts and mapping almost 30,000 miles of the African coastline. The Harvard University Herbarium database gives his year of birth as 1798, but other sources say 1799. The genus Forbesia in the Amaryllidaceae was published in his honor in 1827 by Danish botanist Christian Friedrich Ecklon. Gunn & Codd give three taxa that commemorate John Forbes, Amaryllis forbesii, Grewia forbesii, and Loranthus forbesii, but each of these taxa is either not in southern Africa, not a current taxon or not validly published. He was also commemorated with Nymphoides forbesiana, found in Mozambique, and Arctotheca forbesiana. Tapinanthus forbesii, Albizia forbesii and Dichrostachys forbesii were collected by a Forbes at Delagoa Bay, so they probably honor him, as well as Striga forbesii, collected in Mozambique with no location record. Others such as Dicerocaryum forbesii, Tephrosia forbesii, Aspalathus forbesii, Selago forbesii and Melhania forbesii were collected by people named Forbes but must remain uncertain for now. Other possible individuals with this name who may or may not be honored with such specific names as forbesiana, forbesianum and forbesii are Edward Forbes (1815-1854), British naturalist, curatorship of the museum of the Geological Society of London, Professor of Botany at King's College, Professor of Natural History at the University of Edinburgh, and co-author of A History of British Mollusca, Henry Ogg Forbes (1851-1932), Scottish naturalist and collector, commemorated with Aloe forbesii, not in southern Africa, Helena Madelain Forbes (1900-1959), Scottish botanist who worked in South Africa and at Kew Gardens, and John Forbes Royle (1799-1858), British physician. (Dictionary of National Biography; JSTOR)

fordii: for Charles Ford (1844-1927), British botanist, plant collector in China and Formosa, recommended by Joseph Hooker to be superintendent of the Botanical and Afforestation Department in Hong Kong, created the Hong Kong Botanic Gardens, commemorated with Vernicia fordii. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

forresteri: there is a JSTOR specimen record for Conophytum forresteri being collected by H.J. Forrester in Nieuwefontein, South Africa in 1936, so I presume this is who it is named for.

forrestii: for George Forrest (1873-1932), Scottish botanist and prolific plant collector, studied apothecary arts in Scotland, then sheepherding in Australia, before turning to horticulture, often considered the greatest of all collectors of rhododendrons. He is credited with introducing hundreds of species from China and Tibet to the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, many plants have been named for him. He spent 28 years in northern China and survived attacks by Tibetan guerillas and other dangers such as having a bamboo spike completely pierce his foot. He apparently was snipe shooting when he complained of chest pains and jumped up to fire, at which time both he and the snipe fell dead. He collected over 30,000 herbarium specimens and is commemorated with the name of the taxon in southern African Hypericum forrestii. (Information from a wonderful webblog called 'The Mysterious Garden Muse'; Plant Names Explained: Botanical Terms and Their Meanings)

forskahlii/forskalii/forskaolii/Forsskaolea: for Pehr Forsskål (1732-1763), Finnish-born Swedish botanist and zoologist, botanical traveller in Egypt and Arabia, plant collector and pupil of Linnaeus, author of Flora aegyptiaco-arabica (1775), naturalist on the Royal Danish expedition to Egypt and Yemen 1761-1763 where he died from malaria. The Danish botanist Carsten Niebuhr who went on this expedition as geographer was the sole survivor. The genus Forsskaolea was published by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1764. He was also commemorated with Commelina forskaolii which he collected in Arabia, Mesembryanthemum forskahlii, and .probably Hypoestes forskaolii and the former taxa Euphorbia forskalii (now E. austro-occidentalis) and Danthonia forskalii (now Centropedia glauca). In Zambia there is a species called Helichrysum forskahlii which has the common name Forskahl's everlasting. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia)

Forsstroemia: for Johan Erik Forsström (1775–1824), Swedish pastor, naturalist and plant collector. One of his instructors at the University of Uppsala was Carl Peter Thunberg. The genus Forsstroemia in the Leucodontaceae was published in 1863 by Swedish-Finnish bryologist Sextus Otto Lindberg. (Wikipedia; JSTOR)

forsteri: for Prof. Johann Reinhold Forster (1729-1798) of Halle University, German naturalist and Lutheran pastor who moved to England in 1766, author of A Catalog of British Insects (1770) and Observations Made during a Voyage round the World (1778), elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1772, and/or his son Johann Georg Adam Forster (1754-1794), naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, journalist, and revolutionary, taught natural history and became the head librarian at the University of Mainz, author of A Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty's Sloop Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years, 1772, 3, 4, and 5 and Views of the Lower Rhine, from Brabant, Flanders, Holland, England, and France in April, May and June 1790. Both father and son accompanied Captain Cook on his second Pacific journey (1772-1775) as expedition naturalists. In 1779 Forster the elder was appointed Professor of Natural History and Mineralogy at the University of Halle, and director of the Botanische Garten der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, a position he held until his death. The taxon in southern Africa that formerly had this specific epithet was Drimia forsteri, now synonymized to D. capensis. J. Forster and J.G.A. Forster are listed as plant authors of Drimys winteri. (Dictionary of Australian Biography; Gunn & Codd)

Fossombronia: for "Conte Vittorio Fossombroni (1754–1844), Italian statesman, mathematician, economist and engineer. He studied mathematics and hydraulics at the University of Pisa and worked in Tuscany as minister to the Dukes Pietro Leopoldo and Ferdinand III, where he was distinguished by his efforts to improve the agriculture of Tuscany by drainage and irrigation, especially of the marshy Valdicana valley about which he published a treatise Memorie idraulico-storiche sopra la Valdi-Chiana in 1789. He was made Foreign Affairs Minister, but fled to Sicily when the French occupied Tuscany in 1799. With the fall of Napoleon he was appointed prime minister of the restored Tuscany under the Grand Duke Leopold II." The genus Fossombronia in the Fossombroniaceae was published in 1885 by Hungarian mycologist and botanist Frigyes Ákos Hazslinszky (Friedrich August Hazslinszky von Hazslin). (Hugh Clarke)

fosteri: for Cyril W. Foster (fl. 1933) who collected in the Krugersdorp area, South Africa, commemorated with Aloe fosteri. There is also an Arctotis fosteri, published by British botanist Nicholas Edward Brown in 1921, and JSTOR records indicate the collector was a C. Foster, so he is almost certainly commemorated with that taxon as well. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; JSTOR)

fouchei: probably for a D.J. Fouche, listed as a plant collector in South Africa, and mentioned by Gunn & Codd as having specimens of fungi at the National Mycological Herbarium in Pretoria. Taxa in southern Africa with this specific epithet are Haworthia fouchei, published in 1940 by German botanist Karl von Poellnitz, and the former taxon Eriochloa fouchei, collected by D.J. Fouche in 1923 in Pretoria District, now synonymized to E. fatmensis. (JSTOR; Gunn & Codd)

fourcadei: for Henri Georges (Henry George) Fourcade (1865-1948), French-born South African forester, land surveyor, prolific plant collector, inventor, and botanist, recognised in 1927 by the Royal Society of South Africa for his work as a mathematician, surveyor, and botanist, received honorary doctorate from the University of Cape Town. He named a tremendous number of species, and was honored by specific epithets in the genera Erica, Drosanthemum, Trichodiadema, Ruschia, Phylica, Helichrysum, Gnidia, Struthiola, Watsonia, Oxalis, Sebaea, Restio, Aspalathus, Selago, Babiana, Gladiolus, Geissorhiza and others. He was a pioneer in the remote sensing and measuring technology called photogrammetry, a member of the Royal Society of South Africa, and his name is also on Mt. Fourcade in Antarctica. (JSTOR; Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Gunn & Codd)

fourei/fouriei: for Stephanus Petrus Fourie (1949- ), South African conservationist and plant collector, appointed to the Transvaal Division of Nature Conservation in 1975, head of the section for Flora and Nature Conservation. He is commemorated with Aloe fouriei and Asparagus fourei. ("Additional Biographical Notes" by Gunn & Codd)

framesii: for Percival Ross Frames (1863-1947), a prolific plant collector in South Africa and Zimbabwe, solicitor, and grower of succulents, Director of Premier Diamond Co., member of the Rhodesian Legislative Council, commemorated with specific epithets in the genera Ixia, Aloe, Quaqua, Piaranthus, Lachenalia, Malephora, Lampranthus, Psilocaulon, Aridaria, Argyroderma, Delosperma, Ruschia, Drosanthemum, Cephalophyllum, Glottiphyllum and others. Vol. 4 of Flowering Plants of South Africa is dedicated to him. His name is sometimes hyphenated as Ross-Frames. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Gunn & Codd)

francescae: for Françoise Marie-Lise Williamson (née Clerc) (fl. 1956-2006), Swiss teacher and plant collector in Namibia and South Africa, wife of dental surgeon, botanist, succulent plant collector and author of Orchids of South Central Africa Dr. Graham Williamson, commemorated with Bulbine francescae and Euphorbia francescae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Women and Cacti)

francesiae: for Miss Frances Margaret Leighton (later Mrs. William Edwyn Isaac) (1909-2006), South African botanist at the Bolus Herbarium at the University of Cape Town 1931-1947, brother of horticulturist James Leighton. She prepared monographs revising the genera Ornithogalum and Agapanthus. She moved to Nairobi with her husband and later to Victoria, Australia. She is commemorated with Lampranthus francesiae, which is a synonym of Ruschia leightoniae and Phiambolia unca, as well as a number of taxa with the specific epithet leightoniae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Women and Cacti; Gunn & Codd)

franchetianum/franchetii: for Adrien René Franchet (1834-1900), French botanist at the Paris Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, did extensive work describing the flora of China and Japan, commemorated with Cotoneaster franchetii and the former taxon Pennisetum franchetianum, now P. macrourum. (Etymological Dictionary of Grasses)

francisci/franciscii: for (1) Franz de Laet (1866-1928), Belgian succulent plant expert and horticulturist, commemorated with Lithops francisci (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names); (2) Frank J. Stayner (1907-1981), horticulturist and curator of the Karoo Botanic Gardens, honored with Lampranthus franciscii and Cephalophyllum franciscii (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; JSTOR); (3) Frank Bolus (1870-1945), youngest son of Harry Bolus and husband of Mrs. Harriet Margaret Louisa Bolus (née Kensit), a keen amateur botanist who painted nine plates for Harry Bolus' The Orchids of the Cape Peninsula, commemorated with Berkheya francisci and Gnidia francisci. I didn't record where this latter piece of information (#3) came from, and I can't confirm that it is correct. There is a JSTOR specimen record of Berkheya francisci being collected by H. Bolus and one for Gnidia francisci in Transactions of the South Africa Philosophical Society Vol. 16 collected by H. Bolus. Harry Bolus published both of these taxa in 1906.

francoiseae: for Françoise Marie-Lise Williamson (née Clerc) (fl. 1956-2006), Swiss teacher and plant collector in Namibia and South Africa, wife of dental surgeon, botanist, succulent plant collector and author of Orchids of South Central Africa Dr. Graham Williamson, commemorated with Conophytum francoiseae.(Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Women and Cacti)

Frankenia: for Johan Frankenius (1590-1661), sometimes written as Franke or Franckenius or Franck, professor of anatomy, medicine and botany at Uppsala, Sweden, and the first writer on Swedish plants, author of Speculum botanicum, and a colleague of Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus. The genus Frankenia in the Frankeniaceae was published by Linnaeus in 1753. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

franksae/franksiae: for Millicent Franks (1886-1961) (later Mrs. Flanders) , botanical artist, assistant to John Medley Wood at the Natal Herbarium, illustrated many species in Wood's Natal Plants, commemorated with Brachystelma franksiae, Euphorbia franksiae, Phacelurus franksiae, Sisyranthus franksiae and the former Celtis franksiae, now synonymized to C.mildbraedii. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

frappieri: probably for someone named Frappier, with no further certain information. The taxon in southern Africa that has this specific epithet is the former Lophocolea frappieri, published in 1907 by German bryologist Franz Stephani, now synonymized to L. fragrans. Further investigation has turned up the names of two French botanist/collectors, Charles Frappier (1813-1885) and Alphonse Frappier (fl. 1853-1895), who may have been related. Both are listed on the Harvard University Herbarium database of botanists and on IPNI as plant authors. Alphonse at least was associated with collections on the island of Réunion and JSTOR records the taxa Panicum frappieri and Dombeya frappieri as having been collected on Réunion with no dates by an M. Frappier. That could be the initial of a first name or it could indicate the title Monsieur. Alphonse apparently worked on orchids and may have assisted Louis Maillard, author of Notes sur L'Ile de la Réunion. He may also have been associated with the publication Flore de L'Ile de la Réunion by Èugene Jacob de Cordemoy published in 1895. The only taxon in southern Africa with this epithet, the former Lophocolea frappieri (now L. fragrans), however, was collected in Tanzania in 1902 by Adolf Engler and may have nothing to do with these two individuals. There is another taxon named Vandenboschia frappieri, the type of which was collected in 1972 in Kenya. Apodytes frappieri and Psiadia frappieri, which do not appear in southern Africa, were almost certainly intended to honor Alphonse Frappier since they were published in 1895 by de Cordemoy.

fraseri: for George Hobart Bedford Fraser (1870-?) (fl. 1920), appointed to the Cape Department of Forestry in 1901, stationed in the Transkei and Pondoland, commemorated with the former taxon Pseudoscolopia fraseri, now synonymized to P. polyantha, and also Rhus fraseri. The JSTOR website lists a specimen of Rhus fraseri collected by a Mr. Fraser in South Africa in 1925. (Gunn & Codd; JSTOR)

frederici: for Frederic (or Frederik) T. Herselman (fl. 1968), commemorated with Lithops dinteri ssp. frederici which he discovered in the Northern Cape in 1968 (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

fredericii: for (1) Frederick Huntly Holland (1873-1955), South African businessman and naturalist, commemorated with Delosperma fredericii. The same derivation may or may not apply to Gladiolus fredericii (see frederickii). Another unconfirmed source says that the specific epithet fredericii could alternatively refer to Frederick Adolf Wislizenus (1810-1889), Army surgeon, explorer, botanist and plant collector of German birth who travelled extensively in the southwestern United States. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names); (2) Frederick Arundel Rogers (1876-1944), British missionary and amateur botanist, lived in South Africa beginning in 1904, commemorated with Ruschia fredericii. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names)

frederickii: for Frederick W. Duckitt, South African plant collector from the Darling area of the western Cape, commemorated with Ixia frederickii, published in 1988 by Miriam Phoebe de Vos. There is a former taxon with this specific name, Gladiolus frederickii or fredericii, published by Harriet Margaret Louisa Bolus, and now synonymized to G. wilsonii, and about which there seems to be some confusion regarding the name. It was originally published as fredericii and that is the name that is recognized by Tropicos at Missouri Botanic Garden, IPNI, and by the Plant List maintained by Kew Gardens, however the Plants of Southern Africa database records it as Gladiolus frederickii inasmuch as it apparently commemorates the South African botanist and missionary Frederick Arundel Rogers (1876-1944), Archdeacon of Pietersberg in the Transvaal. The name fredericii as published by Louisa Bolus was presumably a Latinization of a personal name and according to section 60.7 of the current International Code of Botanical Nomenclature: "When changes in spelling by authors who adopt personal, geographic, or vernacular names in nomenclature are intentional latinizations, they are to be preserved, except when they concern (b) changes to personal names involving (1) omission of a final vowel or final consonant." Taking the name Frederick and changing it to fredericii involves omission of the final consonant, and thus it would seem that the epithet fredericii need not be preserved. (Clare Archer, SANBI, pers. comm.)

Freesia : for Friedrich Heinrich Theodor Freese (1795-1876), a German physician and botanist from Kiel and a pupil of Ecklon who like his teacher studied South African plants. The genus Freesia in the Iridaceae was published in 1866 by German botanist Friedrich Wilhelm Klatt. (PlantzAfrica; CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

Fresenia: for Johann Baptist Georg Wolfgang Fresenius (1808 – 1866), German physician and botanist; studied medicine at Universities of Heidelberg, Würzbug and Giessen, curator of the Senckenberg herbarium and a teacher at the Senckenberg Research Institute. His special interest was phychology (study of algae). The plant genus Fresenia from the family Asteraceae was named after him in 1836 by Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle.

Freylinia: for Count Lorenzo de Freylino/Freilino (1754-1820). The Count owned a famous private botanical garden in Buttigliera d'Asti, about 15 miles east of Turin and about 45 miles SE of Marengo in Italy in the early 19th century. The genus Freylinia in the Scrophulariaceae was published in 1823 by Italian lawyer and botanist Luigi (Aloysius) Colla. He was honored as well with the genus Freyliniopsis, also in the Scrophulariaceae, which was published in 1922 by German botanist Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler. There are eleven species of Freylinia in southern Africa, eight of which are in the Cape Province. (PlantzAfrica; CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Lotte Burkhardt, pers. comm.)

friderici-guilielmi/Fridericia: for Friedrich Wilhelm (Frederick William) III, King of Prussia (1770-1840), who was a patron of botany, commemorated with Encephalartos friderici-guilielmi. The website of the Berlin Botanical Garden says "The first intensively used herbarium was built by C. L. Willdenow who was Director of the Berlin Botanical Garden from 1801 until his death (1812); from 1810 he was also Professor at the newly founded Friedrich Wilhelm University. This herbarium at first consisted of several small collections of exotic plants. In 1818 the extremely important collection of Willdenow was bought for the herbarium by order of Friedrich Wilhelm III, King of Prussia.” He had a world-famous palm house at Potsdam. The genus Fridericia in the Bignoniaceae was published in 1827 by German botanist and explorer Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. (PlantzAfrica)

fridericii: for Friedrich Martin Joseph Welwitsch (1806-1872), Austrian botanist, explorer and medical doctor, Director of Lisbon Botanic Garden, author of Fungi Angolenses, commemorated with Eulophia fridericii. (Orchidaceae, Part 3, by Phillip Cribb and R.M. Polhill)

friedrichiae: for Margarete (Margarethe) Friedrich (fl. 1914), South African teacher and mesembryanthemum collector who often accompanied Kurt Dinter, commemorated with Euphorbia friedrichiae and Conophytum friedrichiae. (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Women and Cacti)

Friedrichsthalia: for Emmanuel Ritter von Friedrichsthal (1809-1842), Czech born explorer, botanist, archaeologist and daguerreotypist who undertook several scientific journeys for the Austrian Government. While travelling he became ill, probably malaria, and returned to Vienna where he died. The genus Friedrichsthalia in the Boraginaceae was published in 1839 by Austrian botanist Eduard Fenzl. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

friesii: for Thore Christian Elias Fries (1886-1930), Swedish botanist who collected it in Zimbabwe in 1930. He was a specialist in lichenology and plant geography, and brother to noted botanist and mushroom expert Robert Elias Fries. He was professor of systematic botany at Lund University, travelled and collected in Africa and India and died during a field trip to South Africa and Rhodesia. He is commemorated with Eragrostis friesii, Leersia friesii, Sorghastrum friesii and the former taxa Philippia friesii and Tulbaghia friesii (Etymological Dictionary of Grasses).

friesii: for Robert Elias Fries (1876-1966), Swedish botanist and plant collector, member of the British Mycological Society, brother of Thore Christian Elias Fries. He was involved with practically all the great botanical institutions of his day such as the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, the National Botanic Garden of Belgium, Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, the Swedish Museum of Natural History Department of Phanerogamic Botany and the United States National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, collected in Sweden, Kenya, Bolvia and Argentina, and is commemorated with Pteris friesii and the former Digitaria friesii, synonymized now to D. longiflora). (Wikipedia; JSTOR)

friesiorum: for Robert Elias Fries (1876-1966), Swedish botanist and plant collector who was a member of the Swedish Rhodesia-Congo Expedition (1911-1912), and his brother Thore Christian Elias Fries (1886-1931), Swedish botanist, Professor of Systematic Botany at Lund University, specializing in lichenology and plant geography, member of the British Mycological Society, plant collector in India and Africa, and mushroom authority, commemorated with Asplenium friesiorum. (HerbWeb; Gunn & Codd))

Friesodielsia: for Elias Magnus Fries (1794-1878), Swedish botanist, one of the founders of taxonomic mycology, grandfather of Thore Christian Elias Fries and Robert Elias Fries, after whom the genus Friesia was named, and Friedrich Ludwig Emil Diels (1874-1945), German botanist who collected plants in Western Australia and was Director of Berlin-Dahlem Botanic Garden and Museum, for whom the genera Dielsochloa, Dielsiothamnus, Dielsiocharis, Dielsina, Dielsia and Dielsantha were named. He was one of the founders of taxonomic mycology and was the author of Systema mycologicum. The genus Friesodielsia in the Annonaceae was published in 1948 by Dutch botanist Cornelis Gijsbert Gerrit Jan ("Kees") van Steenis. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names; Wikipedia)

Frithia/frithii: for Frank Frith (1872-1954), a railway services horticulturist and succulent plant collector stationed at Park Station, Johannesburg. "In 1900, during the South African War, he came to South Africa with the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC). After the war, he joined the South African Railways as their first horticulturist. His special interest was succulents and a special coach was put at his disposal for the collection and succulents and other Aloes throughout South Africa and S.W. Africa (Namibia). In 1925, he constructed the South African garden at the Wembley Empire Exhibition for which he was awarded the bronze Lindley Medal by the Royal Horticultural Society. While there, he took specimens [of the plant which eventually bore his name] to the British botanist Nicholas Edward Brown at Kew who later published the genus after him." In addition to the genus Frithia, he is commemorated with Nerine frithii, Peersia frithii, and Rhinephyllum frithii. The genus Frithia in the Aizoaceae was published in 1925. (PlantzAfrica; Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Gunn & Codd; Hugh Clarke)

froemblingii: for Dr. George Herman Walter Frömbling (Froembling) (1859-1941), British-born South African pharmaceutical chemist, published papers on drugs used in native medicines, worked with Drs. Hahn and Penther at the firm Wentzel & Schleswig, President of the Cape Pharmaceutical Society and founding member of the South African Pharmaceutical Society. He collected plants in Chile and Venezuela as well as around Cape Town, and was in contact with botanists such as Harry Bolus, Hermann Wilhelm Rudolf Marloth, and Richard Arnold Dümmer. He is commemorated with the former taxon Agathosma froemblingii, now synonymized to A. spinescens. (Gunn & Codd; Dictionary of British and Irish Botanists and Horticulturists; JSTOR)

Frullania: for Leonardo Frullani (1756-1824), Tuscan statesman and civil servant, vice-governor of Livorno, and Finance Minister of the Duchy of Tuscany under Ferdinand III. The moss genus Frullania in the Jubulaceae was published in 1818 by Italian botanist Giuseppi Raddi. I have been unable to determine any reason why this genus should have been named for this individual. (Wikipedia; David Hollombe, pers. comm.)

fryii: for Harold Fry (1869-1916), South African lawyer, naturalist, plant collector, commemorated with Adenandra fryii. (Gunn & Codd)

Fuchsia: for "Leonhart (Leonhard) Fuchs (1501–1566), German physician and botanist. He obtained an M.A. and qualified as a medical doctor in 1524. After practicing medicine for two years, he turned to academia and for the last 31 years of his life was a professor of medicine at the University of Tübingen (closed 1800) where he also served as chancellor on seven occasions. While there, he created a botanical garden, one of the oldest in the world. His main work was De historia stirpium commentarii insignes (1542) (Notable commentaries on the history of plants), featuring around 400 wild plants and 100 ornamental plants, accurately drawn, and detailed illustrations made from woodcuts." The genus Fuchsia in the Onagraceae was published in 1753 by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus. (Hugh Clarke)

Fugosia: an illegitimate name, published in 1789 by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu as an abridgement of the name Cienfuegosia, published in 1786 by Antonio José Cavanilles, which honored the Spanish physician and botanist Bernardo de Cienfuegos (c.1580-1640).

Fuirena: for Jørgen Fuiren (1581-1628), Danish botanist and physician, studied medicine, botany and mathematics at the University of Leyden and art at the University of Padua, travelled throughout Scandinavia, and was a pupil of (Gaspard?) Bauhin. The genus Fuirena in the Cyperaceae was published in 1773 by Danish physician and botanist Christen Friis Rottbøll. (CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names)

fulleri: for (1) Ernst Russell Fuller (fl. 1920-1928), postmaster of Kenhardt in the Northern Cape and active collector of succulent plants, commemorated with Cephalophyllum fulleri, Conophytum fulleri, Ruschia fulleri, Stomatium fulleri, Drosanthemum fulleri, Cephalophyllum fulleri, Ebracteola fulleri, Ophthalmophyllum fulleri and Lithops julii ssp. fulleri (Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names; Gunn & Codd); (2) Claude Fuller (1872-1928), an entomologist for the Cape Department of Agriculture who worked on the tsetse fly and collected fungi, Chief of the Division of Entomology at Pretoria, after retirement was the Chief Entomologist of Mozambique, killed in a motor accident. He is commemorated with Hyobanche fulleri. (Elsa Pooley; Gunn & Codd)

Furcraea: for Antoine Francois, Comte de Fourcroy (1755-1809), French chemist. "Although he obtained a doctor's diploma in 1780 from the Medical School in Paris, Fourcroy pursued a career in chemistry as a result of Professor J. B. M. Bucquet's (1746–1780) influence. He became a popular lecturer in chemistry at the College of the Jardin du Roi. He worked with Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1743-1794), the 'Father of Chemistry,' and Guyton de Morveau and Claude Berthollet on the Méthode de nomenclature chimique (1787), a work that helped standardize chemical nomenclature. He wrote many scientific memoirs for the Royal Society, a book on systematic entomology and under Napoleon I took a leading part in the establishment of schools for both primary and secondary education and scientific studies. In 1801, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences." He was the author of The Philosophy of Chemistry (1792) and A General System of Chemical Knowledge in 11 volumes (1801-1802). The genus Furcraea in the Agavaceae was published in 1791 by French botanist Étienne Pierre Ventenat. (Hugh Clarke; Wikipedia)

Plant Names A-B Plant Names G-K Plant Names L-O
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The Eponym Dictionary of Southern African Plants
© 2006-2013 M. Charters, Sierra Madre, CA.

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